|Sound change and alternation|
Apocope comes from the Greek ἀποκοπή apokopḗ from ἀποκόπτειν apokóptein "cutting off", from ἀπο- apo- "away from" and κόπτειν kóptein "to cut".
Historical sound change
In historical linguistics, apocope is often the loss of an unstressed vowel.
- Vulgar Latin pan[em] → Spanish pan (bread)
- Vulgar Latin lup[um] → French lou[p] (wolf)
Loss of other sounds
- Non-rhotic English accents, including British Received Pronunciation, suppress the final "r" in each syllable (except when it is followed, in the same word, by a vowel). (In some accents, the suppressed "r" lengthens or modifies the preceding vowel.)
- French pronunciation suppresses the final consonant of each word (though it moves to the following word in the sentence, if that word begins with a vowel).
- Latin illu[d] → Spanish ello
In Estonian and the Sami languages, apocopes explain the forms of grammatical cases. For example, a nominative is described as having apocope of the final vowel, but the genitive does not. Throughout its history, however, the genitive case marker has also undergone apocope: Estonian linn (a city) and linna (of a city) are derived from linna and linnan respectively, as can still be seen in the corresponding Finnish word. In the genitive form, the final /n/, while it was being deleted, blocked the loss of /a/. In colloquial Finnish, the final vowel is sometimes omitted from case markers.
Some languages have apocopations that are internalized as mandatory forms. In Spanish and Italian, for example, some adjectives that come before the noun lose the final vowel or syllable if they precede a noun (mainly) in the masculine singular form. In Spanish, some adverbs and cardinal and ordinal numbers have apocopations as well.
- Grande (big/great) → gran → gran mujer (feminine) (great woman. However, if the adjective follows the noun, the final syllable remains, but the meaning may also change: mujer grande, meaning large woman)
- Bueno (good) → buen → buen hombre (masculine) (good man; the final vowel remains in hombre bueno, with no accompanying change in meaning)
- Tanto (so much) → tan (so) → tan hermoso (so beautiful)
- Cardinal numbers
- Uno (one/a/an) → un → un niño (a child)
- Ciento (hundred) → cien → Cien años de soledad (One hundred years of solitude)
- Ordinal numbers
- Primero (first) → primer → primer premio (first prize)
- Segundo (second) → según (according to) → según él (according to him)
- Tercero (third) → tercer → tercer lugar (third place)
- Postrero (final) → postrer → postrer día (final day)
Various numerous sorts of informal abbreviations might be classed as apocope:
- English photograph → photo
- English animation → Japanese アニメーション animēshon → アニメ anime
- English synchronization → sync, synch, syncro, or synchro
- English Alexander → Alex and so on with other hypocorisms
- French sympathique(s) → sympa meaning nice
- French réactionnaire → réac meaning reactionary
- Spanish fotografía → foto meaning photography
- Spanish televisión → tele meaning television (cf. French « télé » for « télévision »)
For a list of similar apocopations in the English language, see List of English apocopations.
Diminutives in Australian English lists many apocopations.
The process is also linguistically subsumed under one called clipping, or truncation.
- Acronym and initialism
- Apheresis (linguistics)
- Clipping (morphology)
- Contraction (grammar)
- Syncope (phonetics)
- Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.
|Look up apocope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|