Lysimachia monelli

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Blue pimpernel
Anagallis monelii Skylover.JPG
Blue pimpernel (Anagallis monelli), the Skylover cultivar)
Lysimachia monelli (habitus).jpg
Orange colour form of the Blue Pimpernel near el Perelló (Catalonia), Spain
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae
Genus: Lysimachia
Species: L. monelli
Binomial name
Lysimachia monelli
(L.) U. Manns & Anderb.

Lysimachia monelli (commonly known as the garden pimpernel[1] or blue pimpernel and formerly known as Anagallis monelli) is a species of flowering plant in the family Primulaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. It is not to be confused with Lysimachia foemina, which has very similar blue flowers, but broader leaves and can be found also in colder climates. In a comparison of DNA sequences, L. monelli was shown to be most closely related to L. foemina.[2] The latter had been thought by many to be closest to L. arvensis, and some authors had even included L. foemina as a subspecies of L. arvensis.[citation needed] The three species were among several transferred from Anagallis to Lysimachia in a 2009 paper.[3]

Lysimachia monelli is a low-growing perennial with trailing stems. Wild specimens have blue or orange coloured flowers and are not sympatric with the blue-flowered plants growing natively in southern Spain and the orange in Morocco and southern Italy. A red variant was also developed by breeding at the University of New Hampshire. The orange-coloured flowers have a higher concentration of pelargonidin pigment, while blue flowers have a higher concentration of malvidin. The red-coloured flowers are due to the relative concentrations of delphinidin and malvidin pigments. In addition to the blue, orange and red forms, a white form of the flower also exists.[4][5]

In cultivation in temperate regions this plant is often grown as an annual. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  2. ^ Manns, Ulrika; Anderberg, AA (Dec 2007). "Relationships of Anagallis foemina and Anagallis arvensis (Primulaceae): New insights inferred from DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. PubMed. 45 (3): 971–980. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.022. PMID 17869544. 
  3. ^ Manns, Ulrika; Anderberg, Arne A. (July 2009). "New combinations and names in Lysimachia (Primulaceae) for species of Anagallis, Pelletiera and Trientalis". Willdenowia. 39 (1): 49–54. doi:10.3372/wi.39.39103. JSTOR 20699148. 
  4. ^ Quintana, Andrea; Freyre, Rosanna; Davis, Thomas M.; Griesbach, Robert J. (2008). "Genetic Studies of Flower Color in Anagallis monelli L." (PDF). HortScience. 43 (6): 1680–1685. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  5. ^ Quintana, Andrea; Albrechtova, Jana; Davis, Tom; Griesbach, Robert J.; Freyre, Rosanna (July 2005). "Genetics, anatomy and biochemistry of flower color in Anagallis monelli (L.) 'Pimpernel'". HortScience. 40 (4): 1002–1003. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Anagallis monelli". Retrieved 11 June 2013.