The ethnic minority called Isinai (the same term for the local spoken dialect) were the original residents of this town. The name Aritao came from the Isinai phrase Ari Tau "which stands for "Our King" (ari=king & tau=our) which refers to the legendary Isinai Chieftain Mengal, a fierce and brave king who resisted Spanish conquest of the Isinai territories around Ajanas and Ynordenan (the areas comprising what is now most of Aritao).
A monument to the gallantry of the Japanese and Filipino soldiers during World War II, located at Barangay Kirang, municipality of Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya, about 50 kilometers from Bayombong. Built in 1978 by the Rakunsankai Society of Japan, it was recently rebuilt using a black glazed stone, and a memorial was engraved in the tablet in Japanese and English. Also offers a scenic view of reforested mountains and hills.
Aritao also has a lot of schools for primary (elementary education). And for the college level, the Colegio de Aritao is for vocational courses like caregiving. It is located at the Saint Teresita's Academy campus.