4435 Holt

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4435 Holt
Discovery [1]
Discovered by C. Shoemaker
Discovery site Palomar Obs.
Discovery date 13 January 1983
MPC designation (4435) Holt
Named after
Henry E. Holt
(American astronomer)[2]
1983 AG2 · 1978 PZ2
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 37.89 yr (13,840 days)
Aphelion 3.0939 AU
Perihelion 1.5405 AU
2.3172 AU
Eccentricity 0.3352
3.53 yr (1,288 days)
0° 16m 45.84s / day
Inclination 21.905°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 5.03±1.17 km[5]
6.44 km (derived)[4]
0.20 (assumed)[4]
0.28±0.15 km[5]
SMASS = S[1][4]
13.1[1] · 13.32±0.11[6][7]

4435 Holt, provisional designation 1983 AG2, is a stony asteroid and sizable Mars-crosser from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 13 January 1983, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California, United States.[3] It was later named after American astronomer Henry E. Holt.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Holt orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.5–3.1 AU once every 3 years and 6 months (1,288 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.34 and an inclination of 22° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The first precovery was taken at Crimea-Nauchnij in 1978, extending the asteroid's observation arc by 5 years prior to its discovery.[3]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SMASS classification, Holt is a common S-type asteroid.[1]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Holt measures 5.03 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.28,[5] while the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Linkassumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and derives a diameter of 6.44 kilometer with an absolute magnitude of 13.32.[4][6][7]


As of 2017, Holt's rotation period and shape still remains unknown.[1][4]


This minor planet was named for American planetary geologist and astronomer Henry E. Holt, at NAU and USGS, who has explored the surface of the Moon, its geology and photometric properties during the Apollo and Surveyor programs.[2]

After his retirement, Holt was a principal participant in the Palomar Asteroid and Comet Survey (PACS) from 1983 to 1993.[8] Holt has discovered and co-discovered six comets and 683 minor planets between 1989 and 1993,[9] including 4581 Asclepius,[10] a potentially hazardous asteroid that has made the closest approach to Earth of all numbered asteroids.[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 30 January 1991 (M.P.C. 17656).[11]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4435 Holt (1983 AG2)" (2016-06-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4435) Holt. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 381. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "4435 Holt (1983 AG2)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (4435) Holt". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Wisniewski, W. Z.; Michalowski, T. M.; Harris, A. W.; McMillan, R. S. (March 1995). "Photoelectric Observations of 125 Asteroids". Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Bibcode:1995LPI....26.1511W. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations". Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Shoemaker, C. S.; Holt, H. E.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Bowell, E.; Levy, D. H. (December 1992). "The Palomar Asteroid and Comet Survey (PACS), 1983-1993". Abstracts for the IAU Symposium 160: Asteroids: 269. Bibcode:1993LPICo.810..269S. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  9. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  10. ^ "4581 Asclepius (1989 FC)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  11. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 

External links[edit]