Arisaema

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Arisaema
Arisaema triphyllum.jpg
Arisaema triphyllum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe: Arisaemateae
Genus: Arisaema
Mart.
Arisaema distribution.svg
Range of the genus Arisaema.
Synonyms[1]
  • Alocasia Neck. ex Raf.
  • Dochafa Schott
  • Muricauda Small
  • Flagellarisaema Nakai
  • Heteroarisaema Nakai
  • Pleuriarum Nakai
  • Ringentiarum Nakai

Arisaema is a large and diverse genus of the flowering plant family Araceae. The largest concentration of species is in China and Japan, with other species native other parts of southern Asia as well as eastern and central Africa, Mexico and eastern North America.[1] Asiatic species are often called cobra lilies, while western species are often called jack-in-the-pulpit; both names refer to the distinctive appearance of the flower, which consists of an erect central spadix rising from a spathe.[2][3][4]

Classification and relationships[edit]

The closest relatives of Arisaema appear to be Pinellia and Typhonium (although the latter as defined in 2004 seems to be paraphyletic, having given rise to Arisaema and other genera).[5] One unusual trait shared by all Arisaema species, and not those of other genera, is the sex change. Arisaema plants are typically male when small, and female or hermaphraditic when large, with a single plant capable of changing sex based on nutrition[5] and genetics,[6] and perhaps changing sex several times during its long life (20 years or more).[5]

Species[edit]

  1. Arisaema abei Seriz - Shikoku Island in Japan
  2. Arisaema aequinoctiale Nakai & F.Maek - Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku Islands in Japan
  3. Arisaema agasthyanum Sivad. & C.S.Kumar - southwestern India
  4. Arisaema album N.E.Br. - Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in eastern India
  5. Arisaema amurense Maxim. - Russian Far East, China, North Korea
  6. Arisaema anomalum Hemsl. - Peninsular Malaysia
  7. Arisaema aprile J.Murata - Izu Peninsula on Honshu Island in Japan
  8. Arisaema aridum H.Li - Yunnan
  9. Arisaema asperatum N.E.Br - China, eastern Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  10. Arisaema auriculatum Buchet - Sichuan, Hunan, and Yunnan Provinces in China
  11. Arisaema austroyunnanense H.Li - Yunnan, Vietnam
  12. Arisaema averyanovii V.D.Nguyen & P.C.Boyce - Vietnam
  13. Arisaema balansae Engl. - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, southern China
  14. Arisaema bannaense H.Li - Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar, Yunnan
  15. Arisaema barbatum Buchet - Yunnan, Thailand, Java, Bali
  16. Arisaema barnesii C.E.C.Fisch - India, Sri Lanka
  17. Arisaema bockii Engl. - China
  18. Arisaema bonatianum Engl. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  19. Arisaema bottae Schott - Yemen
  20. Arisaema brucei H.Li, R.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  21. Arisaema calcareum H.Li - Yunnan
  22. Arisaema candidissimum W.W.Sm. - Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  23. Arisaema caudatum Engl. - western India
  24. Arisaema chuanxiense Z.Y.Zhu, B.Q.Min & S.J.Zhu - Sichuan
  25. Arisaema chumponense Gagnep. - Thailand
  26. Arisaema ciliatum H.Li - Sichuan, Yunnan
  27. Arisaema clavatum Buchet - Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan
  28. Arisaema concinnum Schott - Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, eastern + northern India
  29. Arisaema condaoense V.D.Nguyen - Condao Island in Vietnam
  30. Arisaema consanguineum Schott - southern China, Himalayas, Indochina
  31. Arisaema constrictum E.Barnes - Sri Lanka
  32. Arisaema cordatum N.E.Br. - Guangxi, Guangdong, Lantao
  33. Arisaema costatum (Wall.) Mart. - Tibet, Nepal
  34. Arisaema cucullatum M.Hotta - Honshu in Japan
  35. Arisaema dahaiense H.Li - Yunnan, Myanmar
  36. Arisaema decipiens Schott - southern China, eastern Himalayas, Vietnam
  37. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott - Green dragon - Nuevo León + Veracruz in Mexico; much of eastern United States and eastern Canada
  38. Arisaema echinatum (Wall.) Schott - Tibet, Nepal, Yunnan, eastern Himalayas
  39. Arisaema echinoides H.Li - Yunnan
  40. Arisaema ehimense J.Murata & J.Ohno - Shikoku in Japan
  41. Arisaema elephas Buchet - Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet, Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  42. Arisaema enneaphyllum Hochst. ex A.Rich. - Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Yemen
  43. Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott - Nepal
  44. Arisaema exappendiculatum H.Hara - Nepal, Tibet
  45. Arisaema fargesii Buchet - Tibet, Chongqing, Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  46. Arisaema filiforme (Reinw.) Blume - Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Sumatra
  47. Arisaema fimbriatum Masters - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Lankawi
  48. Arisaema flavum (Forsk.) Schott - Ethiopia, Somalia, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Assam, Himalayas, Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan
  49. Arisaema formosanum (Hayata) Hayata - Taiwan
  50. Arisaema franchetianum Engl. - Tibet, Myanmar, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  51. Arisaema fraternum Schott - Assam
  52. Arisaema galeatum N.E.Br. - Tibet, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  53. Arisaema garrettii Gagnep. - Thailand
  54. Arisaema ghaticum (Sardesai, S.P.Gaikwad & S.R.Yadav) Punekar & Kumaran - Maharashtra
  55. Arisaema grapsospadix Hayata - Fujian, Taiwan
  56. Arisaema griffithii Schott - Nepal, Darjiling, Tibet
  57. Arisaema hainanense C.Y.Wu ex H.Li, Y.Shiao & S.L.Tseng - Hainan
  58. Arisaema handelii Stapf ex Hand.-Mazz. - Tibet, Myanmar, Yunnan
  59. Arisaema heterocephalum Koidz. - Ryukyu Islands
  60. Arisaema heterophyllum - Korea, Japan, widespread across much of China
  61. Arisaema hunanense Hand.-Mazz. - Chongqing, Guangdong, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan
  62. Arisaema ilanense J.C.Wang - Taiwan
  63. Arisaema inclusum (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. ex B.D.Jacks. - Java, Sumatra, Flores
  64. Arisaema intermedium Blume - Tibet, Yunnan, Nepal, eastern Himalayas
  65. Arisaema ishizuchiense Murata - Honshu, Shikoku
  66. Arisaema iyoanum Makino - Honshu, Shikoku
  67. Arisaema jacquemontii Blume - Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Himalayas of northern + eastern India
  68. Arisaema jethompsonii Thiyagaraj & P.Daniel - Tamil Nadu
  69. Arisaema jingdongense H.Peng & H.Li - Yunnan
  70. Arisaema kawashimae Seriz - Ryukyu Islands
  71. Arisaema kerrii Craib - Thailand
  72. Arisaema kishidae Makino ex Nakai - Honshu
  73. Arisaema kiushianum Makino - Honshu, Kyushu
  74. Arisaema kuratae Seriz - Honshu
  75. Arisaema lackneri Engl. - Yunnan, Myanmar
  76. Arisaema laminatum Blume - Borneo, Java, Bali, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Palawan
  77. Arisaema leschenaultii Blume - southern India, Sri Lanka
  78. Arisaema lichiangense W.W.Sm. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  79. Arisaema lidaense J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Yunnan
  80. Arisaema lihenganum J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Guangxi
  81. Arisaema limbatum Nakai & F.Maek. - Japan
  82. Arisaema linearifolium Gusman & J.T.Yin - Yunnan
  83. Arisaema lingyunense H.Li - Guangxi, Assam, Myanmar
  84. Arisaema lobatum Engl. - China
  85. Arisaema longipedunculatum M.Hotta - Japan
  86. Arisaema longitubum Z.X.Ma. -China
  87. Arisaema macrospathum Benth. - Mexico (from Oaxaca north to Sinaloa + Nuevo León)
  88. Arisaema maekawae J.Murata & S.Kakish. - Honshu
  89. Arisaema mairei H.Lév. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  90. Arisaema maximowiczii (Engl.) Nakai - Kyushu
  91. Arisaema maxwellii Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  92. Arisaema meleagris Buchet - Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan
  93. Arisaema menglaense Y.H.Ji, H.Li & Z.F.Xu - Guangxi
  94. Arisaema microspadix Engl. - Java, Timor
  95. Arisaema mildbraedii Engl. - Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
  96. Arisaema minamitanii Seriz - Kyushu
  97. Arisaema minus (Seriz.) J.Murata - Honshu
  98. Arisaema monophyllum Nakai - Honshu
  99. Arisaema mooneyanum M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Ethiopia
  100. Arisaema muratae Gusman & J.T.Yin - Yunnan
  101. Arisaema muricaudatum Sivad. - Kerala
  102. Arisaema murrayi (J.Graham) Hook. - Maharashtra
  103. Arisaema nagiense Tom.Kobay., K.Sasam. & J.Murata - Honshu
  104. Arisaema nambae Kitam. - Honshu
  105. Arisaema negishii Makino - Hachijo + Miyake Islands of Japan
  106. Arisaema nepenthoides (Wall.) Mart. - Nepal, Tibet, Yunnan, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar
  107. Arisaema nikoense Nakai - Honshu
  108. Arisaema nilamburense Sivad. - Kerala
  109. Arisaema odoratum J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Yunnan
  110. Arisaema ogatae Koidz. - Kyushu
  111. Arisaema omkoiense Gusman - Thailand
  112. Arisaema ornatum Miq. - Sumatra
  113. Arisaema ovale Nakai - Japan
  114. Arisaema pachystachyum Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  115. Arisaema pallidum Engl. - Sumatra
  116. Arisaema parisifolia J.Murata - Laos, Vietnam
  117. Arisaema parvum N.E.Br. ex Hemsl. - Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  118. Arisaema pattaniense Gagnep. - Thailand
  119. Arisaema penicillatum N.E.Br. - Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan
  120. Arisaema petelotii K.Krause - Yunnan, Vietnam
  121. Arisaema petiolulatum Hook.f. - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Myanmar, Yunnan
  122. Arisaema pianmaense H.Li - Yunnan
  123. Arisaema pingbianense H.Li - Yunnan, Vietnam
  124. Arisaema polyphyllum (Blanco) Merr. - Philippines, Sulawesi
  125. Arisaema prazeri Hook.f. - Yunnan, Thailand, Myanmar
  126. Arisaema propinquum Schott - Himalayas (Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, India)
  127. Arisaema psittacus E.Barnes - Kerala
  128. Arisaema quinatum (Nutt.) Schott - southeastern United States
  129. Arisaema quinquelobatum H.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  130. Arisaema ramulosum Alderw. - Java, Timor
  131. Arisaema ringens (Thunb.) Schott - Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Jiangsu, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  132. Arisaema rostratum V.D.Nguyen & P.C.Boyce - Vietnam
  133. Arisaema roxburghii Kunth - Assam, Indochina
  134. Arisaema rubrirhizomatum H.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  135. Arisaema ruwenzoricum N.E.Br. - Zaire, Uganda, Burundi
  136. Arisaema sachalinense (Miyabe & Kudô) J.Murata - Sakhalin in Russia, Hokkaido in Japan
  137. Arisaema saddlepeakense P.S.N.Rao & S.K.Srivast - Andaman Islands
  138. Arisaema sarracenioides E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch. - Kerala
  139. Arisaema saxatile Buchet - Sichuan, Yunnan
  140. Arisaema sazensoo (Blume) Makino - Kyushu
  141. Arisaema schimperianum Schott - Zaire, Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda
  142. Arisaema scortechinii Hook.f - Peninsular Malaysia
  143. Arisaema seppikoense Kitam. - Honshu
  144. Arisaema serratum (Thunb.) Schott - Primorye, Korea, Kuril Islands, Japan, northeastern China
  145. Arisaema setosum A.Sudh.Rao & D.M.Verma - Arunachal Pradesh
  146. Arisaema siamicum Gagnep. - Thailand, Vietnam
  147. Arisaema siangense Gusman - Arunachal Pradesh
  148. Arisaema sikokianum Franch. & Sav. - Shikoku
  149. Arisaema silvestrii Pamp. - China
  150. Arisaema sinii K.Krause - China
  151. Arisaema sizemoreae Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  152. Arisaema smitinandii S.Y.Hu - Thailand
  153. Arisaema somalense M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Somalia
  154. Arisaema souliei Buchet - Sichuan, Chongqing
  155. Arisaema speciosum (Wall.) Mart. - Cobra Lily - Tibet, Nepal, Assam, Bhutan
  156. Arisaema sukotaiense Gagnep. - Yunnan, Thailand
  157. Arisaema taiwanense J.Murata - Taiwan
  158. Arisaema tengtsungense H.Li - Yunnan, Myanmar
  159. Arisaema ternatipartitum Makino - Japan
  160. Arisaema thunbergii Blume - Japan, Korea, Taiwan
  161. Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott - Whipcord cobra lily - India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Himalayas, Nepal, Assam, Pakistan, Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar
  162. Arisaema tosaense Makino - Japan
  163. Arisaema translucens C.E.C.Fisch - Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu in India
  164. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher - Small Jack-in-the-pulpit - eastern Canada, eastern United States
  165. Arisaema tsangpoense J.T.Yin & Gusman - Tibet
  166. Arisaema tuberculatum C.E.C.Fisch. - Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu in India
  167. Arisaema ulugurense M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania
  168. Arisaema umbrinum Ridl. - Borneo
  169. Arisaema undulatifolium Nakai - Honshu + Shikoku in Japan
  170. Arisaema utile Hook.f. ex Schott - Tibet,Yunnan, Nepal, Bhutan, Himalayas of India + Pakistan
  171. Arisaema vexillatum H.Hara & H.Ohashi - Tibet, Nepal
  172. Arisaema victoriae V.D.Nguyen - Yunnan, Guangxi, Vietnam
  173. Arisaema wangmoense M.T.An, H.H.Zhang & Q.Lin - Guizhou
  174. Arisaema wardii C.Marquand & Airy Shaw - Qinghai, Shanxi, Yunnan, Tibet
  175. Arisaema wattii J. D. Hook. - Assam, Myanmar, Tibet, Yunnan
  176. Arisaema wilsonii Engl. - Tibet, Bhutan, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan
  177. Arisaema wrayi Hemsl. - Thailand, Sabah, Malaysia
  178. Arisaema xuanweiense H.Li - Yunnan
  179. Arisaema yamatense (Nakai) Nakai - Yamatense Cobra Lily - Honshu
  180. Arisaema yanxianum Z.Y.Zhu & B.Q.Min - Sichuan
  181. Arisaema yunnanense Buchet - Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  182. Arisaema zhui H.Li - Yunnan

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Flora China Vol. 23 Page 43, 天南星属 tian nan xing shu, Arisaema Martius, Flora. 14: 459. 1831.
  4. ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 22, Arisaema Martius, Flora. 14: 459. 1831.
  5. ^ a b c Renner, S. S.; Zhang, L.-B.; Murata, J. (2004), "A chloroplast phylogeny of Arisaema (Araceae) illustrates Tertiary floristic links between Asia, North America, and East Africa", American Journal of Botany, 91 (6): 881, doi:10.3732/ajb.91.6.881, PMID 21653444 
  6. ^ Vitt, P.; Holsinger, K. E.; Jones, C. S. (2003), "Local differentiation and plasticity in size and sex expression in jack-in-the-pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum (Araceae)", American Journal of Botany, 90 (12): 1729, doi:10.3732/ajb.90.12.1729, PMID 21653349 

External links[edit]