|Affected cell(s)||blood platelets|
|Also Affected||serum protein inhibitor|
|Systemic lupus erythematosus|
In mammals, there is normally occurring anti-thrombin activity (antithrombin III), which can be distinguished from autoimmune anti-thrombin. Anti-thrombin antibodies can react with both types of thrombin in the antithrombin-thrombin complex. Antibodies (IgG) against thrombin can strongly inhibit its activity. Inhibitory anti-thrombin antibodies can be divided into 2 groups, those that inhibit coagulation activity and those the inhibit coagulation and amidase activity. Autoimmune anti-thrombin was also found to inhibit the binding of antithrombin III to thrombin. Such activities are more often found with primary biliary cirrhosis. Multiple studies have shown, however, that despite autoimmune anti-thrombin thrombin inhibitory activity, these antibodies correlate with thrombotic events, so that they may also perturb the regulation of coagalatory factors.
Other than antibodies to thrombin, antibodies to vascular heparin sulfate appear to interfere with antithrombin-thrombin interaction.
- McDuffie FC, Peterson JM, Clark G, Mann KG (1981). "Antigenic changes produced by complex formation between thrombin and antithrombin-III". J. Immunol. 127 (1): 239–44. PMID 6787123.
- Scully MF, Ellis V, Kakkar VV, Savidge GF, Williams YF, Sterndale H (1982). "An acquired coagulation inhibitor to factor II". Br. J. Haematol. 50 (4): 655–64. PMID 7066212. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1982.tb01966.x.
- Dawes J, James K, Micklem LR, Pepper DS, Prowse CV (1984). "Monoclonal antibodies directed against human alpha-thrombin and the thrombin-antithrombin III complex". Thromb. Res. 36 (5): 397–409. PMID 6523447. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(84)90296-2.
- Barthels M, Heimburger N (1985). "Acquired thrombin inhibitor in a patient with liver cirrhosis". Haemostasis. 15 (6): 395–401. PMID 4076847. doi:10.1159/000215179.
- Shojania AM, Meilleur G, Alvi AW (1987). "An autoantibody with potent antithrombin activity whose action could be inhibited by toluidine blue or methylene blue". Am. J. Hematol. 24 (2): 207–14. PMID 3812468. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830240212.
- Shibata S, Sasaki T, Harpel P, Fillit H (1994). "Autoantibodies to vascular heparan sulfate proteoglycan in systemic lupus erythematosus react with endothelial cells and inhibit the formation of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes". Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 70 (2): 114–23. PMID 8299226. doi:10.1006/clin.1994.1018.