Al-Fatiha

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Sura 1 of the Quran
الْفَاتِحَة
Al-Fātiḥah
The Opening
ClassificationMeccan
Other namesThe Key, The Opener
PositionJuzʼ 1
No. of verses7
No. of words25
No. of letters113
A 14th- or 15th-century manuscript of the chapter
Opening of a Splendour Coran

Al-Fātiḥah (Arabic: الْفَاتِحَة‎, "The Opening" or "The Opener") is the first chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. Its seven verses (āyāt) are a prayer for the guidance, lordship, and mercy of God.[1] This chapter has an essential role in Islamic prayer (salāt). The primary literal meaning of the expression "al-Fātiḥah" is "The Opener," which could refer to this Surah being "the opener of the Book" (Fātiḥat al-kitāb), to it's being the first Surah recited in full in every prayer cycle (rakʿah), or to the manner in which it serves as an opening for many functions in everyday Islamic life. Some Muslims interpret it as a reference to an implied ability of the Surah to open a person to faith in God.[2]

Arabic Translation[edit]

1. بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

(Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem)


2. الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

(Alhamdu lillaahi Rabbil 'aalameen)


3. الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

(Ar-Rahmaanir-Raheem)


4. مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

(Maaliki Yawmid-Deen)


5. إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

(Iyyaaka na'budu wa lyyaaka nasta'een)


6. اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

(Ihdinas-Siraatal-Mustaqeem)


7. صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

(Siraatal-lazeena an'amta 'alaihim ghayril-maghdoobi 'alaihim wa lad-daaalleen)

English Translation[edit]

1. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

2.Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds;

3. Most Gracious, Most Merciful;

4. Master of the Day of Judgment.

5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.

6. Show us the straight way,

7. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.

Names[edit]

The name al-Fātiḥah ("the Opener") is due to the subject-matter of the surah. Fātiḥah is that which opens a subject or a book or any other thing. In other words, a sort of preface.[1]

The word الفاتحة came from the root word فتح which means to open, explain, disclose, keys of treasure etc. That means sura Al-Fatiha is the summary of the whole Quran. That is why it is generally recited with another Ayat or sura during prayers.[citation needed] That is, surah Al-Fatiha is paired with the rest of the whole Quran.

It is also called Umm Al-Kitab ("the Mother of the Book") and Umm Al-Quran ("the Mother of the Quran");[3][4] Sab'a al Mathani ("Seven repeated [verses]", an appellation taken from verse 15:87 of the Quran);[4] Al-Hamd ("praise"), because a hadith narrates Muhammad as having said that God says: "The prayer [al-Fātiḥah] is divided into two halves between Me and My servants. When the servant says, 'All praise is due to God', the Lord of existence, God says, 'My servant has praised Me'.";[5] Al-Shifa' ("the Cure"), because a hadith narrates Muhammad as having said: "The Opening of the Book is a cure for every poison.";[6][7][non-primary source needed], Al-Ruqyah ("remedy" or "spiritual cure").,[4] and al-Asas, "The Foundation", referring to its serving as a foundation for the entire Quran [8]

Background[edit]

According to Abd Allah ibn Abbas and others, al-Fātiḥah is a Meccan sura; while according to others it is a Medinan sura. The former view is more widely accepted, although some believe that it was revealed in both Mekka and Medina.[9][10] In the Quran, the first revelations to Muhammad were only the first few verses (ayats) of Surahs Alaq, Muzzammil, Al-Muddathir, etc. Most narrators recorded that al-Fātiḥah was the first complete Surah revealed to Muhammad.[1]

Theme and subject matter[edit]

Al-Fātiḥah is often believed to be a synthesis of the Quran.[11] It in itself is a prayer at the very beginning of the Quran, which acts as a preface of the Quran and implies that the book is for a person who is a seeker of truth—a reader who is asking a deity who is the only one worthy of all praise (and is the creator, owner, sustainer of the worlds etc.) to guide him to a straight path.[1] It can be said to "encapsulate all of the metaphysical and eschatological realities of which human beings must remain conscious." [12]

Interpretations[edit]

There are differing interpretations for verses 6 and 7. The phrase "the Path journeyed by those upon whom You showered blessings" is usually seen as referring to Muslims. The phrase "those who made themselves liable to criminal cognizance/arrest" (more clearly translated as "those who have incurred Your wrath") is usually seen as referring to the Jews and the phrase "those who are the neglectful wanderers" (more clearly translated as "those who have gone astray") is seen as referring to the Christians.[13] The Quran: An Encyclopedia, authored by 43 Muslim and non-Muslim academics says, "The Prophet interpreted those who incurred God’s wrath as the Jews and the misguided as the Christians".[14]

Australian pastor and scholar in linguistics and theology Mark Durie says,

To be genuine and effective, reconciliation between Muslims and those they refer to as 'People of the Book' (Jews and Christians), requires that Al-Fatihah and its meaning be discussed openly. That devout Muslims are daily declaring before Allah that Christians have gone astray and Jews are objects of divine wrath, must be considered a matter of central importance for interfaith relations. This is all the more so because the interpretation of verse 7 which relates it to Christians and Jews is soundly based upon the words of Muhammad himself. As Al-Fatihah is the daily worship of Muslims, and represents the very essence of Islam itself, the meaning of these words cannot be ignored or glossed over.[15]

Most commentators agree the verse refers to Christians and Jews,[16] however other commentators[who?] suggest that these verses do not refer to any particular religious community.[13]

Related hadith[edit]

One hadith narrates a story of a companion of Muhammad who recited al-Fātiḥah as a remedy for a tribal chief who was poisoned. According to the hadith, Muhammad later asked the companion, "How did you know that it is a Ruqqayah [remedy]?"[4] Muhammad al-Bukhari recorded in his collection:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
While we were on one of our journeys, we dismounted at a place where a slave girl came and said, "The chief of this tribe has been stung by a scorpion and our men are not present; is there anybody among you who can treat him (by reciting something)?" Then one of our men went along with her though we did not think that he knew any such treatment. But he treated the chief by reciting something, and the sick man recovered whereupon he gave him thirty sheep and gave us milk to drink (as a reward). When he returned, we asked our friend, "Did you know how to treat with the recitation of something?" He said, "No, but I treated him only with the recitation of the Mother of the Book [al-Fātiḥah]." We said, "Do not say anything (about it) till we reach or ask the Prophet. So when we reached Medina, we mentioned that to the Prophet (in order to know whether the sheep which we had taken were lawful to take or not). The Prophet said, "How did he come to know that it [al-Fātiḥah] could be used for treatment? Distribute your reward and assign for me one share thereof as well."

— Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari[17]

Similar versions are found in: Al-Bukhari: 007.071.645[18]—medicine; Al-Bukhari: 007.071.633[19]—medicine; Al-Bukhari: 007.071.632[20]—medicine

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded that Abu Hurairah had told that Muhammad had said:

If anyone observes prayer in which he does not recite Umm al-Qur'an,[21] it is deficient [he said this three times] and not complete.

— Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim''[22][23]

A similar story is found in Al-Bukhari: 001.012.723[24]—characteristics of prayer.

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded:

Ibn 'Abbas reported that while Gabriel was sitting with the Apostle (may peace be upon him) he heard a creaking sound above him. He lifted his head and said: As a gate opened in heaven today which had never been opened before. Then when an angel descended through it, he said: This is an angel who came down to the earth who had-never come down before. He greeted and said: Rejoice in two lights given to you which have not been given to any prophet before you: Fatiha al-Kitab and the concluding verses of Surah al-Baqara. You will never recite a letter from them for which you will not be given (a reward).

— Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim[25]

Benefits and Virtues of Sura Al-Fatiha[edit]

Some Suras are assigned special significance by adherents of Islam, because of their virtues and benefits (Arabic: فضائل‎ faḍāʾil) described in the Hadiths. Acceptance of the different hadith stories varies between Sunni and Shia Muslims and there is a variety of terms to classify the different levels of confirmed authenticity of a hadith.

Sunni Benefits[edit]

A 14th- or 15th-century manuscript of the chapter One of the greatest Suras Ahmad ibn Hanbal recorded in his Musnad (Hadith collection) that Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu`alla had said:

"I was praying when the Prophet called me, so I did not answer him until I finished the prayer. I then went to him and he said, 'What prevented you from coming?' I said, 'O Messenger of God! I was praying.' He said, 'Didn't God say, "O you who believe! Answer God (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life."?' He then said, 'I will teach you the greatest Surah in the Qur'an before you leave the Masjid (Mosque).' He held my hand and when he was about to leave the Masjid, I said, 'O Messenger of God! You said: "I will teach you the greatest Surah in the Qur'an."' He said, 'Yes.' "Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin," It is the seven repeated (verses) and the Glorious Qur'an that I was given." (Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith.)[26][27][28][29][30]


Al-fatiha used for cure Al-Bukhari recorded in his collection:

Abu Said Al-Khudri said: "While we were on one of our journeys, we dismounted at a place where a slave girl came and said, "The chief of this tribe has been stung by a scorpion and our men are not present; is there anybody among you who can treat him (by reciting something)?" Then one of our men went along with her though we did not think that he knew any such treatment. But he treated the chief by reciting something, and the sick man recovered whereupon he gave him thirty sheep and gave us milk to drink (as a reward). When he returned, we asked our friend, "Did you know how to treat with the recitation of something?" He said, "No, but I treated him only with the recitation of the Mother of the Book (i.e., Al-Fatiha)." We said, "Do not say anything (about it) till we reach or ask the Prophet so when we reached Medina, we mentioned that to the Prophet (in order to know whether the sheep which we had taken were lawful to take or not). The Prophet said, "How did he come to know that it (Al-Fatiha) could be used for treatment? Distribute your reward and assign for me one share thereof as well." (Al-Bukhari 006.061.529 - Virtues of the Qur'an)[26][27][28][29][30]

(Similar versions found in: Al-Bukhari: 007.071.645 - Medicine; Al-Bukhari: 007.071.633 - Medicine; Al-Bukhari: 007.071.632 - Medicine)


Necessity in Salat Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded that Abu Hurayrah had told that the Prophet had said:

"Whoever performs any prayer in which he did not read Umm Al-Qur'an (i.e., Al-Fatiha), then his prayer is incomplete." (Sahih Muslim)[26][27][28][29][30]

(Similar story found in Al-Bukhari: 001.012.723 - Characteristics of Prayer)


1 of the 2 lights Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded that Ibn ‘Abbas had said:

“While Hadrat Jibril (i.e. the angel Gabriel) was sitting with the Holy Prophet, he heard a sound above him and raised his head. He said: ‘This is a door in the heaven which has been opened today and which has never been opened before today.’ An angel descended from it. And he (Hadrat Jibril) said: ‘This is an angel who has descended to earth, who has never descended before today.’ He (that angel) gave the greetings of peace and said: ‘Give the good news of two lights which you have been given; of which no Prophet before you was given: the Faatiha (Opening chapter) of the Book and the end of Surah al-Baqarah. You will not recite a letter of them without being given it.’” (Sahih Muslim) [26][27][28][29][30]


“When you lie your side on your bed [getting ready to sleep] and you recite [The Opening chapter of The Book] and Sura al-Ikhlas, then you have been secured from everything, except death… ” [Weak. Dhaif at-Targheeb w a tarheeb: 34] [26][27][28][29][30]

“ The Fatiha and the Ayaat ul Kursi: No slave will ever recite them in a house; except that no evil eye - from a Jinn or human – will ever affect them in that day… ” [Dhaif al Jam i as-Sagheer : 3952 ; weak according to Scholar Albaanee][5] “ The Fatiha is equal to a third of the Qur’an… ” [Weak. Dhaif al Jam i as-Sagheer : 3949] [26][27][28][29][30]

Shia Benefits[edit]

One of the companions of Muhammad narrates that he once recited this surah in the presence of Muhammad, who said, ‘By Him in whose hand is my soul, a similar revelation to this has not been included in the Taurat (Torah), Injeel (Bible), Zabur (Psalms) or even the Qur’an itself.’ [26][27][28][29][30]

Muhammad once asked Jabir ibn Abdallah Ansari, “Should I teach you a surah that has no other comparison to it in the whole Qur’an ?” Jabir replied, “Yes, and may my parents be ransom upon you O prophet of Allah.” So Muhammad taught him surah al-Fatihah. Then Muhammad asked, “Jabir, should I tell you something about this surah ?” Jabir answered, “Yes, and may my parents be ransom upon you O prophet of Allah.” Muhammad said, “It (surah al-Fatihah) is a cure for every ailment except death.” [26][27][28][29][30]

Imam AbuAbdillah Ja’far as-Sadiq said that whoever cannot be cured by surah al-Fatihah, then there is no cure for that person. In the same narration it is written that if this surah is recited 70 times on any part of the body that is paining, the pain will surely go away. In fact, the power of this surah is so great that it is said that if one were to recite it 70 times over a dead body, you should not become surprised if that body starts moving (i.e. comes back to life). Surah al-Fatihah is a cure for physical and also spiritual ailments. [26][27][28][29][30]

An Experienced Way of Warding off Jinn or Jadu (Magic) by Muhammad Zakariyya Muhajir Madani This amal (practise) is known as the amal of Ayatul Kursi. After fajr salaah, maghrib salaah and before retiring to bed, read thrice Surah Fatihah including Bismillah, Aayatul Kursi, Surah Falaq (chapter 113) and Surah Naas (chapter 114). Read any Durood thrice in the beginning as well as at the end. If the affected one recites himself it is better, otherwise someone else should recite and blow in such a manner that some part of his lips touch the affected person. Also keep a bottle of water and whatever you read blow in the water at the end and make the affected one drink from that water each morning before doing anything else. When the bottle is halved, fill it up with fresh water. And if some signs of affect are seen within the house, then a portion of that water should be sprinkled in the four corners of the house in such a manner that the water does not fall on the floor. ( Taweez used or approved by Hazrat Sheikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Muhajir Madani ( Rahmatullahi Alaihe )). [26][27][28][29][30]

Iblees lamented on 4 occasions Ambari in his ‘Kitaabur-Rad’ through his own chain of narrators has mentioned from Mujahid ibn Jabr rahmatullahi alaihe that Iblees the accursed of Allah Ta’ala lamented on four occasions: first when he was cursed; secondly when he was cast out of Heaven to the Earth; thirdly when Hazrat Muhammad sallallahu alaihe wasallam was given the Prophethood; fourthly when Surah Fatihah was revealed and it was revealed in Madinah. [26][27][28][29][30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala. Tafhim Al Quran.
  2. ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard "Commentary on Sūrat al-Fātiḥah," The Study of the Quran. ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, Joseph Lumbard, Muhammad Rustom (San Francisco: Harper One, 2015), p. 3.
  3. ^ Mulla Sadra. Tafsir al-Quran al-Karim. pp. 1:163–164.
  4. ^ a b c d Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir.
  5. ^ Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei. Al-Bayan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. p. 446.
  6. ^ Muhammad Baqir Majlisi. Bihar al-Anwar. pp. 89:238.
  7. ^ Al-Hurr al-Aamili. Wasā'il al-Shīʿa. pp. 6:232.
  8. ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard, "Introduction to Sūrat al-Fātiḥah," The Study Quran. ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, Joseph Lumbard, Muhammad Rustom (San Francisco: Harper One, 2015), p. 3.
  9. ^ Ahmad, Mirza Bahir Ud-Din (1988). The Quran with English Translation and Commentary. Islam International Publications Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 1-85372-045-3.
  10. ^ English Translation and Commentary 5 Volumes
  11. ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard, "Introduction to "Sūrat al-Fātiḥah," The Study Quran, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, Joseph E. B. Lumbard, and Muhammad Rustom (San Francisco: Harper One, 2015), p. 3.
  12. ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard, "Introduction toSūrat al-Fātiḥah," The Study Quran, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, Joseph Lumbard, Muhammad Rustom (San Francisco: Harper One, 2015), p. 4.
  13. ^ a b Ayoub, Mahmoud M. The Qur'an and Its Interpreters: v.1: Vol 1. State University of New York Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0873957274.
  14. ^ Leaman, Oliver, ed. (2006). The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 614. ISBN 0-415-32639-7.
  15. ^ Durie, Mark (3 December 2009). "The greatest recitation of Surat al-Fatihah". Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  16. ^ Bostom, Andrew (29 May 2019). "Ramadan Koran lesson: Curse Jews and Christians 17-times daily". Israel National News.
  17. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 6:61:529
  18. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:71:645
  19. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:71:633
  20. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:71:632
  21. ^ The Reason it is Called Umm Al-Kitab
  22. ^ The Meaning of Al-Fatihah and its Various Names
  23. ^ Sahih Muslim, 4:773
  24. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:12:723
  25. ^ Sahih Muslim, 4:1760
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Virtues of Sura Al-Fatiha".
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Authentic and Weak Virtues".
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Hadith".
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Merits of Surahs".
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Rewards of Suras".

External links[edit]