Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani

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Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani
Native nameAbu Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjānī
BornGorgan, Iran
Died1078 AD
Academic background
InfluencesSibawayh, Abi Helal al-'Askari al Balaghi, Abu Ali al-Farisi
Academic work
Main interestsliterary theory, grammar
Notable worksal Maghna fi Sharh al-Idah

Abu Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjānī (400 – 471 or 474 A.H.) (died 1078 AD)[1] was a renowned Persian[2] scholar of the Arabic language, literary theorist, grammarian and Shafi'i Muslim. al-Jurjānī was an Ahsa'ari descendant, and born in the town of Gorgan in Iran.

Al-Jurjānī is said not to have left his home town of Gorgan all his life, yet his reputation reached many Arabic scholars who came to see him. He excelled in the two sciences of ilm al balaghah (eloquence and rhetorical art) and ilm al bayan (a branch of Arabic rhetoric dealing with metaphorical language), which he explained in his two books Asrār al-Balāghah (Secrets of Rhetoric), and Dalāʾīl al-ʿIjāz fi-l-Qurʾān (Arguments of the Miraculous Inimitability of the Quran). Al-Jurjānī was influenced by his predecessors such as the grammarian Sibawayh, the critic Abi Helal al-'Askari al Balaghi, and the linguist and literary theorist Abu Ali al-Farisi, known for his book al-Idah (Elucidation).

Ali al-Farisi's nephew, Abi al-Hussein Muhammad Bin al-Hassan Bin Abd al-Wareth al-Faressi al-Nawawi, was al-Jurjānī's teacher, and taught al-Jurjānī the al-Idah. Later al-Jurjānī was to write a thirty-volume work of commentary on al-Idah entitled al Maghna fi Sharh al-Idah .

In modern critical opinion[edit]

In his volume Asrar al-Balaghah, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em Khafagi writes "the Swiss linguist Saussure's theory of deconstruction is preceded by Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī’s theory of deconstruction".[3] Also, in the introduction of Muhammad Abdul Muttaleb's book Issues of Modernism in the Works of Abd-al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, Muttaleb writes of al-Jurjānī and Noam Chomsky "there is a similarity between these two men".[4]

Publications[edit]

  • Asrār al-Balāghah (The Secrets of Elucidation)
  • Al-Awāmil al-Mi’ah (The Hundred Elements)
  • Dalā’il al-Iʿjaz (Intimations of Inimitability)
  • Iʿjaz al-Qur’ān (The inimitability of the Qur'an)
  • Al-Jumal (Sentences)
  • Kitab ʿArūd (Poetic Structure)
  • Al-Maghna fī Sharḥ al-Idah’, thirty volumes
  • Al-Miftāḥ (The Key)
  • Muʿjam al-taʿrifāt (Compendium of Definitions)
  • Al-Muqtasad, a short version of Al Maghna.
  • Sharḥ al-Fātiḥa fī Mujallad (Explaining Al-Fatiha in a Volume)
  • Al-Talkhiss bi Sharḥihi (The Brief of Sentence Elucidation)
  • Al-'Umhad fī al-Taṣrīf (The Basis of Morphology)
  • An anthology collection on the works of Abi-tammam, al-Buh'turi, and al-Mutannabī.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jurjānī, al-". Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.). 1978.
  2. ^ "ʿABD-AL-QĀHER JORJĀNĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  3. ^ Khafagi, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em; Al-Imam Abd Al-Qāhir Al-Jurjānī (1972). Asrar al-Balaghah. Cairo: Maktabet al Qāhira.
  4. ^ Muttaleb, Muhammad Abdul (1995). Mahmoud Ali Makki, ed. Issues of Modernism in the works of Abd-al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī. Egypt: Longman.
  • Deeb, K. Abu. al-Jurjānī, Abū Bakr Abd al-Qāhir b. Abd al- Rahmān (d. 471/1078). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online.
  • Encyclopedia of Literary Critics and Criticism. V. 1 A-K. Consultant John Sutherland; edited by Chris Murray. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.
  • Abbs, Ihsn. Tarikh al-Naqd al-Adabi 'inda al-'Arab, Naqd al-Shi'r min al-Qarn al-Thani hattá al-Qarn al-Thamin al-Hijri. History of Arabic Literary Criticism. Beirut: Dr al-Amnah, 1971. (A comprehensive study of Arabic literary criticism from the second century to the eighth century AH. It covers most of the literary critics from al-Asma'ei to Ibn-Khaldoun.)
  • Abd Al-Qāhir Al-Jurjānī. Asrar al-Balaghah. Edited by: Khafagi, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em, and Abdul Aziz Sharaf. Beirut, Dar Al Jeel, 1991.
  • Abd Al-Qāhir Al-Jurjānī. Asrar al-Balaghah in the Art of Rhetoric. Edited by: Al Imam Al Sheikh Mohammad Abdo, and Mohammad Rashid Ridah. Midan Al Azhar, Mohammad Ali Subeih, 6th ed. 1959.
  • Abi Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd al-Rahman bin Mohammad al-Jurjānī, al-Jummal. Edited by: Ali Haydar, Damascus, 1972.
  • Abi Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd al-Rahman bin Mohammad al-Jurjānī, al-Jummal in Grammar. Edited by: Usri Abd al-Ghani Abdallah. Beirut, Dar Al Kutub al Ilmieh, 1st ed 1990.

External links[edit]