Vikram Samvat or Bikram Samvat (Nepali: विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. or B.S.) Listen (help·info) is the official calendar of Nepal established by emperor "Satkarnika" of Malawi Empire (now in present India), who was popularly known as Vikramaditya. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year. In Nepal it is also termed Bikram Sambat, but is computed using the tropical year.
The Vikrama Samvat is said to have been founded by the emperor Vikramaditya of Malwa following his victory over the Sakas in 56 BC, although it is popularly (and incorrectly) associated with the subsequent king Chandragupta Vikramaditya. It is a lunar calendar based on ancient Hindu tradition (see Hindu calendar and Vedic time keeping). The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar. For example, the year 2056 BS began in AD 1999 and ended in AD 2000. The new year begins with the first day after the new moon, in the month of Chaitra, Chaitra Shuddha 1 or Chaitra Shukla Paksha Prathama; which usually falls in March–April in the Gregorian calendar. The nine-day Navaratri festival season begins on this day, culminating on Ram Navami day. In Nepal, it begins in mid-April and marks the start of the solar new year.
In India, the reformulated Saka Calendar is officially used, although in the Hindi version of the Preamble of the Constitution of India, the date of adoption of the constitution, 26 November 1949, is presented in Vikram Samvat (Margsheersh Shukla Saptami Samvat 2006). There have been calls for the Vikram Samvat to replace Saka as India's official calendar.
|No.||Name||Nepali||Days||Corresponding Gregorian months|
|1||Kartik||कार्तिक||29 / 30||mid-October to mid-November|
|2||Mangsir||मार्ग or मंसिर||29 / 30||mid-November to mid-December|
|3||Poush||पौष or पुष/पूस||29 / 30||mid-December to mid-January|
|4||Magh||माघ||29 / 30||mid-January to mid-February|
|5||Falgun||फाल्गुन or फागुन||29 / 30||mid-February to mid-March|
|6||Chaitra||चैत्र or चैत||30 / 31||mid-March to mid-April|
|7||Baishakh||बैशाख||30 / 31||mid-April to mid-May|
|8||Jestha||जेष्ठ or जेठ||31 / 32||mid-May to mid-June|
|9||Ashadh||आषाढ or असार||31 / 32||mid-June to mid-July|
|10||Shrawan||श्रावण or साउन||31 / 32||mid-July to mid-August|
|11||Bhadra||भाद्र or भदौ||31 / 32||mid-August to mid-September|
|12||Ashwin||आश्विन or असोज/अगहन||30 / 31||mid-September to mid-October|
This calendar derives its name from king Vikramaditya of Ujjain of the Paramara. After the rise of the Rana oligarchs in Nepal, Vikram Samvat came into unofficial use along with the official Saka era for quite some time. They discontinued the Saka era in its 1823rd year and replaced it with the Vikram Samvat for official use since then. Vikram Samvat came into official use in its 1958th year. The calendar is widely in use in western India.
The date is supposed to mark the victory of king Vikramaditya over the Sakas, who had invaded Ujjain. Alternatively, it has been thought by some scholars to correspond to the Azes era of King Azes of the Indo-Scythians, but this seems to be now thoroughly discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47/6 BCE.
The story is described in "Kalakacharya Kathanaka", a work by a Jain sage called Mahesarasuri. The Kathanaka ("an account") tells the story of a famed Jain monk Kalakacharya. It says that Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, who was the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Saka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Saka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated, although Gandharvasena himself was forgiven. The defeated king retired to the forest, where he was killed by a tiger. His son, Vikramaditya, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratiṣṭhāna (modern Paithan, Maharashtra). Later on, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away the Sakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era". The Ujjain calendar started around 56-58 BCE, and the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratiṣṭhāna.
The traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, and participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, and coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Bengal, Burma, Cambodia, Kerala, Kashmir, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand.
In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is also recognized in North and East India, and in Gujarat among Hindus. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Vesak or Buddha's Birthday. It commemorates the birth, Enlightenment and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June. Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays typically fall in the same month (Baishakh) of the Bengali, Hindu, and Theravada Buddhist calendars, and are related historically through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in South Asia.
- Harry Falk and Chris Bennett (2009). "Macedonian Intercalary Months and the Era of Azes." Acta Orientalia 70, pp. 197–215.
- "The Dynastic Art of the Kushan", John Rosenfield.
- The Encyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia by Edward Balfour, B. Quaritch 1885, p.502.
- "Vikram Samvat should be declared national calendar". The Free Press Journal. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- Falk and Bennett (2009), pp. 197-215.
- Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal (2014). Calendars Tell History: Social Rhythm and Social Change in Rural Pakistan. History and Anthropology 25(5): 592-613.
- "Gujarat CM to exchange Diwali-New Year greetings with people". 19 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Vikramaditya.|