Alexander Pokryshkin

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Alexander Pokryshkin
А.И. Покрышкин.jpg
Marshal of the aviation A.I. Pokryshkin, 1978 Photo: Leo L. Medvedev
Born (1913-03-06)6 March 1913
Novosibirsk, Russian Empire
Died 13 November 1985(1985-11-13) (aged 72)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch Flag of the Soviet Air Force.svg Soviet Air Force
Years of service 1932–1972
Rank Marshal of the aviation
Unit 55 IAP (16 GIAP)
Battles/wars Great Patriotic War
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union — 1943 Hero of the Soviet Union — 1943 Hero of the Soviet Union — 1944
Order of Lenin (6)
Order of Red Banner (4)
Order of Suvorov (2)
Order of the Great Patriotic War (2)
Order of the Red Star (2)
US Army Distinguished Service Medal

Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Покры́шкин; 6 March 1913 – 13 November 1985) was a top Soviet flying ace and a Marshal of the Soviet Air Force. He was made a Hero of the Soviet Union on three separate occasions (24 May 1943, 24 August 1943, and 19 August 1944).

Pokryshkin was, in addition to his three Hero of the Soviet Union golden stars, awarded four Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, four Orders of the Red Banner, two Orders of Suvorov (2nd class), two Orders of the Red Star, a number of other medals, and foreign orders, such as the US Army Distinguished Service Medal. Pokryshkin scored 47 of his 65 victories in American-made Bell P-39 Airacobras, making him the highest scoring P-39 pilot of any nation, and the highest scoring pilot flying any American fighter design.[1]

Pokryshkin was the great tactician of the Soviet Air Force during the Second World War. He almost single-handedly fought to change the obsolete Soviet tactics that were in place in 1941 when the war started. Going against the establishment and openly defying the approved combat doctrine almost cost him his career and possibly his life. After openly criticising the official tactics that led to huge losses and teaching his fellow pilots new tactics he invented himself, he was grounded and scheduled to be tried by court martial. However, word of his innovations eventually reached his superiors in Moscow, and instead of a court martial, Pokryshkin was awarded and promoted. By the end of the war his writings had been published and distributed to all Soviet pilots, and he toured fighter regiments extensively lecturing young pilots on his techniques.

Early years[edit]

Vocational technical school student Pokryshkin ca. 1930.

Pokryshkin was born in Novonikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk) in Tomsk Governorate, son of a peasant-turned-factory worker. He was of Russian ethnicity[2] He grew up in a poor, crime-ridden part of town, but unlike most of his peers he was more interested in learning than in fighting and petty crime. His nickname in his early teens was Engineer. He caught the "aviation bug" when he was 12 years old at a local air show, and the dream never left him. In 1928, after seven years of school, he found work as a construction worker. In 1930, despite his father's protests, he left home and entered a local technical college, where he received a degree in 18 months and worked for six more as a steel worker at a local munitions factory. Subsequently, he volunteered for the army and was sent to an aviation school. His dream finally seemed to be coming true. Unfortunately the flight school was suddenly closed, and all students were instead transferred to be trained as aircraft mechanics. Dozens of official requests were denied with a simple explanation: "Soviet aviation needs mechanics just as badly".

Pokryshkin still strived to excel as a mechanic. Graduating in 1933, he quickly rose through the ranks. By December 1934, he became the Senior Aviation Mechanic of the 74th Rifle Division. He stayed in that capacity until November 1938. During that time his creative nature became clearly visible: he invented improvements to the ShKAS machine gun and the R-5 reconnaissance aircraft among other things.

Finally, during his vacation in the winter of 1938 Pokryshkin was able to circumvent the authorities by passing a yearly civilian pilot program in only 17 days. This automatically made him eligible for flight school. Without even packing a suitcase, he boarded a train to flight school. He graduated with top honours in 1939, and in the rank of Sr. Lieutenant he was appointed to the 55th Fighter Regiment.

World War II[edit]

Early experiences[edit]

Pokryshkin in 1940.

He was stationed in Moldavia in June 1941, close to the border, and his airfield was bombed on 22 June, the first day of the war.

His first involvement in air combat was a disaster. Seeing an aircraft in the air of a type he had never seen before, he attacked and shot it down, only to notice as it was going down that it had Soviet red stars on the wings. It was a Soviet Su-2 light bomber of the 211th Bomber Aviation Regiment, piloted by squadron commander M.I. Gudzenko. This was a new bomber type that was kept secret even from other Soviet pilots. He then frantically flew in front of all the other MiG 3 pilots who were lining up on the other Sukhoi bombers, thwarting any other "German victories" by other pilots of his unit. Luckily, Gudzenko survived, although the gunner was killed.

He claimed his first non-Russian victory (a Bf-109 fighter) the next day, while he and his wingman were on a reconnaissance mission, and were jumped by five enemy fighters. On 3 July, having claimed several more victories, he was shot down by German flak behind enemy lines and spent four days getting back to his unit. During the first weeks of the war, Pokryshkin began to see very clearly how outdated the Soviet combat doctrine was, and began slowly drafting his own ideas in his meticulous notebooks. He carefully recorded all details of all air engagements he and all his friends were involved in, and came up with detailed analysis of each. He fought in very complicated conditions: constant retreat, poor- to no-controlling and communication from HQ, and overwhelming odds versus a superior opponent. He would later say "one who hasn't fought in 1941–1942 has not truly tasted war".

Pokryshkin survived several close calls during this time. A machine gun round drove through the right side of the cockpit, cut his shoulder straps, ricocheted off the left side and scratched his chin, covering the entire windscreen in blood. Twice, unexploded bombs landed between his feet, one time during a dramatic low-level raid on his airfield by a pair of Ju-88s. Pokryshkin tried to defend his fighter, one of the very few remaining serviceable aircraft, by removing a flexible machine gun from the nearby bomber and placing it on top of his fighter's fuselage. One of the German bombers saw Pokryshkin firing the only machine gun in the area and flew straight at him, dropping small bombs in a shallow dive. Pokryshkin watched a string of explosions running up to him, but the bomb that landed immediately next to him did not explode. The Ju-88 had dropped it too low; the bomb had insufficient time to arm itself before hitting the ground.

At one point, during 1941, after the unit had been moved to Kotovsk, the order was received that all 12.7 mm under-wing mounted guns were to be removed from MiG-3s to be installed in new factory production aircraft. The only problem with this is that the MiG-3 was armed with a pair of 7.62 mm (.30 caliber) machine guns and a single 12.7 mm (.50 caliber) heavy machine gun.

This left the aircraft under-armed, except that a 100 kg bomb was put under each wing, later exchanged for rockets, or even underwing gun pods with single 7.62 machine guns just outboard of the landing gear, as the unit was starting to be used for ground attack. Ten I-16s were also received for this purpose. Replacement MiG-3s were received only occasionally, and later the unit re-equipped with previously-flown Yak-1s from other units for use as top cover. In the autumn of 1941 Pokryshkin, flying a MiG-3 (possibly winter-camouflaged), took off in sleet and rain conditions after two other pilots had crashed on takeoff. His mission was to locate von Kleist's 1st Panzer Group, which had been stopped in front of Shakhty, and then their position lost by the Soviet forces. After some time flying at low altitude, low on gasoline, in bad weather, he finally found them, and was able to return safely to base with this critical information. For the successful completion of this mission, he was awarded the Order of Lenin.[citation needed]

When the German summer offensive of 1942 began, part of 16 GIAP had been re-equipped with the Yakovlev Yak-1 fighter, including Pokryshkin's squadron. In that period Pokryshkin flew missions escorting Su-2 and Il-2 Shturmovik aircraft, and frequently was engaged by German fighters. On 17 July 1942, during a dogfight with Bf-109s, he became separated from his wingman Konstantin Figichov, and was jumped by a Rotte of Bf-109G-2 "Gustavs" flown by the experte Feldwebel Hans Dammers and his wingman Unteroffizier Kurt Keiser (7./JG 52). Initially Pokryshkin dived to escape, but realizing that the heavier and faster Gustavs would catch him, he performed a chandelle and then a barrel roll. This caused the Germans to overshoot, and then Pokryshkin shot down (and killed) Keiser at short range. Dammers attacked Pokryshkin shortly afterwards, damaging his Yak-1. But once more Pokryshkin performed a barrel roll, forced Dammers to slide forward, and then shot down the German ace.[3][4]

In the late summer of 1942, his regiment was recalled from the front lines to convert to a new fighter type, the Bell P-39 Airacobra. While training in the rear, Pokryshkin frequently clashed with the regiment's new commander, Isayev (the former regimental navigator), who could not stand his criticism of Soviet air combat doctrine. Isayev fabricated a court-martial case, accusing Pokryshkin of cowardice, insubordination, and disobeying orders. Pokryshkin was grounded, removed from the regiment's headquarters, and had his Party membership cancelled. However, he was helped by his squadron mates, the regimental political commissar, and the divisional commanders, and he was soon vindicated. The 216 IAD's leadership dismissed the case against him, and had him reinstated.

Kuban[edit]

Pokryshkin's most significant contribution to the war effort and the most impressive kill record came during the battle for the Kuban region in 1943. The area east of the Crimean peninsula had seen vicious air combat in the months that led to the Soviet assault on Crimea itself, where the Kuban-based Soviet air regiments flew against Crimea-based Luftwaffe Geschwader. Pokryshkin's regiment fought against such renowned German fighter units as JG 52 and JG 3 'Udet'. The area saw some of the most fierce fighting on the Eastern Front, with daily engagements of up to 200 aircraft in the air. Pokryshkin's innovative tactics of using different fighter types stacked in altitude, the so-called 'pendulum' flight pattern for patrolling the airspace, and the use of ground-based radar, forward based controllers and an advanced central ground control system, contributed to the first great Soviet Air Force victory over the Luftwaffe.

In the summer of 1942, the 4th Air Army (in which Pokryshkin served) received their first mobile radar stations. They were tested in directing interceptions of German and Romanian aircraft over water, and they proved highly successful.[citation needed]

In early January 1943, 16 GIAP (Gvardeyskij Istrebitelnyj Aviatsionyj Polk = Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment) was sent to 25 ZIAP (Zapasnoj Istrebitelnyj Aviatsionyj Polk = Depot Fighter Aviation Regiment, a unit tasked with checking that Soviet-made and Lend-Lease aircraft were ready for combat service) near the Iranian border, to re-equip with new aircraft, and also to receive new pilots. Many of these planes had to be ferried in from Iran. Whilst there were delays in assembly by the Americans in Iran, the Soviet pilots involved felt that the Americans were willfully impeding the war effort. It was at this time that the unit converted to the P-39 Airacobra which, when all had arrived, transformed the unit into a 3-squadron regiment. 16 GIAP received 14 P-39L-1s, seven P-39Ks (the very last of which was assigned to Pokryshkin) and 11 P-39D-2s. The unit returned to action on 8 April 1943. During the remainder of the month, Pokryshkin was credited with 11 Bf-109s and one Ju-88 destroyed.

He was credited with a Bf-109 destroyed on his very first Airacobra mission, on 9 April 1943, and scored four Bf-109 kills on 12 April 1943, one of his more successful days. He scored again on 15, 16, 20, 21, and 24 April – one Bf-109 on each day, adding a Ju-88 (probably in fact an He-111) on 29 April, plus one more Bf-109 on 30 April.[5]

One of his most famous engagements was on 4 May 1943. Eight of Pokryshkin's Airacobras were directed by ground control radar towards a large formation of enemy planes: three squadrons of Junkers Ju 87 Stukas escorted by a geschwader of Bf 109s. Attacking from the sun, a pair of P-39s attacked the fighters while the remaining six dived through the bomber formation, repeating the attack twice with Pokryshkin's method of swapping dive directions. Twelve Stukas were claimed shot down, with Pokryshkin claiming five (he was officially credited with two). Later that same day he shot down another Bf-109.[5]

In most subsequent fights, Pokryshkin would usually take the most difficult role, attacking the German flight leader, who was often an aggressive experte. He had learned in 1941–42 that shooting down the flight leader would demoralise the enemy and often cause them to scramble home. Taking that into account, several such experten were almost certainly among his kills during the month of May that year. On 6 May 1943 Pokryshkin shot down a Bf 109, probably the plane of 9-kills ace Unteroffizier Heinz Scholze (4./JG 52), who crashed while trying to land at Kuteinikovo. Two days later, his victim may have been the Bf 109G-4 of Leutnant Helmut Haberda (an experte of 5./JG 52 with 58 victories to his credit), though the Luftwaffe credited the loss to Soviet flak.

Pokryshkin received his first 'Hero of the Soviet Union' award on 24 May 1943, and was promoted to major in June, having become commanding officer of his squadron. On 23 June, he exchanged his old P-39K-1 USAAF Serial Number 42-4421, "White 13", for the famous P-39N USAAF S.N. 42-9004, "White 100". He flew aircraft designated 100 for the rest of the war, such as P-39N-5 42-19185, after 42-9004 was damaged in August or September 1943, except for the test of the Berlin autobahn as a runway in Konstantin Sukhov's "White 50", which was much photographed.[6]

"Osvobozhdenie Ukrainy" - The Liberation of Ukraine[edit]

In mid-July the 216 IAD (now redesignated 9 GIAD) was deployed in southern Ukraine to help liberate the Donbass area. There he continued to defeat German aces – on 23 July 1943 Pokryshkin shot down the 56-kills experte Uffz. Hans Ellendt, of 4./JG 52.

Occasionally his P-39s also escorted the Pe-2 bombers. In that role, he used his nickname Sotka ("One Hundred") – his radio call sign), because he knew very well that the Luftwaffe ordered its airmen to stay on the ground if they knew he was in the air. A Pe-2 pilot of the 36 BAP, Timofey P. Puniov, recalled that because of the heavy casualties inflicted by the German fighters, the 16 GIAP was tasked to escort them. Puniov clearly remembers that twice Pokryshkin violated radio silence saying openly in the frequency: "Vnimanie! Ya – sotka. Poedu na rabotu!" (Attention! I'm "100". I'm going to work!). Neither on those two occasions nor after did the German fighters try to intercept the 36 BAP.[7]

On 20 August, Isaev, who had been the Unit Navigator, and then Commanding Officer, and with whom Pokryshkin had strong differences, took measures to have Pokryshkin stripped of his Hero of the Soviet Union, expelled from the regiment, and hauled before a tribunal. From 10 PM that night at least through the following day, Pokryshkin, 298 IAP's Major Taranyenko, and the 16th Guards' Commissar, Gubarevim, and some "Osobists"(NKVD people) completed interrogations and investigations. Gubarevim, with difficulty, was able to clear Pokryshkin's name and reputation, and "Sasha" was thereupon awarded his second Hero of the Soviet Union on 24 August 1943.[8]

On 21 September 1943, Pokryshkin was involved in another high-profile air engagement. This one happened at low altitudes right over the front line. It was witnessed by dozens of journalists and representatives of the high command. Pokryshkin shot down three Junkers Ju 88s in a single pass, overcome by hatred, as he had just found out that the entire family of Zhmud, his mechanic, had been killed in German occupied territories. Only two kills were confirmed, the third Ju 88 being recorded as brought down by the explosion of the second one and not because of Pokryshkin's gunfire. All three Junkers are confirmed by German loss records – they were Ju 88A-4s of 5./RummKGr.[9] Earlier that same day Pokryshkin had added two more Junkers Ju 87s to his tally, almost certainly Ju 87D-5s of 6./StG 1.[9]

1944–1945[edit]

In February 1944, Pokryshkin was offered a promotion and an easy desk job managing new pilot training. He immediately rejected this offer and stayed at his old regiment and his old rank. However, he did not fly nearly as much as before. Pokryshkin had been made a famous hero by the propaganda machine, and he was not allowed to fly as often because of fear of him being killed. Instead, Pokryshkin spent a lot of time in the radio bunker, directing his regiment's fights over the radio. In June 1944, Pokryshkin was promoted to colonel and given command of 9th Guards Air Division.

On 19 August 1944, for 550 front-line sorties and 53 official kills, Pokryshkin was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union for the third time. He was the first person ever to receive the award three times, and he is the only Soviet soldier to receive the award three times during wartime. Pokryshkin was forbidden to fly altogether, but managed to circumvent the rule a few times and still continued to score an occasional kill.

One of such occasions occurred on 30 May 1944 near Jassy, Rumania. The whole 16 GIAP engaged a large formation of Ju 87s heading towards the Soviet ground forces escorted by Fw 190s and Bf 109s. In the ensuing melée, the Airacobra pilots claimed to shoot down five Stukas, three Focke-Wulfs and one Messerschmitt without losses – three Ju 87s were shot down by Pokryshkin himself. The next time Pokryshkin scored victories was on 16 July, when he got credit for two more Stukas and one Hs 129 of 10.(Pz)/SG 9, probably the Henschel Hs.129B-2 of Hauptmann Rudolf-Heinz Ruffer, credited with 80 tank-kills. His last victory was another Ju 87, downed on 14 January 1945.

Out of his official score of 65 victories, only six were scored in the last two years of the war. The bulk of Pokryshkin's victories came during the time when the Soviet Air Force was still fighting at a disadvantage, including amongst the most of any Soviet pilot during the most difficult first year of the war.

After the war[edit]

When the Second World War ended, Pokryshkin found himself shunned[citation needed] due to his war-time preference for non-Soviet aircraft[citation needed]. In 1948 he graduated from the Frunze Military Academy. Between 1949–1955 he acted as deputy commander of the 33rd Fighter Air Defense and the commander of the 88th Fighter Aviation Corps in Rzhev. He was repeatedly passed-over for promotion, possibly because he was just too intelligent (or honest) for Stalin's comfort. Only after Stalin's death did he find himself back in favour and finally promoted to Air Marshal.

In 1957 he graduated from General Staff Academy. After graduation he served as Chief of Fighter Aircraft of the North Caucasian Military Defense. From 1959, he served in the 8th Army Air Defense separate (Kiev) and from 1961 to 1968 acted as Commander of the 8th Army Air Defense and deputy commander of the Kiev Military District Air Defense Forces. In 1968 he became Deputy Chief of the Air Defense Forces.

His highest position was as president of DOSAAF (1972–1981), a mostly civilian organisation that was largely tasked with training young civilians and preparing them for service with the Air Force. Pokryshkin again found himself ostracized for his honesty. Despite strong pressure, he never wrote about or supported glorification of premier Leonid Brezhnev's role in the battle of Kuban, where Brezhnev was a minor general. Pokryshkin died on 13 November 1985 at the age of 72. In Novosibirsk, a street, a square and a subway station are named in his honour.

He wrote several books about his wartime experiences, none of which appear to be translated into English.[10] He appeared in an episode of The Unknown War documentaries TV Series, "The Unknown War", specifically episode 9, entitled "War In The Air", and, at the beginning and end of the episode, he spoke to the host and narrator, Burt Lancaster.

There are two Soviet-made documentaries starring Alexander Pokryshkin. A legendary wartime Pokryshkin In The Sky(1945) and far lesser known Russian Ace Alexander Pokryshkin(1985) .

Aircraft flown by Pokryshkin[edit]

Pokryshkin started the war flying the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 fighter, in which he scored almost twenty victories. The unit was given the honor "16th Guards Fighter Regiment" in March 1942. At this time or soon after, the unit received some Yak-1s, in which Pokryshkin also scored victories, but which are neither identified, nor illustrated, in any known way. In January 1943, his regiment converted to Lend-Lease Bell P-39 Airacobras. Soviet pilots liked this aircraft, and found it quite competitive with the Messerschmitt Bf-109 and superior to the Focke-Wulf FW-190 at the low air combat altitudes common on the Eastern Front. Pokryshkin enjoyed the 37 mm cannon's destructive firepower, as well as the two upper nose-mounted .50 caliber machine guns, synchronized to fire through the propellor (airscrew), in addition to the pair of .30 caliber machine guns mounted in each wing, outside the propeller arc and therefore unsynchronized. He claimed that the cannon's trigger, positioned at the top of the joystick, was impossible to push without moving the pilot's hand, which made the aircraft deviate from the gunsight, so finally he had his regiment's aircraft rigged so that a single button simultaneously fired cannon and machine guns. In his memoirs he describes many enemy aircraft immediately disintegrating upon being hit by a salvo. Pokryshkin and his regiment were repeatedly asked to convert to new Soviet fighters such as the La-5 and Yak-3. However, Pokryshkin found Yak-3's firepower insufficient, and personally disliked Yakovlev, so the squadron remained with the P-39's.

Finally, in 1944, he found an aircraft that he deemed a worthy heir: the Lavochkin La-7. However, one of his close friends, Soviet 50-kill (31 personal and 19 group) ace Alexander Klubov, was killed in a landing mishap while converting to the La-7. The crash was blamed on the malfunction of the plane's hydraulic system. Pokryshkin subsequently cancelled his regiment's conversion, and there are multiple reports that they instead began flying the Bell P-63 Kingcobra. Through the Lend-Lease agreement with United States, the Soviet Union was not allowed to use P-63s against Germany; they were given only to be used in the eventual battle with Japan. Thus it is quite understandable that no mention of this appears in any official records. However, personal accounts of German pilots and flak crewmen who encountered P-63s in the skies of Eastern Prussia as well as in the memoirs of one of the pilots in Pokryshkin's squadron. It is reported that 9th IAD was given approximately 36 P-63s but these were not used while the fighting was still in progress.[11]

The designations of MiG-3 aircraft used by Pokryshkin were, in the likeliest order of use, "7", "4", "01", "White-5" (with "GVARDIYA" on the intakes – likely dating to when the unit was awarded this designation), and finally "67". He then flew Yak-1 fighters when the unit partially re-equipped with them.

He flew P-39K-1 "White-13" 42-4421 over the Kuban. He converted in late June to P-39N-0 42-9004 "White 100". "White 100" was damaged in August or September 1943. The only known photograph of 42-9004 dates from around this time: it shows the nose resting on a saw horse with the nose wheel main leg hyper-extended so the nose wheel rests on the ground. According to a VVS color scheme research website, 42-9004 was struck by inadvertent gunfire from a badly damaged Il-2 that had a rough landing, and on one of its last bounces the guns went off and, among other things, the gunfire struck, such as the aircrew dugout, hit the parked Airacobra.{{VVS Warplanes Research Page ([April]) 2017}}

About this time Pokryshkin changed to P-39N-5 42-19158 (or possibly a different N-5). which was also designated "White-100". (This is according to the document for an award to an aircraft mechanic assigned to 42-19158, for keeping it airworthy and ready to fly combat missions for 100 flights in a row.) On 28 May 1943, Pokryshkin flew P-39D-2 41-38520 ("White-17") for a single mission. There is a photo of him post-mission bending to remove his parachute straps in front of the nose of 41-38520. In the famous photo taken of him using using a stretch of German "autobahn" as a runway, he was flying a P-39Q-15 designated "White-50", with the serial number painted out (the same aircraft was originally assigned to K. V. Sukhov).

He used five La-7 aircraft with the inscription, "From the Workers of Novosibirsk to Hero of the Soviet Union Alexandr Ivanovich Pokhryshkin", but did not fly in them himself. A La-7-equipped unit was, in 1945, made a part of the 9th Guards Division, making it a four-regiment division. At one point in 1944, he was apparently given a La-5FN for his personal use, pending the hoped-for Lavochkin conversion of the entire unit.

The unit apparently flew P-63A or C Kingcobras after the war, and Pokryshkin would have again numbered his aircraft "100". Finally, one or more of the 9th Guards Fighter Division units may have eventually converted to the Yak-9P before his attendance at the War College in 1948. After his appointment as DOSAAF director in the early 1950s, he had use of a MiG-15, and, later, of an Il-12 or Il-14.

Combat record[edit]

Overclaiming during World War II occurred for political or propaganda reasons. It was common for all sides to inflate figures for "kills" or deflate figures for losses in broadcasts and news reports. Most of the examples listed below are overclaiming during World War II has been the centre of much scrutiny, partly because of the significant amount of air combat relative to other conflicts.

The most accepted figures of his combat record are:

  • 560 combat missions
  • 156 air-to-air engagements
  • Official score: 59 enemy aircraft shot down personally, and 6 together with other pilots

Note: based on Pokryshkin's memoirs and personal notebooks, his score stands above 100. The Soviet air force did not officially confirm kills where wreckage could not be found, and thus many aircraft shot down over enemy territory were never confirmed.

In recent years the actual number of Pokryshkin's kills seems to have become controversial. For example, Russian historian Mikhail Yurevich Vykov researched official records of victories, and downsized his tally to 46 individual and 6 shared victories.[5] This author, together with Aleksandr Rodionov, wrote an article named Mutnoye Nebo 1941 goda ("The Murky Sky of 1941") stating that Pokryshkin tried to steal Rechkalov's kills during 1941.[12] However, researcher Oleg V. Levchenko discovered passages written in official documents, in personal documents of Pokryshkin found after his death (that he kept away of his family) and in memoirs of Pokryshkin's comrades, that Pokryshkin in fact shot down 94 enemy aircraft, damaged 19 and destroyed three more on the ground. Levchenko found that no less than 15 victories scored in 1941 were not taken into account, because the documents confirming them were destroyed during the hurried withdrawal from encirclement during the Battle of Uman.[13] This may explain the differences seen between the figures of Vykov and Levchenko.

Other factors must be taken into account to solve such differences: Pokryshkin, as most other Soviet aces, also engaged in the common practice of giving his kills to fallen comrades. Each kill was rewarded with a substantial monetary bonus, and on the day of a pilot's death all regiment kills would often be credited to him in order to give his family some support. Note that the vast majority of Pokryshkin's kills had been scored before and during 1943 (when the quality of the Luftwaffe's airmen was higher), and since the summer of 1944 he had been absolutely forbidden to engage in air combat (and he sometimes disobeyed the order).

List of engagements and victories[edit]

This list is considered incomplete. It is based on Pokryshkin's memoirs "Poznat' sebya v boyu", combined with Vykov's work[5] and Polak's "Stalinovi Sokoli",[14] cross-referenced with available German loss sources.

1941[edit]

14 confirmed victories (plus several unconfirmed), all flying MiG-3

  • 22 June 1941 – 'friendly' kill, Su-2; navigator killed
  • 23 June 1941: Probably Bf 109F-2 W.Nr. 5689, pilot unknown (50% damage), II./JG 3.
  • 24 June 1941: Probably Bf 109F-2 W.Nr. 6746 of 4./JG 3, Obfw. Erwin Kortlebel (27-kill experte) or possibly Fw. Otto Kohler of 4./JG 77 in a Bf 109E-4(Trop) W.Nr. 4006 southeast of Chlodeni.[15]
  • 26 June 1941: reconnaissance flight, claimed to have shot down two Hs.126s. One was Hs 126 W.Nr. 3106, of 8.(H)/32 crew; Oblt Wilhelm Mayer and crewman both killed in action. The other was Hs 126 W.Nr. 3189 Uffz. Pantalon Weberle (MIA) + 1 WIA 5.(H)/21.
  • 26 June 1941: fought against four Bf 109s, shot down Bf 109F-2 W.Nr. 6741, pilot unknown (65% damage, written off), I./JG 3
  • 27 June 1941: in the first sortie of the day fought a group of Ju 88s and Bf 109s, shot down one bomber. In a second sortie escorted SB bombers, shot down one of the Bf 109s which tried to attack the SBs. His victims were:
    • Ju 88A-4 W.Nr. 7131 of 4./KG 77, pilot Obltn Kurt Engel and three crew members all KIA.
    • Bf 109F-2 W.Nr. 5719 of Uffz. Ernst Winkler (17-kill experte), 4./JG 3.
  • 2 July 1941: escorted SB-2's, shot down one Bf 109 personally and one Bf-109 in group; his victim almost certainly was Bf 109F-2 of 22-kill experte Lt. Ernst Schultz, 5./JG53 (WIA, schrapnel splinters in the face during combat with a group of SB-2's W of Ternopol) [16] or Bf 109F-2 W.Nr. 8249, pilot unknown, III./JG 3.
  • 3 July 1941: claimed to have shot down a Hs 126. Probably Hs 126V-1(4E + LL) of 3.(H) /13, crew Lt. O.Stuckebrock and Uffz.G.Enth both missing in action.[17] or Hs 126 of 6.(H)/Aufkl.Gr. 12, pilot Lt. R.Mensing (WIA) [18]
  • 5 July 1941: claimed to have shot down a Hs 126. Probably Hs 126 of 6.(H)/Aufkl.Gr. 32, pilot Lt. Heinrich Sellenböhmer (MIA, later returned) [19]
  • 20 July 1941: ground attack against Beltsy airfield, destroyed a Bf.109 trying to take off, possibly Bf 109 E-7 (Black <S + ) of Oblt. Georg Schirmböck, Stab II./JG 77 (crashed at Beltsy due to involuntary ground contact) [20] or Bf 109 F-4 (Black 5) of future 31-kill experte Ofw. Reinhold "Spatzle" Schmetzer, 8./JG77 (unhurt, force-landed at Beltsy due to engine damage) [21]
  • 21 July 1941: ground attack against Kishinev airfield, destroyed a Ju 87 on the ground
  • 22 July 1941: fought with four Bf 109s, shot down one of them, probably Bf 109E-7 W.Nr. 3765 of Hptm. Reinhard Heydrich attached to II./JG 77 (WIA, bailed out vic Beltsy/Moldavia).The Luftwaffe credits the loss to Soviet flak.[22] (Pokryshkin reported heavy flak fire during this air combat himself, his MiG-3 being hit by a 20 mm flak grenade few moments after he shot down enemy wingman during a surprise attack from behind and below, while Pokryshkin's own wingman, a 5-kill ace Leonid Dyachenko claimed leading Bf-109 which already scored Su-2 kill moments before, thus it's highly probable it was Pokryshkin who heavily damaged Heydrich's Bf-109 because Heydrich never claimed Su-2 kill)
  • 27 July 1941: shot down while fighting group of Bf 109's, almost certainly by 10-kill ace Fw. Hans Esser (5./JG 77) [23]
  • attacked reconnaissance Ju 88, shot up but unable to shoot down due to problems with armament
  • fought three Ju 88s, shot down one by air-to-ground rockets (not officially confirmed), officially credited for the second
  • fought four Ju 88s, shot down one.
  • escorted SB, shot down one Bf 109.
  • 5 October 1941: reconnaissance flight, shot down one Bf 109 – so far no German loss matches this claim.

1942[edit]

7 confirmed victories, all flying the Yak-1

  • January and February — reconnaissance flights only, he founds Von Kleist's 1st Panzerarmee (still flying MiG-3). No air combats.
  • early March — shot down Hs.126
  • special reconnaissance missions flying a Messerschmitt fighter in German markings (the Bf.109E-7 of Nikola Vucina, a 15.(Kroat)/JG 52 pilot who defected to the Soviet side on 4 May 1942).
  • May — escort mission, shot down one Bf.109 and damaged another
  • reconnaissance mission, shot down Bf-110.
  • 17 July 1942 – Pokryshkin escorted Il-2s, shot down two Bf.109G-2s, flown by Feldwebel Hans Dammers (future 113-kill experte, 50 victories at that time) and his wingman Unteroffizier Kurt Keiser (7./JG 52).
  • 20 July 1942: escorting Il-2s, shot down a Bf.109G-2, probably 30-kill experte Leutnant Fritz Brückmann (KIA), 9./JG 52.
  • 28 July 1942: fought a group of Bf.109G-2s and shot down one, probably Croatian 16-kill ace Potpukovnik Franjo Dzal (who bailed out safely), commander of 15.(Kroat)/JG 52.
  • 1.08.1942: he fought a group of Ju.88s over Kropotkin, shot down one, probably Ju.88A-4 W.Nr. 144092 of III./LG 1 (Obfw. Helmut Grubert and 3 crew killed).[24][25]
  • 2.08.1942: the 16 GIAP repelled a group of Ju.88s and Bf.110s attacking Kropotkin aerodrome. Pokryshkin got credit for three shared Zerstorer kills – Luftwaffe records confirm the loss of Bf.110D-4 W.Nr. 2262 of 7.(H)/LG 2 (Oblt. Walter Kôhler and crewman missing).

1943[edit]

55 confirmed victories

  • 9.04.1943: His first victory flying the P-39 Airacobra. Making the debut of the pendulum and the "Kubanskaya Etazherka", he claimed a Bf.109 set on fire, out of a group attacking LaGG-3s. No Luftwaffe combat loss matches this claim, but 8./JG 3 reports the loss of Bf.109G-4 W.Nr. 14885 by engine failure. The pilot, Uffz. Reinhold Baisch, is listed as Missing.
  • 12.04.1943: in a swirling dogfight over Krasnodar Pokryshkin claimed to have shot down four Bf.109s (the last kill Pokryshkin scored saved a Soviet P-40). His probable victims were:
    • Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 14617, pilot unknown (35% damaged), 6./JG 3.
    • Bf.109G-4 W.Nr. 14952, pilot unknown (15% damaged), 4./JG 52.
    • Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 13879, pilot unknown (15% damaged), 4./JG 52.
    • Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 14842, pilot unknown, III./JG 3. (80% damaged and written-off. According to the Luftwaffe, it was an accidental loss).
  • 15 April 1943: shot down a Bf.109G-2, probably W.Nr. 14192 of 15.(Kroat)/JG 52 (55% damage. According to the Luftwaffe, it was an accidental loss).
  • 16 April 1943: shot down a Bf.109G-2, probably W.Nr. 19221 of 8./JG 52 (60% written-off. According to the Luftwaffe, it was an accidental loss).
  • 20 April 1943: shot down a Bf.109G-4 W.Nr. 14955 of Lt. Adolf von Gordon (III./JG 3, MIA, Noworossijsk) [26]
  • 21 April 1943: shot down a Bf.109, possibly Bf 109G-2 W.Nr. 10334 of 5./JG 3 killing 19-kill experte Lt. Lothar Myrrhe (MIA, combat, near Noworossijsk) [27][28] or caused 50% damage to Bf.109G-4 W.Nr. 14966 of 4./JG 52, which crashed in the Black Sea near the gulf of Tsemesskaya.
  • 24 April 1943: shot down a Bf.109 – no German combat loss matches this claim.
  • 29 April 1943: shot down a Ju.88, almost certainly Heinkel He.111H-16 of III./KG 55. All five crew members (included pilot Ltn. Hans-Peter Schickling) injured.[29]
  • 30 April 1943: shot down Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 14787 (4./JG 52), wounding future 10-kill ace Uffz. Ernst Kerkhoff .[30]
  • 4.05.1943: shot down two Ju.87s and one Bf.109. No Stuka losses match these claims, but the Messerschmitt fighter was almost certainly Bf.109G of 7./JG 52 Stafelkäpitan and future 197-kill experte (67 victories at that time) Oblt. Walter"Graf Punski"Krupinski (lightly WIA, shot down and bailed out, Kuban area, note that Erich Hartman ,future 352-kill experte (11 victories at that time) was his wingman) [31] or possibly Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 19219 of future 11-kill ace Lt. Kurt Günther (9./JG52, WIA, combat Iretsesk) [32]
  • 5 May 1943: shot down a Bf.109, actually 45% damaged Bf.109G-4 W.Nr. 19335 of future 104-kill experte Fw. Heinz Sachsenberg (6./JG 52, WIA)
  • 6.05.1943: shot down the leader of a group of Bf.109s, probably Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 13688 of 9-kill ace Fw. Hans Scholze (KIA, 4./JG 52).
  • 8.05.1943: shot down a Ju.87, and later shot down the leader of a group of Bf.109s.
    • Ju.87D-3 W.Nr. 110760, of 4./StG 77, crew unknown but both KIA.
    • probably Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 19555 of 58-kill experte Ltn. Helmut Haberda (KIA, Staffelkapitan of 5./JG 52).
  • 14 May 1943: shot down a Ju.87, probably Ju87D-3 W.Nr. 1379 of 6./StG 2, crew unknown but both KIA [33]
  • 29 May 1943: shot down Ju.88A-4 W.Nr. 2553 of 9./KG 51, Ltn. Hans Fischer and crew killed.
  • 31 May 1943: shot down Bf.109, probably Bf.109G-2 of 104-kill experte (89 victories at that time) Oblt. Eberhard von Boremski ,Stafelkäpitan of 7./JG3 (WIA during emergency landing 10 km SE of Kamenskoye following motor damage) [34] or caused 50% damage to Bf.109G-2 W.Nr. 13586 of I./JG 52.
  • 14 June 1943: claimed two Bf.109s shot down, probably 50% damaged Bf109G-2 W.Nr. 10398 of 2./JG52 (Air battle, crash landing) [35]
  • 22 July 1943: shot down the Bf.109G-6 W.Nr. 19236 (60% damaged/written off) of future 104-kill experte (22 victories at that time) Fw. Heinz Sachsenberg (6./JG 52 WIA)
  • 23 July 1943: shot down the Bf.109G-6 W.Nr. 20149 of 56-kill experte Uffz. Hans Ellendt (4./JG 52)

Mid August — transferred to new area; Airacobras often attacked by other Soviet pilots as the unfamiliar type looks like the Bf.109

  • 17 August 1943: claimed a Ju.88 – No German loss matches this claim.
  • 18 August 1943: shot down a reconnaissance Ju.88 above 8,000 m (26,000 ft), almost certainly Ju.88D-1 W.Nr. 430825 of 2.(F)/22, Hptm. Günther Sauer (Stafelkäpitan and crew killed).
  • 21 August 1943: shot down two Ju.87s, shot up one Bf.109 – No German losses match these claims
  • 22 August 1943: shot down a Bf.109, probably Bf.109G-6 W.Nr. 20533 of Uffz. Günther Müchnow (8./JG 52), who was injured.
  • 23 August 1943: shot down one Ju-87 – No German loss matches this claim.
  • 21 September 1943: shot down two Ju.87s, then later in the evening three more Ju.88s claimed over Bolshoy Tokmak, two confirmed.
    • Ju.87D-3 W.Nr. 31247, Fw. Walter Bock (MIA), gunner returned, 6./StG 1.
    • Ju.87D-5 W.Nr. 130767, Fw. Hans Plumm & gunner returned, 6./StG 1.
    • Ju.88A-4 W.Nr. 8708, crew unknown, 5./RummKGr
    • Ju.88A-4 W.Nr. 2009, crew unknown, 5./RummKGr
    • Ju.88A-4 W.Nr. 5768, crew unknown, 5./RummKGr
  • 7.10.1943: claimed a reconnaissance Ju.88, probably Ju88D W.Nr. 430087 of 4.(F) /121, Lt. E.Richter and crew missing in action [36]
  • one Ju-87
  • 5.11.1943: one Ju-52 over the Black Sea.
  • 6.11.1943: one Ju-52 over the Black Sea.
  • 19 November 1943: one Ju-52 over the Black Sea, near Tenderovskaya Kosa (almost crashed into his victim, stopped flying free hunt missions over Black Sea)
  • 28 November 1943: one Ju-87 – possibly Ju-87D of Knight's Cross holder Oblt. Hans Krumminga (credited with 779 missions), 9./SG 2,
  • (both crew members KIA near the Bolsh-Kostromka airfield(50 km W of Nikopol), when the returning unit was jumped by enemy fighters, his Ju-87 being fatally hit (German sources claim by friendly flak) slamming into Ju-87D of another Knight's Cross holder Hptm. Wilfried Herling ,Stafelkäpitan of 7./SG 2 (credited with 700 missions, 26 tanks destroyed),killing both crew members) [37][38]
  • 16 December 1943: shot down a Fieseler Fi.156 Storch.

1944[edit]

4+ confirmed victories {+1 reported shot down}

  • 7.05.1944: a Romanian He-111H-6 No. 48 {Observer killed} See [1]
  • 16 July 1944: fought group of Ju.87s and Hs.129s, shot down three Ju.87s and one Hs.129. No Stuka losses match these claims, but 10.(Pz)/SG 9 lost three Henschels that day, including Hs.129B-2 W.Nr.141966 of Hptm. Rudolf-Heinz Ruffer, who had 80 Russian tanks in his tally, though it was reported his aircraft took a direct flak hit over the Radtsiekhov-Stayanov railroad, crashing in flames.[39]

Note: Ruffer was shot down in area Stoyaniv – Radekhiv (now Ukraina). Pokryshkin's Hs 129 claim was located north of Brody, what is approx. 50 km west of Stoyaniv – Radekhiv.

1945[edit]

1+ confirmed victories

  • 14 January 1945: his last victory, he shot down one Ju.87 – it might be the 37 mm cannon armed Ju.87G-2 W.Nr. 494210 flown by Uffz. Johann Lacher of 10.(Pz)/SG 77, but Luftwaffe loss records credit the loss to flak.

Summary of victories[edit]

Bf-109: 34
Ju-87: 19
Ju-88: 15
Ju-52: 5
Hs-126: 4
Fw-190: 2
Bf-110: 1
Hs-129: 1

Total: 88

Legacy[edit]

A minor planet 3348 Pokryshkin discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978 is named after him.[40]

Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet awards
Hero of the Soviet Union medal.pngHero of the Soviet Union medal.pngHero of the Soviet Union medal.png Three times Hero of the Soviet Union (24 May 1943 - № 993, 24 August 1943 – II № 10, 19 August 1944 – III № 1)
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Six Orders of Lenin (22 December 1941 - № 7086; 24 May 1943 - № 9600; 24 August 1943 - № 124904; 21 October 1967 - № 344099; 21k February 1978 - № 429973; 5 March 1983 - № 400362)
Order october revolution rib.png Order of the October Revolution (5 March 1973 - № 1793)
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of the Red Banner, four times (22 April 1943 - № 66983; 18 July 1943 - № 8305 / 2; 24 December 1943 - № 448 / 3; 20 April 1953 - № 1392 / 4)
Order suvorov2 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 2nd class, twice (6 April 1945 - № 1484; 29 May 1945 - № 1662)
Order gpw1 rib.png Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class (11 March 1985 - № 537 850)
Order redstar rib.png Order of the Red Star, twice (6 November 1947 - № 2762070; 4 June 1955 - № 3341640)
Order service to the homeland1 rib.png Order for Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, 3rd class (30 April 1975 - № 0039)
CombatRibbon.png Medal for Combat Service (3 November 1944)
Defcaucasus rib.png Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" (1 May 1944)
OrderStGeorge4cl rib.png Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (9 May 1945)
RibbonLabourDuringWar.png Medal "For Valiant Labour in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" (6 June 1945)
Liberationprague rib.png Medal "For the Liberation of Prague" (9 June 1945)
Caputureberlin rib.png Medal "For the Capture of Berlin" (9 June 1945)
Reclamining the virgin lands rib.png Medal "For Development of the Virgin Lands" (5 November 1964)
MilitaryVeteranRibbon.png Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (30 April 1984)
CombatCooperationRibbon.jpg Medal "For Strengthening Military Cooperation" (31 May 1980)
800thMoscowRibbon.png Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow" (7 April 1951)
1500KievRibbon.jpg Medal "In Commemoration of the 1500th Anniversary of Kiev" (17 May 1982)
100 lenin rib.png Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary since the Birth of Vladimir Il'ich Lenin" (20 April 1970)
20 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" (7 May 1965)
30 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" (25 April 1975)
40 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" (12 April 1985)
30 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" (22 February 1948)
40 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (18 December 1957)
50 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (26 December 1967)
60 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (28 January 1978)
Foreign awards
Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg Distinguished Service Medal (USA)
Пластина на орден „Народна Република България“.gif Order of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, 1st class (Bulgaria)
Order of Tudor Vladimirescu 2nd.png Order of Tudor Vladimirescu, 2nd and 3rd classes (Romania)
GDR Marks-order bar.png Order of Karl Marx (East Germany)
Virtuti Militari Ribbon.png Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari (Poland)
POL Polonia Restituta Kawalerski BAR.svg Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta (Poland)
OrdenSuheBator.png Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia)
OrdenZnam.png Order of the Red Banner (Mongolia)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Saltzman, B. Chance; Searle, Thomas R. (2001). Introduction to the United States Air Force. Airpower Research Institute, Air University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-4289-2621-9. 
  2. ^ "Alexander Pokryshkin". Герои страны ("Heroes of the Country") (in Russian). 
  3. ^ Pokryshin, p.204-206
  4. ^ Bergstrom, Dikov, Antipov p.43
  5. ^ a b c d Mikhail Vykov (2008) p.1037-1038
  6. ^ Lend-Lease Aces of World War 2, Osprey Books, Aerokobrui Had Kubanyu, footnote 75
  7. ^ http://www.rkka.es/Entrevistas/punev_2/000_Punev-2.htm
  8. ^ Lend-Lease Aces of World War 2, Osprey Publishing, by George Mellenger and footnote 75, "Aerokobrui Nad Kubanyu ("Aerokobras over the Kuban")
  9. ^ a b LW Loss Report (microfilm roll #11)-Vol. 21
  10. ^ see the episode of the TBS Series, "The Unknown War" entitled "War in the Air"
  11. ^ Soviet Lend-Lease Aces of World War 2
  12. ^ "«МУТНОЕ НЕБО 1941 ГОДА»: КОНФЛИКТ АСОВ И… ИХ БОЕВЫХ СЧЕТОВ - Статьи - Информационный портал JustMedia.ru". www.justmedia.ru. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  13. ^ Pokryshkin p.7 (Preface written by his son, Aleksandr A. Pokryshkin)
  14. ^ Polak and Shores, 2.cast p.120-121
  15. ^ "Kracker Luftwaffe Archive". Aircrew Remembered site. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  16. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(S-Z): Schultz E.". 
  17. ^ "Hs-126 losses 1941". 
  18. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(L-R): Mensing R.". 
  19. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(S-Z): Sellenböhmer H.". 
  20. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(S-Z): SCHIRMBÖCK". 
  21. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(S-Z):SCHMETZER". 
  22. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(G-K): Heydrich". 
  23. ^ "Hans Esser details". 
  24. ^ Pokryshin p.220-221
  25. ^ Bergstrom, Dikov, Antipov p.70
  26. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(G-K): Gordon". 
  27. ^ "Missing in action JG3". 
  28. ^ "Luftwaffe Aces". 
  29. ^ "Hans Peter Schickling details". 
  30. ^ "Luftwaffe Aces". 
  31. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(G-K): Krupinski". 
  32. ^ "Jagdgeschwader 52 Victories (4/43-2/44)". 
  33. ^ "Luftwaffe losses May 1943". 
  34. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(A-F): Boremski". 
  35. ^ "Luftwaffe losses May 1943". 
  36. ^ "Long-range reconnaissance Luftwaffe losses, Eastern Front 1943". 
  37. ^ "28.11.1943 details". 
  38. ^ "Luftwaffe Officer Career Summaries(G-K): HERLING,KRUMMINGA". 
  39. ^ "Kracker Luftwaffe Archive". Aircrew Remembered site. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  40. ^ "3345 Tarkovskij - Поиск в Google". books.google.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 

References[edit]

  • Pokryshkin's tactic drawings
  • Pokryshkin's tactic drawings 2
  • Pokryshkin, Aleksandr Ivanovich. Poznat' sebya v boyu (Know yourself in combat). ZAO Tsentrpoligraf, 2006. ISBN 978-5-9524-4788-2
  • Juszczak, Artur and Pęczkowski, Robert. Bell P-39 Airacobra. Sandomierz, Poland/Redbourn, UK: Mushroom Model Publications, 2003. ISBN 83-916327-9-2
  • Loza, Dmitriy and Gebhardt, James F. (transl.). Attack of the Airacobras: Soviet Aces, American P-39s & the War Against Germany. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1140-1.
  • Mellinger, George and Stanaway, John. P-39 Airacobra Aces of World War 2. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 1-84176-204-0
  • Mellinger, George, Soviet Lend-Lease Aces of World War 2. Botley Oxfort, UK: Osprey Publishing, Ltd., 2006. ISBN 1-84603-041-2
  • Christer Bergstrom, Andrey Dikov & Vlad Antipov. Black Cross – Red Star. Air War over the Eastern Front. Volume 3. Everything for Stalingrad. Eagle Editions Ltd., 2006. ISBN 0-9761034-4-3
  • Roman, V., Aerokobrui Vstupayout V Boi ("The Airacobras Enter Into Battle"), {Cyrillic}, [Fighter Series], Kiev, Ukraine, 1993: Kiyev-skaya Fabrika Drukovanoy reklamy, 1993, later SPD Romanenko, V.D.
  • from Translation by D.C. Montgomery via Ray Wagner, The Airacobra Aircraft in Soviet Aviation (partial translation of unit battle histories, "Aerokobrui Vstupayut V Boi"), American Aviation Historical Society Journal, Volume 43 Number 4, Winter 1998, Publication Number 0130-930, Santa Ana, California.
  • Mijail Yurevich Bykov (2008). Асы Великой Отечественной Войны. Самые результативные лётчики 1941–1945 гг. (Asy Velikoy Otechestvennoy Voyny. Samye rezultativnye liotchiki 1941–45 gg), Yauza-EKSMO, Moskow. ISBN 978-5-699-20526-4
  • Roman, V., Aerokobrui Nad Kubanyu ["Aerokobras Over the Kuban"] {Cyrillic}, Kiev, Ukraine, SPD Romanyenko, V.D.. ("Avia'Retro") [Fighter Series], 2006 ISBN 966-95807-3-0
  • Morgan, Hugh. Soviet Aces of World War 2. London: Reed International Books Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-85532-632-9.

Website, "MiG-3" distinguished pilots section, "Alexander Pokryshkin and the Airacobras associated with him" (?) Or: "P-39 Airacobras associated with Alexander Pokryshkin" Turner Broadcasting System, "The Unknown War" hosted by and narrated by Burt Lancaster; Episode 9: "War in the Air", 1978, shown July or August 1978; episodes originally broadcast one a week, if contributor's memory serves.