Alternanthera sessilis

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Alternanthera sessilis
Alternanthera sessilis in Kadavoor.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Gomphrenoideae
Genus: Alternanthera
Species: A. sessilis
Binomial name
Alternanthera sessilis
(L.) R.Br. ex DC.
  • Alternanthera denticulata R. Brown
  • Alternanthera glabra
  • Alternanthera nodiflora R. Brown
  • Gomphrena sessilis L.
  • Illecebrum sessile L.

Alternanthera sessilis is an aquatic plant known by several common names, including ponnanganni(in Tamil), Mukunuwenna(in Sinhalese) sessile joyweed and dwarf copperleaf. It is used as a vegetable specially in Sri Lanka and some asian countries.


The plant occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. It has been introduced to the southern United States, and its origins in Central and South America are uncertain.

Botanical features[edit]

This is a perennial herb with prostrate stems, rarely ascending, often rooting at the nodes. Leaves obovate to broadly elliptic, occasionally linear-lanceolate, 1–15 cm long, 0.3–3 cm wide, glabrous to sparsely villous, petioles 1–5 mm long. Flowers in sessile spikes, bract and bracteoles shiny white, 0.7-1.5 mm long, glabrous; sepals equal, 2.5–3 mm long, outer ones 1-nerved or indistinctly 3-nerved toward base; stamens 5, 2 sterile. In the wild it flowers from December till March.


Aerva lanata is often mistaken for Alternanthera sessilis, which is also of the Amarantheceae family, and looks similar. On careful observation you will notice that flowers of Alternanthera sessilis are situated over the stem and their shape is round. As its flowers look like the eyes of a fish, Alternanthera sessilis is called Matsyakshi, fisheyed. Other Indian names of this plant are Koypa (Marathi), Honganne (Kannada), Ponnaganti koora (Telugu), Ponnanganni Keerai (பொன்னாங்கண்ணி கீரை)(Tamil). The plant is known as "Mukunuwenna" in Sri Lanka. The plants are shredded finely and stir fried with grated coconut and spices to make what is known as "Mukunuwenna mellum".


The leaves are used as a vegetable.[2] Young shoots and leaves are eaten as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. Occasionally it is cultivated for food or for use in herbal medicines.

This species is classified as a weed in parts of the southern States of the USA. It is usually (but not always especially in areas of high humidity where it can even be a garden weed) found in wet or damp spots.

Leaves along with the flowers and tender stems are used as vegetable in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu. It is diuretic, tonic and cooling. Juice of this plant, deemed beneficial to eyes, is an ingredient in the making of medicinal hair oils and Kajal (kohl). The red variety of this plant is a common garden hedging plant, which is also used as a culinary vegetable.

This plant is available in the aquarium trade though it will not grow submersed for anything but short periods. However it can be useful in the tropical pond or terrarium though needs restriction as it can grow and propagate quickly under good conditions.



  1. ^ Lansdown, R.V. & Smith, K. (2014). "Alternanthera sessilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.

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