|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|430 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||430 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||324|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 96|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 36|
|Ancient Greek era||87th Olympiad, year 3|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)|
2267 or 2207
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
2268 or 2208
|Coptic calendar||−713 – −712|
|Ethiopian calendar||−437 – −436|
|- Vikram Samvat||−373 – −372|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2671–2672|
|Iranian calendar||1051 BP – 1050 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1083 BH – 1082 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2341 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||113–114|
−303 or −684 or −1456
— to —
−302 or −683 or −1455
Year 430 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Crassus and Iullus (or, less frequently, year 324 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 430 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The army of Sparta loots Attica for a second time, but Pericles is not daunted and refuses to revise his initial strategy. Unwilling to engage the Spartan army in battle, he again leads a naval expedition to plunder the coasts of the Peloponnesus, this time taking 100 Athenian ships with him.
- Potidaea finally capitulates to the siege by Athenian forces in the winter.
- An outbreak of a plague hits Athens and the disease ravages the densely packed city (modern DNA analyses of material from ancient cemeteries suggest the mortal disease may have been typhus). The plague wipes out over 30,000 citizens, sailors, and soldiers as well as Pericles' two sons. Roughly one-quarter of the Athenian population dies. The fear of plague is so widespread that the Spartan invasion of Attica is abandoned, their troops being unwilling to risk contact with the diseased enemy.
- Pericles becomes ill from the plague but he recovers, temporarily. He is deposed from his position as General (or Strategos) but is later reappointed.
- Polyclitus completes one of his greatest statues, the Diadumenos (Diadem-bearer).
- Approximate date – Sophocles' drama Oedipus Rex is first performed in Athens.
- Traditional date where scholars believe the Hebrew prophet known as Malachi writes the 39th and last book, and last of the prophetic books, of the Old Testament of the Biblical canon, the Book of Malachi, a prophetical book and was the thirty-ninth and final addition to the Old Testament. Biblical books written between now and the millennium will not be included in the Hebrew Bible and in some Christian traditions considered Biblical apocrypha.
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- Empedocles, Greek philosopher (approximate date) (b. c. 490 BC)
- Phidias, Greek sculptor (approximate date) (b. c. 480 BC)
- Zeno of Elea, Greek philosopher (approximate date) (b. c. 490 BC)