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Temporal range: Early-Late Pleistocene (Uquian-Lujanian)
~2.588–0.012 Ma
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Capreolinae
Tribe: Rangiferini
Genus: Antifer
Ameghino 1889
  • A. crassus Rusconi 1954
  • A. niemeyeri

Antifer is an extinct genus of large herbivorous deer of the family Cervidae, endemic to South America during the Pleistocene, living from 2.6 Ma to 13,000 years ago and existing for approximately 2.589 million years.[1] Cervids first entered the formerly isolated continent of South America during the Pliocene as part of the Great American Biotic Interchange.

It would have been preyed upon by the dire wolf, the fox-like Theriodictis, saber-toothed cats, short-faced bears and various other predators, including humans.


Antifer was named by Ameghino (1889) based on Captain Antifer in a Jules Verne novel describing his voyage of discovery in the Southern Hemisphere. It was assigned to Cervidae by Carroll (1988).[2]

Fossil distribution[edit]

The fossil remains are confined to southern Brazil, the Sopas Formation of Uruguay, central Chile and Argentina.[1] It is known mostly from large, non-palmated shed antlers.


  1. ^ a b Antifer at
  2. ^ R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Company