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For places in Iran, see Estakhri, Iran.
Died 957 CE
Era Islamic Golden Age
Region Islamic civilization
School or tradition
Balkhi school
Main interests
Islamic geography
Estakhri map, from the "Book of roads and kingdoms".
A map by Estakhri from the text Al-aqalim.
A map of the Persian Gulf by Estakhri.

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al Istakhri (aka Estakhri, Persian: استخری‎‎, i.e. from the Iranian city of Estakhr, b. - d. 957 AD [346AH][1]) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.

Early life and family[edit]


Estakhri created the earliest known account of windmills. His Arabic language works included masalik al-mamalik (مسالك الممالك, "Traditions of Countries") and Suwar al-Aqaaleem ( صور الاقاليم, "Shapes of the Climes").

He was a traveller whose geographical work has been translated into German by Mordtmann. When Istakhari was in the Indus Valley he met another celebrated traveller, Ibn Haukul.[2]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Mojtahed-Zadeh, Pirous. "The Persian Gulf in the Geographical Views of the Ancient World" In Cartographie Historique du Golfe Persique. Edited by M. Taleghani, D. Silva Couto, & J.-L. Bacque-Grammont. Louvain, Belgium: Diffusion, 2006. 17.
  2. ^ Al-Istakhri