Alternative civilian service
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|Conscription by country|
Alternative civilian service, also called alternative services, civilian service, non-military service, and substitute service, is a form of national service performed in lieu of military conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons. See "labour battalion" for examples of the latter case. Alternative service usually involves some kind of labor.
Alternative civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for conscripted persons who are conscientious objectors and object to military service.
Civilian service is usually performed in the service of non-profit governmental bodies or other institutions. For example, in Austria, men drafted for alternative civilian service mainly serve in healthcare facilities and retirement homes, while other countries have a wider variety of possible placements.
Alternative service is often rejected by antimilitarist conscientious objectors, who still regard it as part of the military system. Many argue that it is not inconveniencing the military in any way, and in fact paints them in a good light. Moreover, in the past non-military service has often freed up people for work in the military, or enabled people to return to the military e.g. nursing. Those conscientious objectors who also reject alternative service are known as absolutists or total objectors.
History and human rights
The Twenty Classes was a program used by the Turkish government during World War II to conscript the male non-Turkish minority population mainly consisting of Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The prevailing and widespread point of view on the matter was that, anticipating entry to World War II, Turkey gathered in advance all unreliable non-Turkish men regarded as a potential "fifth column".
Countries and regions with mandatory alternative service programmes
- Austria: Civilian Alternative Service since 1975
- Finland: Siviilipalvelus established in 1931
- Iran: Amrieh
- Israel: Sherut Leumi
- Lithuania Alternatyvioji krašto apsaugos tarnyba
- Russia: Alternative Civilian Service (Russian: альтернативная гражданская служба) since 2004
- South Korea: Social Service Agent (Korean: 사회복무요원)
- Switzerland: Swiss Civilian Service since 1992
Voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- Austrian Service Abroad instead of Zivildienst in Austria
- European Voluntary Service instead of mandatory civilian service Austria
- Voluntary ecological year as a substitute to alternative civilian service in Austria
- Voluntary social year instead of the mandatory Zivildienst in Austria
- Servizio Civile Universale instead of Servizio Civile Nazionale in Italy (2005-present day)
- Unarmed service (vapenfri tjänst) as an alternative to the otherwise mandatory Värnplikt in Sweden
Countries that abolished mandatory alternative services
- Germany: Zivildienst, 1961 – 2011
- Italy: Servizio civile, 1972 – 2005
- Norway: Siviltjenesten, abolished in 2012
- Russian Empire: Forestry service (Russia)
- Spain Prestación Social Sustitutoría, 1985 – 2001
- United States: Alternative Service Program, Civilian Public Service; Selective Service System
Earlier voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services
- American Friends Service Committee established in the United States during World War I
- International Voluntary Service in the United Kingdom starting in 1939 and during World War II. Later abolished as the UK abolished military service.
- Corvée, ancient form of forced non-military labor by government, similar to alternative civilian service
- Service Civil International