Vachellia rigidula

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Acacia rigidula)
Jump to: navigation, search
Vachellia rigidula
Acacia rigidula.jpg

Secure (NatureServe)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vachellia
Species: V. rigidula
Binomial name
Vachellia rigidula
(Benth.) Seigler & Ebinger
Acacia rigidula range map.png
Natural range
Synonyms
  • Acacia rigidula Benth.[2]
  • Acaciopsis rigidula (Benth.) Britton & Rose

Vachellia rigidula, commonly known as Blackbrush Acacia or Chaparro Prieto, and also known as Acacia rigidula, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae. Its native range stretches from Texas in the United States south to central Mexico.[2] This perennial is not listed as being threatened.[3] It reaches a height of 5–15 feet (1.5–4.6 m).[4] Blackbrush Acacia grows on limestone hillsides and canyons.[5]

Phytochemistry[edit]

A phytochemical study of V. rigidula[6] by workers at the Texas A & M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Uvalde, TX, reported the presence of over forty alkaloids, including low amounts (up to ~ 15 ppm) of several amphetamines that had previously been found by the same research group in the related species Senegalia berlandieri,[7] but which otherwise are known only as products of laboratory synthesis. Compounds found in the highest concentrations (ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand ppm) were phenylethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine and N-methyltyramine. Other notable compounds reported were N,N-dimethyltryptamine, mescaline, amphetamine, methamphetamine and nicotine, although these were found in low concentrations (e.g. mescaline at 3-28 ppm).

The presence of such an unprecedented chemical range of psychoactive compounds, including ones not previously found in nature, in a single plant species has led to the suggestion that some of these findings may have resulted from cross-contamination or were possibly artifacts of the analytical technique.[8]

Uses[edit]

V. rigidula is used in weight loss dietary supplements because of the presence of chemical compounds claimed to stimulate beta-receptors to increase lipolysis and metabolic rate and decrease appetite.[9]

V. rigidula is also known as a large honey producer and early blooming plant for its native region.[10]

Safety[edit]

In 2015, 52% of supplements labeled as containing Acacia rigidula were found to be adulterated with synthetic BMPEA, an amphetamine isomer.[11] Consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 94 mg of BMPEA per day.[11] In 2012, however, the FDA determined that BMPEA was not naturally present in Acacia rigidula leaves.[12]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Acacia rigidula - Benth. Blackbrush Acacia". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2010-10-17. [dead link]
  2. ^ a b "Taxon: Acacia rigidula Benth.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-09-09. Retrieved 2010-10-17. 
  3. ^ ILDIS LegumeWeb[full citation needed] Archived June 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Acacia rigidula Benth.". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  5. ^ "Blackbrush Acacia, Chaparro Prieto, Catclaw, Gavia". Texas Native Plants Database. Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2009-06-30. 
  6. ^ Clement, Beverly A; Goff, Christina M; Forbes, T.David A (1998). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from acacia rigidula". Phytochemistry. 49 (5): 1377–80. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)01022-4. 
  7. ^ Clement, Beverly A.; Goff, Christina M.; Forbes, T. David A. (1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri". Phytochemistry. 46 (2): 249–54. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00240-9. 
  8. ^ "Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. 2001-09-26. 
  9. ^ WO application 2006099274, Jared R. Wheat, "Dietary Supplement and Method of Using Same", published 2006-09-14 
  10. ^ http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ACRI
  11. ^ a b Cohen, Pieter A.; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy (2015). "An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements". Drug Testing and Analysis. doi:10.1002/dta.1793. 
  12. ^ Goodman, Brenda (2015-04-07). "Untested Stimulant Still in Dietary Supplements". WebMD. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vachellia rigidula at Wikispecies