Lin Nu

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Lin Nu (林駑, Xiao'erjing: لٍ ﻧُﻮْ‎) was a Han Chinese scholar and merchant in the early Ming dynasty. He is the ancestor of the philosopher Li Zhi.[1] His family was Han Chinese in origin and the branch that remained true to Han culture cut off the Lin Nu's branch for marrying a foreigner and converting to another religion.[2][3]

His father was Lin Lü (林閭). Around 1376 the 30-year-old Lin Nu visited Ormuz in Persia, converted to Islam, and married a Semu girl (“娶色目女”) (either a Persian or an Arab girl) and brought her back to Quanzhou in Fujian.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] This was recorded in the Lin and Li genealogy《林李宗谱》.

It is believed that the marriage of the Hormuzian Persian girl to Lin Nu which accompanied his conversion to Islam is what caused the other branch of the family to change their surname which is why the same family uses two surnames, Lin and Li, since they were extremely xenophobic to foreign religions and marriage to other ethnicities in the atmosphere after the Yuan dynasty collapsed.[23][24] The biography of Lin Nu says he married a Semu girl and converted to Islam at a mosque in Hormuz in 1384 before coming back to China.[25] Li Guangqi said his uncle Lin Nu's marriage to the foreign girl and conversion to her religion caused his branch of the family to exclude his uncle's descendants from the genealogy because they practiced Islam and change the surname of his own branch of the family to Li to disassociate them from the Lin surname.[26] Li Guangqi attacked the religion and customs of the Semu including Islam and other foreign religions saying they were incompatible with Chinese culture and that their language sounded like owl screeching and their script resembled worms. He cited ancient Chinese texts about barbarians and said his uncle was "seduced" by Semu culture "the strange and exotic" and said he included this attack on the Semu religions in the family genealogy to make sure no one from the family would repeat what their uncle did by marrying a foreign girl and converting a foreign religion. This represented a general xenophobic attitude[27] The genealogy refers to the Ispah rebellion and cruelties perpetrated by the Semu armies. The Persian Semu in the Ispah rebellion were crushed and defeated by the Yuan and the Chinese massacred the defeated Semu. The xenophobia and resentment against Lin Nu by his Han family for marrying the Persian girl and converting to Islam stemmed from this.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft: ZDMG, Volume 151. Contributor Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner. 2001. pp. 420, 422. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 412. JSTOR 43380301.
  3. ^ Kühner, Hans. “‘The Barbarians' Writing Is like Worms, and Their Speech Is like the Screeching of Owls’ - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period.” Zeitschrift Der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, vol. 151, no. 2, 2001, pp. 407–429. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43380301.
  4. ^ Association for Asian studies (Ann Arbor;Michigan) (1976). A-L, Volumes 1-2. Columbia University Press. p. 817. ISBN 0-231-03801-1. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  5. ^ Chen, Da-Sheng. "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  6. ^ Li Guang-qi, “Li-shi shi-xi tu” (Genealogical list of the Li lineage), in Rong-shah Li-shi zu-pu (Genealogy of the Li lineage of Rong-shan), ms., Quan-zhou, 1426.
  7. ^ Joseph Needham (1971). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 495. ISBN 0-521-07060-0. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
  8. ^ Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Chao-ying Fang (1976). Dictionary of Ming biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. p. 817. ISBN 0-231-03801-1. Retrieved February 9, 2011.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Hung, Ming-Shui (1974). Yüan Hung-tao and the late Ming literary and intellectual movement (reprint ed.). University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. 222. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  10. ^ Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft: ZDMG, Volume 151. Contributor Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner. 2001. p. 420. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft: ZDMG, Volume 151. Contributor Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner. 2001. p. 422. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
  12. ^ Asian culture, Issue 31. Contributor Singapore Society of Asian Studies. 新加坡亚洲研究学会. 2007. p. 59. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: others (link) The translator mistranslated xiyang (western ocean) as xiyu (western region) and mistranslated semu as "purple eyed". Original Chinese text says 洪武丙展九年,奉命发舶西洋,娶色目人.遂习其俗,终身不革. And 奉命發舶西洋;娶色目女,遂習其俗六世祖林駑, ...
  13. ^ Wang Tai Peng. "Zheng He and his Envoys' Visits to Cairo in 1414 and 1433" (PDF). p. 17. Retrieved 25 August 2014.The translator mistranslated xiyang (western ocean) as xiyu (western region) and mistranslated semu as "purple eyed". Original Chinese text says 洪武丙展九年,奉命发舶西洋,娶色目人.遂习其俗,终身不革. And 奉命發舶西洋;娶色目女,遂習其俗六世祖林駑, ...
  14. ^ 侯外庐. "李贽生平的战斗历程及其著述". 国学网. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  15. ^ 蔡庆佳, ed. (2009-08-30). "多元的泉州社会——以伊斯兰文化融合为例". 学术研究-学习在线. 来源: 学习在线. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  16. ^ 林其賢 (1988). 李卓吾事蹟繫年. 文津出版社. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  17. ^ 陳清輝 (1993). 李卓吾生平及其思想研究. 文津出版社. ISBN 9576681480. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  18. ^ 陈鹏 (1990). 中国婚姻史稿. 中华书局. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  19. ^ 海交史研究, Volumes 23-24. Contributors 中国海外交通史研究会, 福建省泉州海外交通史博物馆. 中国海外交通史研究会. 1993. p. 134. Retrieved 25 August 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
  20. ^ HALAWA, ABDELHADI; MA, ZHENG (October 2015). "The Role Of The Silk Road In The Migration And Settlement Of The Chinese Hui Nationality In The Yellow River Valley Since The Mid-7th Century" (PDF). International Journal of Management and Applied Science. 1 (9): 8. ISSN 2394-7926.
  21. ^ Wang, Tai Peng. "Zheng He and his Envoys' Visits to Cairo in 1414 and 1433" (PDF): 17.
  22. ^ Bai Shouyi, Bai Shou Yi Minzhu Zhongjiao Lunji [Bai Shou Yi on Chinese religions and national minorities], (Beijing, 1992), p. 172
  23. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 419. JSTOR 43380301.
  24. ^ Abt, Oded (January 2012). "The Lin/Li of Quanzhou / Jinjiang". Muslim Ancestry and Chinese Identity in Southeast China (PDF) (THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE “DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY”). Tel Aviv University The Lester & Sally Entin Faculty of Humanities School of Historical Studies. p. 191.
  25. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 420. JSTOR 43380301.
  26. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 422. JSTOR 43380301.
  27. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 424–425. JSTOR 43380301.
  28. ^ Kühner, Hans (2001). ""The Barbarians' Writing is like Worms, and their Speech is like the Screeching of Owls" - Exclusion and Acculturation in the Early Ming Period". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Harrassowitz Verlag. 151 (2): 427–428. JSTOR 43380301.