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During the Middle Ages, Afgooye and much of the surrounding area in southern Somalia was governed by the Ajuran Empire. The town later came under the administration of the Geledi Sultanate in the 1800s. The Istunka martial arts festival that is held annually in the town during the Somali new year dates from this period.
At the turn of the 20th century, Afgooye was incorporated into Italian Somaliland. The Italians occupied the town in 1908 and in the process abolished the local slave market. There was also a station in Afgooye on the Mogadishu-Villabruzzi Railway, which connected the town to the capital Mogadishu.
Afgooye main population consists of the Geledi clan 
- Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of the Trust Territory of Somalia
- Mohamed Osman Jawari, Speaker of the Federal Parliament of Somalia
- Mustafa Mohamed Moalim, Chief of the Somali Air Force School and Operations
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- Lee V. Cassanelli, The Shaping of Somali Society: Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People, 1600-1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.271.
- I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of Somalia, fourth edition (Oxford: Currey, 2002), p. 87
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- "Somali al-Shabab militant stronghold Afgoye 'captured'". BBC. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
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- Virginia Luling (2002). Somali Sultanate: the Geledi city-state over 150 years. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-7658-0914-1.