Ammi visnaga

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Ammi visnaga
Ammi Visnaga (289632722).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ammi
Species: A. visnaga
Binomial name
Ammi visnaga

Visnaga daucoides

Ammi visnaga is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by many common names, including toothpick-plant,[1] toothpickweed,[2] bisnaga, khella, or sometimes Bishop's weed. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species. This is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters. Leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and generally oval to triangular in shape but dissected into many small linear to lance-shaped segments. The inflorescence is a compound umbel of white flowers similar to those of other Apiaceae species. The fruit is a compressed oval-shaped body less than 3 millimeters long. This and other Ammi species are sources of khellin, a diuretic extract.

Like its close relative Ammi majus, A. visnaga is commonly seen in gardens where it is grown from seed annually.[3]

Traditional medicine[edit]

In Egypt, a tea made from the fruit of this species has been used as an herbal remedy for kidney stones.[4]

Preparations of Ammi visnaga fruits have also been used for angina pectoris therapy.[5]

Laboratory research[edit]

Laboratory rat studies show that the extract slows the buildup of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and acts as a diuretic.[6][7] Its clinical effects in humans are unknown.

Chemical constituents[edit]

Khellin, a chemical compound obtained from A. visnaga, was used at one time as a smooth muscle relaxant, but its use is limited due to adverse side effects.[8] Amiodarone and cromoglycate are synthetic derivatives of khellin with fewer side effects which were developed for use in modern medicine.[medical citation needed]

Visnagin is another chemical compound which is found in A. visnaga.[9]

Visnadine is a natural vasodilator found in A. visnaga


  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  2. ^ "Ammi visnaga". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Growing Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus from seed". Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. ^ Azim Khan, Muhammad (2014). "Phytochemistry and Medicinal Properties of Ammi Visnaga". Pak. J. Bot. 46 (3): 861–867.
  5. ^ Waltenberger B, Mocan A, Šmejkal K, Heiss EH, Atanasov AG. Natural Products to Counteract the Epidemic of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders. Molecules. 2016 Jun 22;21(6). doi: 10.3390/molecules21060807 E807.
  6. ^ Vanachayangkul, P., et al. (2010). An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells. Phytomedicine 17(8), 653-58.
  7. ^ Khan, Z. A., et al. (2001). Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammi visnaga (AI-Khillah). International Urology and Nephrology 33:4 605-8.
  8. ^ Ziment, I. (1998). How your patients may be using herbalism to treat their asthma - Herbal products are becoming increasingly popular for treating a variety of medical complaints - including asthma. What are these. Journal of Respiratory Diseases 19(12), 1070-83.
  9. ^ Lee, J. K., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of visnagin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research 33(11) 1843–50. PMID 21116788.

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