Carolyn S. Shoemaker

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Carolyn S. Shoemaker
Carolyn Shoemaker.jpg
Born (1929-06-24) June 24, 1929 (age 87)
Gallup, New Mexico, United States
Citizenship American
Nationality American
Fields Astronomy
Institutions California Institute of Technology
Palomar Observatory, California
Known for co-discoverer of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9
Notable awards James Craig Watson Medal (1998)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal
Rittenhouse Medal (1988)
Scientist of the Year Award (1995)
Spouse Eugene Shoemaker 1951–1997 (his death)

Carolyn Jean Spellmann Shoemaker (born June 24, 1929) is an American astronomer and is a co-discoverer of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.[1] She once held the record for most comets discovered by an individual.[2]

Early and personal life[edit]

Carolyn Jean Spellmann was born in Gallup, New Mexico, United States.[2] Her family moved to Chico, California, where she and her brother Richard grew up with their parents, Leonard Spellmann and Hazel Arthur. Spellmann (before marriage) received bachelor's and master's degrees in history, political science, and English literature from Chico State University[3] and a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering at California Institute of Technology.[4] On August 18, 1951, she married Gene Shoemaker, a planetary scientist.[2][5] She gave birth to three children: Christy, Linda, and Patrick Shoemaker. The family lived in Grand Junction, Colorado, Menlo Park, California, and Pasadena, California, before finally settling down in Flagstaff, Arizona, where she worked in collaboration with her husband at the Lowell Observatory.[5]

Career[edit]

The first job Shoemaker held was at a local school teaching the seventh grade.[4] After not feeling satisfied with her work there, she quit to marry and raise a family. At the age of 51, once her children had grown up and moved out, Shoemaker started work as a field assistant for her husband Gene Shoemaker, working on his search program mapping and analyzing impact craters.[3] Shoemaker started her astronomical career in 1980, searching for Earth-crossing asteroids and comets at California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, and the Palomar Observatory, San Diego, California.[6] That year, Shoemaker was hired at the United States Geological Survey as a visiting scientist in the astronomy branch, and then in 1989 began work as an astronomy research professor at Northern Arizona University.[3] She concentrated her work on searching for comets and planet-crossing asteroids.[5] Teamed with astronomer David H. Levy, the Shoemakers identified Shoemaker-Levy 9, a fragmented comet orbiting the planet Jupiter on March 24, 1993.[7] After Gene's death in 1997, Shoemaker continued to work at the Lowell Observatory with Levy, and continues to work there today.[8]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Shoemaker used film taken at the wide-field telescope at the Palomar Observatory, combined with a stereoscope, to find objects which moved against the background of fixed stars.[2]

As of 2002, Shoemaker had discovered 32 comets and over 800 asteroids.[2][6]

Awards[edit]

Shoemaker received an honorary doctorate from the Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 1996.[2] She and her husband were awarded the James Craig Watson Medal by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1998.[9] Shoemaker also received the Rittenhouse Medal of the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society[7] in 1988 and the Scientist of the Year Award in 1995.[7]

List of discovered minor planets[edit]

Carolyn Shoemaker is credited by the Minor Planet Center with the discovery of 376 numbered minor planets made between 1980 and 1994.[10]

2459 Spellmann 11 June 1980 list
2511 Patterson 11 June 1980 list
2532 Sutton 9 October 1980 list
2586 Matson 11 June 1980 list
2614 Torrence 11 June 1980 list
2686 Linda Susan 5 May 1981 list
2705 Wu 9 October 1980 list
2742 Gibson 6 May 1981 list
2748 Patrick Gene 5 May 1981 list
2773 Brooks 6 May 1981 list
2834 Christy Carol 9 October 1980 list
2891 McGetchin 18 June 1980 list
2906 Caltech 13 January 1983 list
2918 Salazar 9 October 1980 list
2932 Kempchinsky 9 October 1980 list
2982 Muriel 6 May 1981 list
3025 Higson 20 August 1982 list[A]
3107 Weaver 5 May 1981 list
3161 Beadell 9 October 1980 list
3194 Dorsey 27 May 1982 list
3199 Nefertiti 13 September 1982 list[A]
3225 Hoag 20 August 1982 list[A]
3270 Dudley 18 February 1982 list[B]
3285 Ruth Wolfe 5 November 1983 list
3299 Hall 10 October 1980 list
3317 Paris 26 May 1984 list[A]
3333 Schaber 9 October 1980 list
3375 Amy 5 May 1981 list
3430 Bradfield 9 October 1980 list
3553 Mera 14 May 1985 list
3554 Amun 4 March 1986 list[A]
3581 Alvarez 23 April 1985 list
3640 Gostin 11 October 1985 list
3671 Dionysus 27 May 1984 list[A]
3689 Yeates 5 May 1981 list
3700 Geowilliams 23 October 1984 list[A]
3709 Polypoites 14 October 1985 list
3777 McCauley 5 May 1981 list
3779 Kieffer 13 May 1985 list
3792 Preston 22 March 1985 list
3793 Leonteus 11 October 1985 list
3794 Sthenelos 12 October 1985 list
3837 Carr 6 May 1981 list
3840 Mimistrobell 9 October 1980 list
3846 Hazel 9 October 1980 list
3854 George 13 March 1983 list
3873 Roddy 21 November 1984 list
3880 Kaiserman 21 November 1984 list[A]
3888 Hoyt 28 March 1984 list
3895 Earhart 23 February 1987 list
3906 Chao 31 May 1987 list
3927 Feliciaplatt 5 May 1981 list[A]
3932 Edshay 27 September 1984 list[C]
3972 Richard 6 May 1981 list
3977 Maxine 14 June 1983 list
3985 Raybatson 12 February 1985 list
4029 Bridges 24 May 1982 list
4031 Mueller 12 February 1985 list
4082 Swann 27 September 1984 list
4083 Jody 12 February 1985 list
4085 Weir 13 May 1985 list
4151 Alanhale 24 April 1985 list[A]
4153 Roburnham 14 May 1985 list
4171 Carrasco 23 March 1982 list
4173 Thicksten 27 May 1982 list
4203 Brucato 26 March 1985 list
4204 Barsig 11 May 1985 list
4217 Engelhardt 24 January 1988 list
4251 Kavasch 11 May 1985 list
4253 Märker 11 October 1985 list
4283 Stöffler 23 January 1988 list
4327 Ries 24 May 1982 list
4332 Milton 5 September 1983 list
4340 Dence 4 May 1986 list
4341 Poseidon 29 May 1987 list
4348 Poulydamas 11 September 1988 list
4368 Pillmore 5 May 1981 list
4379 Snelling 13 August 1988 list[A]
4401 Aditi 14 October 1985 list
4435 Holt 13 January 1983 list
4448 Phildavis 5 March 1986 list
4450 Pan 25 September 1987 list[A]
4451 Grieve 9 May 1988 list
4487 Pocahontas 17 October 1987 list
4503 Cleobulus 28 November 1989 list
4531 Asaro 20 March 1985 list
4533 Orth 7 March 1986 list
4543 Phoinix 2 February 1989 list
4569 Baerbel 15 April 1985 list
4582 Hank 31 March 1989 list
4624 Stefani 23 March 1982 list
4666 Dietz 4 May 1986 list
4673 Bortle 8 June 1988 list
4707 Khryses 13 August 1988 list
4708 Polydoros 11 September 1988 list
4709 Ennomos 12 October 1988 list
4736 Johnwood 13 January 1983 list
4765 Wasserburg 5 May 1986 list
4783 Wasson 12 January 1983 list
4791 Iphidamas 14 August 1988 list
4792 Lykaon 10 September 1988 list
4805 Asteropaios 13 November 1990 list
4820 Fay 15 September 1985 list
4826 Wilhelms 11 May 1988 list
4827 Dares 17 August 1988 list
4828 Misenus 11 September 1988 list
4829 Sergestus 10 September 1988 list
4832 Palinurus 12 October 1988 list
4833 Meges 8 January 1989 list
4834 Thoas 11 January 1989 list
4836 Medon 2 February 1989 list
4856 Seaborg 11 June 1983 list
4857 Altgamia 29 March 1984 list
4867 Polites 27 September 1989 list
4885 Grange 10 June 1980 list
4888 Doreen 5 May 1981 list
4898 Nishiizumi 19 March 1988 list
4899 Candace 9 May 1988 list[A]
4902 Thessandrus 9 January 1989 list
4946 Askalaphus 21 January 1988 list[A]
4947 Ninkasi 12 October 1988 list
5023 Agapenor 11 October 1985 list[A]
5027 Androgeos 21 January 1988 list
5028 Halaesus 23 January 1988 list
5029 Ireland 24 January 1988 list[A]
5052 Nancyruth 23 October 1984 list[A]
5120 Bitias 13 October 1988 list
5126 Achaemenides 1 February 1989 list
5130 Ilioneus 30 September 1989 list
5143 Heracles 7 November 1991 list
5144 Achates 2 December 1991 list
5161 Wightman 9 October 1980 list
5167 Joeharms 11 April 1985 list[A]
5168 Jenner 6 March 1986 list[A]
5175 Ables 4 November 1988 list[A]
5211 Stevenson 8 July 1989 list[A]
5231 Verne 9 May 1988 list
5259 Epeigeus 30 January 1989 list[A]
5264 Telephus 17 May 1991 list[A]
5283 Pyrrhus 31 January 1989 list
5284 Orsilocus 1 February 1989 list[A]
5285 Krethon 9 March 1989 list[A]
5317 Verolacqua 11 February 1983 list
5325 Silver 12 May 1988 list
5381 Sekhmet 14 May 1991 list
5392 Parker 12 January 1986 list
5426 Sharp 16 February 1985 list
5430 Luu 12 May 1988 list[A]
5436 Eumelos 20 February 1990 list[A]
5457 Queen's 9 October 1980 list
5511 Cloanthus 8 October 1988 list[A]
5547 Acadiau 11 June 1980 list
5551 Glikson 24 January 1982 list[A]
5579 Uhlherr 11 May 1988 list[A]
5632 Ingelehmann 15 April 1993 list[A]
5637 Gyas 10 September 1988 list[A]
5638 Deikoon 10 October 1988 list[A]
5652 Amphimachus 24 April 1992 list[A]
5670 Rosstaylor 7 November 1985 list[A]
5720 Halweaver 29 March 1984 list[A]
5725 Nördlingen 23 January 1988 list[A]
5726 Rubin 24 January 1988 list[A]
5731 Zeus 4 November 1988 list[A]
5765 Izett 4 April 1986 list[A]
5799 Brewington 9 October 1980 list
5852 Nanette 19 April 1991 list[D]
5863 Tara 7 September 1983 list[A]
5869 Tanith 4 November 1988 list
5899 Jedicke 9 January 1986 list[A]
5947 Bonnie 21 March 1985 list[A]
5953 Shelton 25 April 1987 list[A]
5957 Irina 11 May 1988 list[A]
5967 Edithlevy 9 February 1991 list
5999 Plescia 23 April 1987 list[A]
6063 Jason 27 May 1984 list[A]
6078 Burt 10 October 1980 list
6084 Bascom 12 February 1985 list[A]
6087 Lupo 19 March 1988 list[A]
6179 Brett 3 March 1986 list[A]
6183 Viscome 26 September 1987 list
6204 MacKenzie 6 May 1981 list
6239 Minos 31 August 1989 list[A]
6282 Edwelda 9 October 1980 list
6372 Walker 13 May 1985 list[A]
6376 Schamp 29 May 1987 list[A]
6398 Timhunter 10 February 1991 list[A][D]
6401 Roentgen 15 April 1991 list[A][D]
6436 Coco 13 May 1985 list[A]
6478 Gault 12 May 1988 list[A]
6485 Wendeesther 25 October 1990 list[A][D]
6510 Tarry 23 February 1987 list[A]
6543 Senna 11 October 1985 list[A]
6585 O'Keefe 26 September 1984 list[A]
6635 Zuber 26 September 1987 list[A]
6670 Wallach 4 June 1994 list[D]
6740 Goff 14 April 1993 list[A]
6898 Saint-Marys 8 June 1988 list
6901 Roybishop 2 August 1989 list[A]
6909 Levison 19 January 1991 list[A]
6914 Becquerel 3 April 1992 list[D][E]
7051 Sean 13 May 1985 list[A]
7086 Bopp 5 October 1991 list[A]
7088 Ishtar 1 January 1992 list[A]
7092 Cadmus 4 June 1992 list[A]
7112 Ghislaine 3 April 1986 list[A]
7119 Hiera 11 January 1989 list[A]
7167 Laupheim 12 October 1985 list[A]
7173 Sepkoski 15 August 1988 list[A]
7344 Summerfield 4 June 1992 list[D]
7480 Norwan 1 August 1994 list[A]
7549 Woodard 9 October 1980 list[A]
7560 Spudis 10 January 1986 list[A]
7749 Jackschmitt 12 May 1988 list[A]
7750 McEwen 18 August 1988 list[A]
7756 Scientia 27 March 1990 list[A]
7778 Markrobinson 17 April 1993 list[A]
7958 Leakey 5 June 1994 list[A]
8021 Walter 22 October 1990 list[D]
8034 Akka 3 June 1992 list[A]
8149 Ruff 11 May 1985 list[A]
8326 Paulkling 6 May 1981 list[A]
8327 Weihenmayer 6 May 1981 list[A]
8331 Dawkins 27 May 1982 list[B]
8347 Lallaward 21 April 1987 list[A]
8356 Wadhwa 3 September 1989 list[A]
8358 Rickblakley 4 November 1989 list[D]
8373 Stephengould 1 January 1992 list[A]
8709 Kadlu 14 May 1994 list[A]
8804 Eliason 5 May 1981 list[A]
8817 Roytraver 13 May 1985 list[A]
9016 Henrymoore 10 January 1986 list[A]
9022 Drake 14 August 1988 list[A]
9023 Mnesthus 10 September 1988 list[A]
9070 Ensab 23 July 1993 list[D]
9082 Leonardmartin 4 November 1994 list[A]
9083 Ramboehm 28 November 1994 list[D]
9165 Raup 27 September 1987 list[A]
9172 Abhramu 29 July 1989 list[A]
9277 Togashi 9 October 1980 list[A]
9299 Vinceteri 13 May 1985 list[A]
9564 Jeffwynn 26 September 1987 list[A]
9739 Powell 26 September 1987 list
9744 Nielsen 9 May 1988 list[A]
9768 Stephenmaran 5 April 1992 list[A]
10028 Bonus 5 May 1981 list
10041 Parkinson 24 April 1985 list[A]
10044 Squyres 15 September 1985 list[A]
10060 Amymilne 12 April 1988 list[A]
10108 Tomlinson 26 April 1992 list[A]
10283 Cromer 5 May 1981 list
10295 Hippolyta 12 April 1988 list[A]
10332 Défi 13 May 1991 list[D]
10346 Triathlon 2 April 1992 list[D]
10487 Danpeterson 14 April 1985 list[A]
10563 Izhdubar 19 November 1993 list[A]
10683 Carter 10 June 1980 list[A]
10739 Lowman 12 May 1988 list[A]
11006 Gilson 9 October 1980 list[A]
11066 Sigurd 9 February 1992 list[A]
11277 Ballard 8 October 1988 list[A]
11311 Peleus 10 December 1993 list[A]
11548 Jerrylewis 25 November 1992 list[D]
11569 Virgilsmith 27 May 1993 list[D]
11836 Eileen 5 February 1986 list[A]
11911 Angel 4 June 1992 list[D]
11941 Archinal 23 May 1993 list[D]
12227 Penney 11 October 1985 list[A]
12237 Coughlin 23 April 1987 list[A]
12242 Koon 18 August 1988 list[A]
12675 Chabot 9 October 1980 list[A]
12680 Bogdanovich 6 May 1981 list
12714 Alkimos 15 April 1991 list[A]
12753 Povenmire 18 April 1993 list[A]
13057 Jorgensen 13 November 1990 list[D]
13062 Podarkes 19 April 1991 list[A]
13111 Papacosmas 23 July 1993 list[D]
13123 Tyson 16 May 1994 list[D]
13615 Manulis 28 November 1994 list[D]
13914 Galegant 11 June 1980 list
13915 Yalow 27 May 1982 list[B]
13937 Roberthargraves 2 August 1989 list[A]
14429 Coyne 3 December 1991 list[D]
14827 Hypnos 5 May 1986 list[A]
14835 Holdridge 26 November 1987 list[A]
15228 Ronmiller 23 February 1987 list[A]
15276 Diebel 14 April 1991 list[D]
15294 Underwood 7 November 1991 list[D]
15304 Wikberg 21 October 1992 list[A]
15318 Innsbruck 24 May 1993 list
15321 Donnadean 13 August 1993 list[D]
15779 Scottroberts 26 July 1993 list[D]
16452 Goldfinger 28 September 1989 list[A]
16514 Stevelia 11 November 1990 list[D]
16641 Esteban 16 August 1993 list[A]
16666 Liroma 7 December 1993 list
16669 Rionuevo 8 December 1993 list[D]
17399 Andysanto 6 September 1983 list[A]
17408 McAdams 19 October 1987 list[A]
17493 Wildcat 31 December 1991 list[D]
18368 Flandrau 15 April 1991 list[D]
18434 Mikesandras 12 March 1994 list[D]
19140 Jansmit 2 September 1989 list[A]
19173 Virginiaterése 15 April 1991 list[A]
19243 Bunting 10 February 1994 list[A]
19980 Barrysimon 22 November 1989 list[D]
20007 Marybrown 7 June 1991 list[A]
20037 Duke 20 October 1992 list[A]
20084 Buckmaster 6 April 1994 list[D]
21062 Iasky 13 May 1991 list[A]
21148 Billramsey 16 April 1993 list[A]
21149 Kenmitchell 19 April 1993 list[A]
22294 Simmons 28 September 1989 list[A]
22312 Kelly 14 April 1991 list[D]
22338 Janemojo 3 June 1992 list[D]
23452 Drew 18 August 1988 list[A]
24626 Astrowizard 9 October 1980 list[A]
24643 MacCready 28 September 1984 list[A]
24654 Fossett 29 May 1987 list[A]
24761 Ahau 28 January 1993 list[A]
24778 Nemsu 24 May 1993 list[D]
24779 Presque Isle 23 July 1993 list[D]
26879 Haines 9 July 1994 list[A]
27706 Strogen 11 October 1985 list[A]
27711 Kirschvink 4 November 1988 list[A]
27776 Cortland 25 February 1992 list[D]
27810 Daveturner 23 July 1993 list[D]
29133 Vargas 29 May 1987 list[A]
29137 Alanboss 18 October 1987 list[A]
29146 McHone 17 March 1988 list[A]
29292 Conniewalker 24 May 1993 list[D]
30767 Chriskraft 6 November 1983 list[A]
30779 Sankt-Stephan 17 October 1987 list[A]
30785 Greeley 13 August 1988 list[A]
30786 Karkoschka 18 August 1988 list[A]
30840 Jackalice 15 April 1991 list[D]
30844 Hukeller 17 May 1991 list[A]
30934 Bakerhansen 16 November 1993 list[D]
30935 Davasobel 8 January 1994 list[D]
32776 Nriag 29 May 1987 list[A]
32890 Schwob 8 January 1994 list[D]
32897 Curtharris 1 August 1994 list[D]
35056 Cullers 28 September 1984 list[A]
37588 Lynnecox 15 April 1991 list[D]
37601 Vicjen 3 April 1992 list[D]
37609 LaVelle 25 November 1992 list[A]
37655 Illapa 1 August 1994 list[A]
43763 Russert 30 May 1987 list[A]
43793 Mackey 13 November 1990 list[D]
48416 Carmelita 24 January 1988 list[A]
(48576) 1994 NN2 11 July 1994 list
52266 Van Flandern 10 January 1986 list[A]
52384 Elenapanko 19 April 1993 list
(55758) 1991 XR 3 December 1991 list
65672 Merrick 16 August 1988 list[A]
(65688) 1990 VD8 13 November 1990 list
73670 Kurthopf 19 August 1982 list[A]
79117 Brydonejack 16 August 1988 list[A]
85158 Phyllistrapp 17 October 1987 list
(85165) 1988 TV2 7 October 1988 list
(85194) 1991 TL2 5 October 1991 list
(85306) 1994 VL8 7 November 1994 list
(90777) 1993 XJ3 10 December 1993 list
(99907) 1989 VA 2 November 1989 list
(100008) 1988 QZ 16 August 1988 list
(100015) 1989 SR7 28 September 1989 list
(100016) 1989 SD8 28 September 1989 list
(100045) 1991 TK1 5 October 1991 list
(100052) 1991 VP5 7 November 1991 list
(100085) 1992 UY4 25 October 1992 list
(129451) 1991 KD 18 May 1991 list
(316650) 1987 UL 17 October 1987 list
(363012) 1988 PH4 14 August 1988 list
(368150) 1992 DC 26 February 1992 list
(393348) 1988 RO1 13 September 1988 list
(408751) 1987 SF3 26 September 1987 list[A]
(422637) 1985 WA 16 November 1985 list
Co-discovery made with:
A E. M. Shoemaker
B S. J. Bus
C M. C. Nolan
D D. H. Levy
E H. E. Holt

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mestel, Rosie (July 9, 1994). "Carolyn Shoemaker and 'Her Comet'". New Scientist. 143 (1933). p. 23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Carolyn Shoemaker". Astrogeology Science Center. USGS. 
  3. ^ a b c Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011). "Carolyn Shoemaker". Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World, Vol. 4. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
  4. ^ a b Chapman, Mary G. (May 17, 2002). "Carolyn Shoemaker". USGS Astrogeology Science Center. 
  5. ^ a b c "Shoemaker, Eugene Merle" (2002)
  6. ^ a b "She's Looking Out for Us". Explorer. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. May 2001. 
  7. ^ a b c Lang, Susan S. (April 11, 2002). "Comet hunter Carolyn Shoemaker to speak at Cornell April 21". Cornell Chronicle. 
  8. ^ Shoemaker, Carolyn (November 27, 1998). "Space—Where Now, and Why?". Science. 282 (5394): 1637–1638. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.1637S. doi:10.1126/science.282.5394.1637. 
  9. ^ "James Craig Watson Medal". National Academy of Sciences. 
  10. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers (by number)". Minor Planet Center. 4 September 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 

External links[edit]