Admiral (Sweden)

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Admiral
Naval Rank Flag of Sweden - Amiralsflagga.svg
Flag of the admiral, Swedish Navy.
OF-9 Amiral FL hylsa.jpg
Shoulder mark of a Swedish four-star admiral.
OF-9 Amiral FL arm.jpg
Sleeve insignia of a Swedish four-star admiral.
Country Sweden
Service branchSwedish Navy
AbbreviationAm (Swedish),[1] Adm (English)[2]
RankFour-star
NATO rankOF-09
Non-NATO rankO-10
Formation1522
Next lower rankVice admiral
Equivalent ranksGeneral

Admiral (Adm) (Swedish: Amiral, Am) is a four-star commissioned naval officer rank in the Swedish Navy. Admiral ranks immediately above vice admiral and is equivalent to general.

History[edit]

In Sweden, the admiral's rank first appeared during the reign of Gustav I, who in 1522 gave it to Erik Fleming, a Council of the Realm. During Gustav's reign as king and throughout the latter part of the 16th century, the highest command of a fleet was led by a översteamiral ("colonel admiral"), to whose assistant a underamiral was appointed. It was not until 1569 that a permanent översteamiral was appointed; In 1602 the title was exchanged for riksamiral ("Admiral of the Realm"). The first permanent underamiral was appointed in 1575; his office ceased in 1619. Vice admiral is first mentioned in 1577. The admirals of the Swedish Navy have, incidentally, been as follows: generalamiral ("general admiral"), amiralgeneral ("admiral general"), storamiral ("grand admiral"), överamiral, riksviceamiral ("Vice Admiral of the Realm"), amiralgenerallöjtnant ("admiral lieutenant general"), amirallöjtnant ("lieutenant admiral"), schoutbynacht and konteramiral ("rear admiral"). As names for special positions, there has been: befälhavande amiral ("commanding admiral"), skeppsgårdsamiral ("shipyard admiral"), holmamiral ("islet admiral") and varvsamiral ("shipyard admiral").[3]

Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general[3] in the Swedish Army, the Swedish Air Force, the Swedish Coastal Artillery (until 2000) and as well as in the Swedish Amphibious Corps (from 2000). Historically, during the 20th century, vice admirals were promoted one grade upon retirement to full four-star admiral. According to current practice only royals and the Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces, if he were to come from the Swedish Navy, can hold the rank of a full, four-star, admiral in Sweden.

Following a proposal from the Swedish Armed Forces, the Government of Sweden decides on employment as an admiral.[4]

In everyday speech, admirals of all ranks are addressed as admirals.[5][6]

Uniform[edit]

Shoulder mark[edit]

The shoulder mark of a Swedish admiral contains a 45 mm galloon m/51 and four[a] 25 mm star m/30 in silver embroidery on a white background: The center distance between the stars on the shoulder mark must be 27 mm.[7]

Sleeve insignia[edit]

A flag officer wears on the sleeves a 45 mm galloon (GALON M/51 45MM K) and a rank insignia (GRADBETECKNING M/02 TILL ÄRM FLOTTAN) (round loop, the Amphibious Corps has a pointed loop in form of a grenade).[8]

Hats[edit]

Peaked cap[edit]

A flag officer wears as embellishments a gold embroidered oak leaf wreath (known as scrambled egg) on the visor of the peaked cap (skärmmössa m/48). It also fitted with a hat badge (mössmärke m/78 off för flottan) and with a strap in form of a golden braid.[9]

Side cap and winter hat[edit]

An officer wears a hat badge (mössmärke m/78 off) for the navy and another (mössmärke m/87 off) for amphibious units on the side cap (båtmössa m/48) and on the winter hat (vintermössa m/87).[10]

Personal flags[edit]

Admiral's command flag, which admirals of all ranks carry on ships, where they are as commanders. On a three-masted ship, an admiral's flag flies on top of the main mast (vice admiral's flies on the top of the fore-mast and rear admiral's on top of the mizzen-mast).[11] The command flag of an admiral is a double swallowtailed Swedish flag. In the first blue field 4 five-pointed white stars placed two over two[12] (before 1972 by 3 stars placed one over two).

The flag of the admiral (and vice admiral and rear admiral) is flown on ships of the navy, from which officer of the rank now mentioned exercises his command, or on which he travels in the service, but not on ships on which he is in the capacity of exercise leader.[13]

A flag officer (for example an admiral) who holds the position of Supreme Commander, Chief of Operations, Chief of Navy, Chief of Maritime Component Command or naval force commander, may carry an admiral flag on a car in which the commander in question travels in uniform. On airplanes/helicopters, vice admirals (flag officers) may carry a command sign in the form of an image of an admiral flag.[14]

Gun salute[edit]

When raising or lowering flags of the commander's, squadron, department or division commander, a gun salute is given with 17 rounds for admiral (15 for vice admiral and 13 for rear admiral).[19]

List of admirals[edit]

  1. Ivar Fleming 1534
  2. Jakob Bagge 1555
  3. Nils Jespersson Kruse 1563
  4. Klas Kristersson Horn af Åminne 1564
  5. Bengt Halstensson Bagge 1569
  6. Herman Fleming 1574
  7. Hans Claësson Bjelkenstjerna 1611
  8. Clas Fleming 1620
  9. Nils Göransson Stiernsköld 1627
  10. Åke Ulfsparre 1640
  11. Mårten Anckarhielm 1653
  12. Göran Göransson Gyllenstierna the elder 1640
  13. Klas Hansson Bjelkenstjerna 1654
  14. Sten Nilsson Bielke 1657
  15. Claes Nilsson Stiernsköld 1661
  16. Claes Uggla 1670
  17. Erik Carlsson Sjöblad 1676
  18. Hans Clerck 1676
  19. Johan Bär 1676
  20. Johan Olofsson Bergenstierna 1676
  21. Gustaf Adolph Sparre 1690
  22. Cornelius Anckarstjerna 1692
  23. Evert Fredrik Taube 1700
  24. Jacob De Prou 1709
  25. Axel Johan Lewenhaupt 1712
  26. Gustaf Wattrang 1712
  27. Erik Johan Lillie 1715
  28. Gustaf von Psilander 1715
  29. Mikael Henck 1715
  30. Carl Henrik von Löwe 1719
  31. Jonas Fredrik Örnfelt 1719
  32. Olof Strömstierna 1719
  33. Nils Ehrenschiöld 1721
  34. Olof von Unge 1734
  35. Gustaf Grubbe 1736
  36. Jean von Utfall 1742
  37. Theodor Ankarcrona 1742
  38. Abraham Falkengréen 1749
  39. Carl Hans Sparre 1754
  40. Erik Arvid Sparre 1755
  41. Didrik Henrik Taube 1768
  42. Nils Lillienanckar 1771
  43. Carl Vilhelm Modée 1793
  44. Salomon von Rajalin 1809
  45. Henrik Johan Nauckhoff 1817
  46. Magnus Palmqvist 1818
  47. Per Gustaf Lagerstråle 1818
  48. Carl Fredrik Coyet 1827
  49. Johan Lagerbielke 1827
  50. Otto Gustaf Nordensköld 1845
  51. Johan Henrik Kreüger 1857
  52. Carl August Gyllengranat 1858
  53. Carl Magnus Ehnemark 1862
  54. Christian Anders Sundin 1884
  55. Carl Gustaf von Otter 1889
  56. Louis Palander af Vega 1900
  57. Fredrik von Otter 1900
  58. Hjalmar af Klintberg 1903
  59. King Gustav V 1907
  60. Carl Hjulhammar 1911
  61. Wilhelm Dyrssen 1923
  62. Carl August Ehrensvärd 1924
  63. Henning von Krusenstierna 1927
  64. Otto Lybeck 1936
  65. Fabian Tamm 1947
  66. King Gustaf VI Adolf 1950
  67. Stig H:son Ericson 1961
  68. The Duke of Halland 1969
  69. Åke Lindemalm 1970
  70. King Carl XVI Gustaf 1973
  71. Bengt Lundvall 1978
  72. Bror Stefenson 1991

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Four stars has been used for an admiral since 1972. Before that it was three stars.
  2. ^ a b The Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces used admiral's flag since 1942.[15]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Försvarsmaktens föreskrifter om personaltjänst (FFS 2019:6)" (PDF) (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. 2019-12-02. p. 3. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Försvarsmaktens gemensamma identitet – direktiv för användandet av Försvarsmaktens namn, profil och bild" (PDF). 1.3 (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. 2013-09-16. p. 66. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b Meijer 1904, pp. 851-852
  4. ^ "Förordning om ändring i förordningen (2000:555) med instruktion för Försvarsmakten" (PDF) (in Swedish). Swedish Code of Statutes. 20 June 2005. p. 2. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  5. ^ Etikett och god ton: Praktisk handbok i sättet att uppföra sig. 1 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Åhlén & Åkerlund. 1932. p. 130. SELIBR 1353820.
  6. ^ Handbok: parad 6: traditionsvård : H PARAD 6 2016 (PDF) (in Swedish). Stockholm: Försvarsmakten. 2017. p. 31. SELIBR 22459606.
  7. ^ Laestadius 2015, pp. 460-461
  8. ^ Laestadius 2015, pp. 449-450
  9. ^ Laestadius 2015, pp. 422-424
  10. ^ Laestadius 2015, p. 424
  11. ^ Stenfelt 1920, p. 11
  12. ^ Braunstein 2004, p. 111
  13. ^ Stenfelt 1920, p. 640
  14. ^ Reglemente: parad 2: flaggor, fälttecken & heraldik : R PARAD 2 2017 (PDF) (in Swedish). Stockholm: Försvarsmakten. 2017. p. 22, 68. SELIBR 21483386.
  15. ^ a b Lybeck 1945, p. 570
  16. ^ Handbok: parad 4: marinen : R PARAD 4 2017 (PDF) (in Swedish). Stockholm: Försvarsmakten. 2017. p. 14. SELIBR 21485968.
  17. ^ Lybeck 1945, p. 569
  18. ^ Lybeck 1945, p. 568
  19. ^ Stenfelt 1920, p. 454

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