An extensive list of archaic words for medieval crossbowmen is given by Payne-Gallwey. Richardson, in his 1839 dictionary, did not make specific reference to the crossbow in his definition of arbalist: "One who casts or shoots from a bow." Hansard (1841) used the word arbalister for a cross-bowman (sic), the same usage as Webster and Johnson who reserved the word arbalist for the crossbow itself. Smith uses arbalist to describe a maker of crossbows.
Equipment and competition
Modern arbalists shoot crossbows markedly different from medieval artillerymen. Current-day target crossbows must conform to various limitations according to the governing body under which the shoot or tournament is taking place. Firstly, GNAS requires that arbalists shoot at targets separate from archers. Both the World Crossbow Shooting Association (WCSA) and GNAS require that the draw weight maximum be 95 lbs and that the minimum bolt (arrow) length be 12 inches. These organizations differ, however, in allowable maximum bolt length, GNAS citing 15", WCSA 18". They also disagree as to whether metal prods can be used; GNAS says no, WCSA says yes (with restrictions). Both require that the bolts shall be fletched, GNAS imposing an additional constraint of the number of fletchings (three).
GNAS recognizes three grades of arbalist, Master Arbalist (scoring 780 or higher in three qualifying Crossbow Windsor Rounds) Arbalist 1st Class (scoring 630 or higher) and Arbalist 2nd Class (480). A Crossbow Windsor Round is shot on a 60 cm 10-zone face scoring 9,7,5,3,1; three ends at 40 yards, three at 50 yards and three at 60 yards.
Archery Australia recognizes five classifications: Grand Master Arbelist (GMA), Master Arbelist (MA), First Class Arbelist (A1), Second Class Arbelist (A2), and Third Class Arbelist (A3).
The World Crossbow Shooting Association (WCSA) makes available four sets of Star Achievement Awards (badges) to encourage both participation in tournaments and to provide recognition for reaching certain scores: TC 900 for outdoor target crossbow, SC 600 for outdoor sport crossbow, Indoor 40 for indoor 40 cm face for both target and sport crossbow, and Indoor 25 for indoor 25 cm face for both target and sport crossbow.
- The Grand National Archery Society Rules of Shooting, Section 104, 2002
- "Field Crossbow 2005 Art. 322 Shooting Position 322.1", IAU Competition Rules
- "Who uses crossbows?", World Crossbow Shooting Association, archived from the original on 2008-07-19
- "Constitution & Rules Chapter 15, Target Crossbow", Archery Australia, 2007
- "Crossbow Shooting Rules", Archery New Zealand Inc., 2003,
- Payne-Gallwey, Ralph (1995). The Book of the Crossbow. Courier Dover Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-486-28720-1.
- Richardson, Charles (1839). A new dictionary of the English language. Pickering.
- Hansard, George Agar (1841). The Book of Archery: Being the Complete History and Practice of the Art, Ancient and Modern... London: H.G. Bohn. p. 192.
- Noah Webster, ed. (1828). American Dictionary of the English Language. Archived from the original on 2008-09-03.
- Johnson, Samuel; Walker, John; Jameson, Robert S. (1828). A Dictionary of the English Language. W. Pickering.
- Smith, W.H. (2006). Crossbow Hunting. Stackpole Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8117-3311-3.
- The Grand National Archery Society Rules of Shooting, Part 2 Bowstyles: Rule 210. 2002.
- Target Crossbow Shooting Rules, Rule 33: Target Crossbow equipment. World Crossbow Shooting Association. 2007 .
- "Shooting Administrative Procedure 7: Classification Schemes - 9 Crossbow Shooting", The Grand National Archery Society, p. SAP 7-4, 2002
- "WCSA ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS". worldcrossbow.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21.
- "Grand National Archery Society". Archived from the original on 2008-09-01.
- "Grand National Archery Society".
- "World Crossbow Shooting Association".
- "International Crossbow Shooting Union". Archived from the original on 2008-05-29.
- "The National Crossbowmen of the USA".
- "Crossbowman in Stronghold Crusader". Archived from the original on 2012-10-25.