Anchorite

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For other uses of "Anchorite" and "Anchoress", see Anchorite (disambiguation).
Anchorite's cell in Skipton.
Christina Carpenter was walled in to a cell in Shere, Surrey.[1]
St Anthony the Great, father of Christian Monasticism and early anchorite.
"The Anchorite" by Teodor Axentowicz.

An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from Ancient Greek: ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world",[2][3] from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire"[4]) is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, and—circumstances permitting—Eucharist-focused life. Whilst anchorites are frequently considered to be a type of religious hermit,[5] unlike hermits they were required to take a vow of stability of place, opting instead for permanent enclosure in cells often attached to churches. Also unlike hermits, anchorites were subject to a religious rite of consecration that closely resembled the funeral rite, following which—theoretically, at least—they would be considered dead to the world, a type of living saint. Anchorites had a certain autonomy, as they did not answer to any ecclesiastical authority other than the bishop.[6]

The anchoritic life is one of the earliest forms of Christian monastic living. In the Roman Catholic Church today, it is one of the "Other Forms of Consecrated Life" and governed by the same norms as the consecrated eremitic life.[7] From the 12th to the 16th centuries, female anchorites consistently outnumbered their male equivalents, sometimes by as many as four to one (in the 13th century), dropping eventually to two to one (in the 15th century). The gender of a high number of anchorites, however, is not recorded for these periods.[8]

Anchoritic life[edit]

The anchoritic life became widespread during the early and high Middle Ages.[9] Examples of the dwellings of anchorites and anchoresses survive. A large number of these are in England. They tended to be a simple cell (also called anchorhold), built against one of the walls of the local village church.[10] In the Germanic lands, from at least the 10th century, it was customary for the bishop to say the office of the dead as the anchorite entered his cell, to signify the anchorite's death to the world and rebirth to a spiritual life of solitary communion with God and the angels. Sometimes, if the anchorite were walled up inside the cell, the bishop would put his seal upon the wall to stamp it with his authority. Some anchorites, however, freely moved between their cell and the adjoining church.[11]

Most anchoritic strongholds were small, perhaps no more than 12 to 15 ft (3.7 to 4.6 m) square, with three windows. Viewing the altar, hearing Mass, and receiving Holy Communion was possible through one small, shuttered window in the common wall facing the sanctuary, called a "hagioscope" or "squint". Anchorites would also provide spiritual advice and counsel to visitors through this window, as the anchorites gained a reputation for wisdom.[12] Another small window would allow access to those who saw to the anchorite's physical needs, such as food and other necessities. A third window, often facing the street, but covered with translucent cloth, would allow light into the cell.[6]

Anchorites were supposed to remain in their cell in all eventualities. Some were even burned in their cells, which they refused to leave even when pirates or other attackers were looting and burning their towns.[13] They ate frugal meals, spending their days both in contemplative prayer and interceding on behalf of others. Anchorites' bodily waste was managed by means of a chamber pot.[14]

In addition to being the crucial physical location wherein the anchorite could embark on the journey towards union with God and the culmination of spiritual perfection, the anchorhold also provided a spiritual and geographic focus for many of those people from the wider society who came to ask for advice and spiritual guidance. It is clear that, although set apart from the community at large by stone walls and specific spiritual precepts, the anchorite also lay at the very centre of that same community. The anchorhold was clearly also a communal 'womb' from which would emerge an idealized sense of a community's own reborn potential, both as Christians and as human subjects.[8]

An idea of their daily routine can be gleaned from an anchoritic Rule. The most widely known today is the early 13th century text known as Ancrene Wisse.[15] Another, less widely known, example is the rule known as De Institutione Inclusarum written in the 12th century, around 1160–62, by Aelred of Rievaulx for his sister.[16] It is estimated that the daily set devotions detailed in Ancrene Wisse would take some four hours, on top of which anchoresses would listen to services in the church, and engage in their own private prayers and devotional reading.[17]

Famous anchorites[edit]

The earliest recorded anchorites lived in the 3rd century CE. For example, St. Hilarion (Gaza, 291 – Cyprus, 371) was known as the founder of anchoritic life in Palestine.[18]

The anchoritic life proved especially popular in England. Well-known anchorites include:[citation needed]

The evidence supports the existence of a total of around 780 anchorites on 600 sites in England between 1100 and 1539, when Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries and brought anchoritism in England to an end. Women were more numerous among the anchorites than men, especially in the 13th century.[25]

Good examples of English anchorholds can still be seen at Chester-le-Street in Durham, and at Hartlip in Kent.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wyndham Thomas (2012). Robert Saxton: Caritas. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 16–20. ISBN 978-0-7546-6601-1. 
  2. ^ Harper, Douglas. "anchorite". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  3. ^ ἀναχωρητής. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  4. ^ ἀναχωρέω in Liddell and Scott
  5. ^ BBB Radio 4: Making History – Anchorites
  6. ^ a b LePan, Don (2011). The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. Broadview Press. p. 348. 
  7. ^ The Code of Canon Law 1983, canon 603
  8. ^ a b Herbert McAvoy, Liz (2005). Anchorites, Wombs And Tombs : Intersections Of Gender And Enclosure In The Middle Ages. University of Wales. p. 13. 
  9. ^ McAvoy, L. H. (Ed.), Anchoritic Traditions of Medieval Europe (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2010), p. 96.
  10. ^ Tom Licence, Hermits and Recluses in English Society 950-1200, (Oxford, 2011), pp. 87-9
  11. ^ Licence, Hermits and Recluses, pp. 123, 120.
  12. ^ Licence, Hermits and Recluses, pp. 158-72
  13. ^ Licence, Hermits and Recluses, pp. 77-9.
  14. ^ The Anchoress (2008-06-02). On-line Q&As. Retrieved in 2008-10 from http://theanchoressonline.com/2008/06/02/questions-comments-from-the-email/.
  15. ^ Ancrene Wisse
  16. ^ Translated by Mary Paul MacPherson in Treatises and the Pastoral Prayer, Cistercian Fathers Series 2, (Kalamazoo, 1971). In English the work is variously titled The Eremitical Life, The Rule of Life for a Recluse and The Training of Anchoresses.
  17. ^ Ancrene Wisse, trans Hugh White, (Penguin, 1993), p.viii
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Jerome, Vita Sancti Hilarionis in P. L., III, 29-54.
  19. ^ Ancrene Wisse, trans Hugh White, (Penguin, 1993), p.xiii
  20. ^ Petition to Become an Anchoress University of Saint Thomas–Saint Paul, MN , http://courseweb.stthomas.edu, 2003, 2012-04-22
  21. ^ History of Shere, sheredelight.com, 2011, 2012-04-22
  22. ^ Jonathan Hughes, ‘Kirkby, Margaret (d. 1391x4)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Retrieved on 2011-05-06 from http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/57764.
  23. ^ Ancrene Wisse, trans Hugh White, (Penguin, 1993), p.xiii
  24. ^ Revelations of Divine Love
  25. ^ Ancrene Wisse, trans Hugh White, (Penguin, 1993)

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Historical development[edit]

Roman Catholic Church links[edit]