Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

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Autoantibody
Anti-Topoisomerase
Autoantigen
Isoform
Topoisomerase I (human)
Autoantigen gene TOP1
Affected organ(s) Dermis
Associated
Disease(s)
Scleroderma,

Systemic sclerosis

Autoantibody
Ig Class
IgG, IgA
DR2
HLA associations DR15
DR16
Other
Susceptibility
genes
lymphoid protein

tyrosine phos-
phatase type 22 PTPN22


Anti-topoisomerase antibodies (ATA) are autoantibodies directed against topoisomerase and found in several diseases, most importantly scleroderma. Diseases with ATA are autoimmune disease because they react with self-proteins. They are also referred to as anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I).

Epitopes and subtypes[edit]

Anti Scl-70 antibodies (also called anti-topoisomerase I after the type I topoisomerase target[1]) is a type of anti-nuclear autoantibody seen mainly in diffuse systemic scleroderma, but is also seen the more limited form of systemic scleroderma called CREST syndrome.[2] Anti Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease.[3]

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies can be classified according to their immunoglobulin class (IgM, IgG or IgA). IgG-ATA is found most frequently in scleroderma, with IgA being quite common but IgM very infrequent.[4]

Pathology[edit]

Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that relaxes the strain on DNA by nicking and ligating the DNA. ATA inhibits the activity of this enzyme.[5] Since this activity occurs in the nucleus of the cell ATA is a form of anti-nuclear antibody. Scleroderma results from the overproduction of collagen in affected tissues, one study claims that there is an increased density of Topoisomerase I sites in the collagen genes, and that the antibodies may be altering transcription at these loci.[6] ATA correlates with rapid progression of disease.[7]

In systemic lupus erythematosus ATA are associated with nephritis.[8]

Increases in ATA+ in scleroderma and SLE are associated with increases in serum CTLA4.[9][10]

Genetics[edit]

HLA-DR2 (DR15 and DR16) are associated with Scleroderma and systemic sclerosis. It has been found that patients with ATA that recognize the ET4 domain of topoisomerase were frequently HLA-DR2,[11] and in another population study it was found that DR-15 is associated with ATA in systemic sclerosis.[12] In addition to HLA-DR, the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid) (1p13.2 - PTPN22), "CT/TT" genotype showed significant association with anti-topo I.[13] The TAP1gene(6p21.3, HLA complex) has also been found in association with ATA+ sclerosis.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guldner HH, Szostecki C, Vosberg HP, Lakomek HJ, Penner E, Bautz FA (1986). "Scl 70 autoantibodies from scleroderma patients recognize a 95 kDa protein identified as DNA topoisomerase I". Chromosoma 94 (2): 132–8. doi:10.1007/BF00286991. PMID 2428564. 
  2. ^ Table 5-9 in: Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2973-7.  8th edition.
  3. ^ de Rooij DJ, Van de Putte LB, Habets WJ, Van Venrooij WJ (1989). "Marker antibodies in scleroderma and polymyositis: clinical associations". Clin. Rheumatol. 8 (2): 231–7. doi:10.1007/BF02030079. PMID 2547546. 
  4. ^ Hildebrandt S, Weiner E, Senécal JL et al. (1990). "The IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes of anti-topoisomerase I and anticentromere autoantibodies". Arthritis Rheum. 33 (5): 724–7. doi:10.1002/art.1780330515. PMID 2161233. 
  5. ^ Samuels DS, Tojo T, Homma M, Shimizu N (1986). "Inhibition of topoisomerase I by antibodies in sera from scleroderma patients". FEBS Lett. 209 (2): 231–4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(86)81117-6. PMID 2431927. 
  6. ^ Douvas A (1988). "Does Sc1-70 modulate collagen production in systemic sclerosis?". Lancet 2 (8609): 475–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(88)90122-5. PMID 2900403. 
  7. ^ Perera A, Fertig N, Lucas M et al. (2007). "Clinical subsets, skin thickness progression rate, and serum antibody levels in systemic sclerosis patients with anti-topoisomerase I antibody". Arthritis Rheum. 56 (8): 2740–6. doi:10.1002/art.22747. PMID 17665460. 
  8. ^ Hamidou MA, Audrain MA, Masseau A, Agard C, Moreau A (2006). "Anti-topoisomerase I antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus as a marker of severe nephritis". Clin. Rheumatol. 25 (4): 542–3. doi:10.1007/s10067-005-0061-9. PMID 16525896. 
  9. ^ Sato S, Fujimoto M, Hasegawa M et al. (2004). "Serum soluble CTLA-4 levels are increased in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 43 (10): 1261–6. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh303. PMID 15266059. 
  10. ^ Takeuchi F, Kawasugi K, Nabeta H, Mori M, Tanimoto K (2002). "Association of CTLA-4 with systemic sclerosis in Japanese patients". Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 20 (6): 823–8. PMID 12508774. 
  11. ^ Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Mimori T, Tojo T, Homma M (1993). "Autoantigenic epitopes on DNA topoisomerase I. Clinical and immunogenetic associations in systemic sclerosis". Arthritis Rheum. 36 (10): 1406–13. doi:10.1002/art.1780361013. PMID 7692859. 
  12. ^ Joung CI, Jun JB, Chung WT et al. (2006). "Association between the HLA-DRB1 gene and clinical features of systemic sclerosis in Korea". Scand. J. Rheumatol. 35 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1080/03009740510026751. PMID 16467040. 
  13. ^ Gourh P, Tan FK, Assassi S et al. (2006). "Association of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 8 R620W polymorphism with anti-topoisomerase I- and anticentromere antibody-positive systemic sclerosis". Arthritis Rheum. 54 (12): 3945–53. doi:10.1002/art.22196. PMID 17133608. 
  14. ^ Song YW, Lee EB, Whang DH, Kang SJ, Takeuchi F, Park MH (2005). "Association of TAP1 and TAP2 gene polymorphisms with systemic sclerosis in Korean patients". Hum. Immunol. 66 (7): 810–7. doi:10.1016/j.humimm.2005.03.006. PMID 16112028.