|Republic of the Philippines
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
|Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas (Tagalog)
Great Seal of the Philippines
Location of the Phillipines (green) in ASEAN (dark grey).
|Largest city||Quezon City
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups (2010)|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Benigno S. Aquino III|
|-||Vice President||Jejomar Binay|
|-||Senate President||Franklin Drilon|
|-||House Speaker||Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.|
|-||Chief Justice||Maria Lourdes Sereno|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Independence from Spainc and the United States d|
|-||Spanish conquest||27 April 1565|
|-||British occupation||30 October 1762|
|-||Independence from Spain declared||12 June 1898|
|-||United States acquisition||10 December 1898|
|-||Self-government||24 March 1934|
|-||Japanese occupation||8 December 1942|
|-||Independence from the United States recognized||4 July 1946|
|-||Current constitution||2 February 1987|
|-||Total||300,000 km2 (73rd)
120,000 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0.61 (inland waters)|
115,120 sq mi
|-||2015 estimate||101,806,100 (12th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|Gini (2009)|| 43.0
medium · 44th
|HDI (2013)|| 0.660
medium · 117th
|Currency||Peso (Filipino: piso) (₱) (PHP)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||PH|
|a.||^a While Manila proper is designated as capital, the whole of Metro Manila is designated as seat of government.|
|b.||^b The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies, "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."|
|c.||^c Philippine revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but Spain sold the islands to the United States for $20 million in the Treaty of Paris which led to the Philippine–American War.|
|d.||^d The United States of America recognized the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946 through the Treaty of Manila, and this was chosen because it corresponds to the American Independence Day, which was observed in the Philippines as Independence Day until May 12, 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal issued Presidential Proclamation No. 28, shifting it to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's proclamation.|
The Philippines (i//; Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of 7,107 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City; both are part of Metro Manila.
To the north of the Philippines across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; Vietnam sits west across the South China Sea; southwest is the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; while to the east it is bounded by the Philippine Sea and the island-nation of Palau. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. At approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 64th-largest country in the world.
With a population of about 100 million people, the Philippines is the seventh-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Spanish settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in the predominant religion in the country being Roman Catholicism. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific Manila–Acapulco galleon trade connecting Asia with the Americas.
As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the Philippine Revolution, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, and the Philippine–American War. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until 1945. After World War II, the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which includes the overthrow of a dictatorship by a nonviolent revolution.
The nation's large population size and economic potential have led it to be classified as a middle power. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has been transitioning from being one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Demonyms
- 3 History
- 4 Politics
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Religion
- 9 Health
- 10 Education
- 11 Culture
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–46), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear and it has since become the country's common name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines.
The correct usage of the terms Filipino/a as demonyms is as follows:
- Filipino (masculine noun)
- Filipina (feminine noun)
- Filipino (adjective, m. or f; Explanation: The English language does not require gender agreement for noun-adjective combinations.)
- Imelda is a Filipina.
- Imelda is a Filipino citizen.
The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remains found in the archipelago to date. This distinction previously belong to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago,. Negritos were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. The most widely accepted based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan, who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the Liangzhu culture, began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals. By 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and maritime harbor principalities.
Some of the societies scattered in the islands remained isolated but many evolved into states that developed substantial trade and contacts with the peoples of Eastern, Southern and Southeastern Asia; including those from Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Japan as well as other Austronesian islands. The first millennium saw the rise of the harbor principalities and their growth into maritime states composed of autonomous barangays independent of or allied with larger nations which were either Malay thalassocracies led by Datus, Chinese tributary states ruled by Huangs or Indianized Kingdoms governed by Rajahs. The Kedatuan of Madja-as was founded following a civil-war in collapsing Srivijaya, wherein loyalists to the Austronesian Datus of Srivijaya defied the invading Chola Dynasty and its puppet-Rajah called Makatunao and set up a guerrilla-state in the Visayas islands. Its founder, Datu Puti had purchased land for his new realms from the Aboriginal Ati Hero, Marikudo. Madja-as was founded on Panay island. It is an island named after a destroyed state allied under Srivijaya, the kingdom of Pannai which is located in Sumatra. The Rajahnate of Butuan in northeastern Mindanao attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja, who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing over a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry. It also maintained commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. The Kingdom of Tondo was ruled over by the Lakandula dynasty and the kingdom grew wealthy via the exclusive trading-rights of Chinese goods which they marketed in Southeast Asia. This was granted to them by the Ming Dynasty. Also, the Rajahnate of Cebu was led by Rajamuda Sri Lumay, a monarch with partial Tamil descent. This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping routes within the archipelago. In northern Luzon, the Huangdom of Pangasinan under Princess Udaya, exported horses and silver to the Kingdom of Ryukyu and Japan.
The 1300s heralded the arrival and eventual spread of the Islamic religion in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu's rajah and marrying his daughter. At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao. He married Paramisuli, an Iranun princess, and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao.
Islam spread out of Mindanao in the south into Luzon in the north. Manila was Islamized through the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521. This was accomplished because the Bruneian Empire subjugated the Kingdom of Tondo by converting Rajah Salalila to Islam.
States like the Animist Igorot, Malay Madja-as, Sinified Ma-i, and Indianized Butuan still maintained their cultures. The rivalries between the datus, rajahs, huangs, sultans, and lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated due to consistent natural disasters and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were Hispanicized and Christianized.
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. After relocating to Panay island and consolidating a coalition of native Visayan allies and Hispanic soldiers, the Spaniards then captured Islamic Manila. Under Spanish rule, Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571), therein they put down the Tondo Conspiracy and exiled the conspirators to Guam and Guerrero. They also defeated the Chinese-warlord Limahong despite the enemies' overwhelming numbers. In response to the Islamic invasion of Tondo, the Castille War was waged against the Sultanate of Brunei in Borneo and war was also waged against the Sultanate of Ternate and Tidore (In response to Ternatan slaving and piracy against the Butuan Rajahnate and Bohol). Fortifications were also set up in Taiwan and the Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the soldiers withdrew back to the Philippines. They withdrew in order to re-concentrate the military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga, ruler of the Huangdom of Tungning. However, the invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau and the Marianas.
Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons and its large naval fleet linking Manila to Acapulco, traveled once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries. Trade introduced foodstuff such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, chocolate and pineapples from Mexico and Peru. New towns were created and Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque architectural style. The Spanish decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863, but efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition only during the American period. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.
During its rule, the Spanish quelled various indigenous revolts. There were several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English and the Portuguese but these were successfully fought-off despite these hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan to Indonesia. Nevertheless, the British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War. However, Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Philippine society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines (criollos) and those of mixed ancestry (mestizos) became wealthy and an influx of Latin American settlers opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares). The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the 1872 Cavite Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza)—were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.
Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was established in the Barasoain Church in the following year.
The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of 20 million US dollars was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out, the First Republic was defeated, and the archipelago was administered under an Insular Government. The war resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of combatants as well as a couple hundred thousand civilians, mostly from a cholera epidemic.
The Americans then suppressed the sub-states the First Republic had fractured into: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic, the Cantonal Republic of Negros, in the Visayas, and the Republic of Zamboanga, in Mindanao. During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature. Daniel Burnham built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city.
In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic of José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila. In 1944, Quezon died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña succeeded him. The largest naval battle in history (According to gross tonnage), the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when the Allied Forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Empire of Japan. Eventually, Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.
Cold War era
On October 24, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations and the following year, on July 4, 1946, it became recognized by the United States as independent, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas. Disgruntled remnants of the communist Hukbalahap continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President Elpidio Quirino's successor Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia initiated the Filipino First Policy, which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration, while furthering the claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.
In 1965, Macapagal lost to Ferdinand Marcos, who was elected president. Early in his presidency he initiated numerous public projects but was accused of massive corruption, such as the embezzlement of billions of dollars in public funds. Amidst great social turmoil and nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations. His wife Imelda continued to live a lavish lifestyle as the majority of Filipinos remained in poverty.
On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986 against Aquino's widow, Corazón. Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent, leading to the People Power Revolution. Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and Corazón Aquino was recognized as president.
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro separatists. During Corazon Aquino's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty, and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base in November 1991 and Subic Bay to the government in December 1992. The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election.
Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period, the economy was known as the "Tiger Economy in Asia", with an average of 6% GDP growth rate. However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996, were overlooked by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The government had announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents. In the middle of ongoing conflict with the Abu Sayyaf, accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, Estrada's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.
In Arroyo's 9-year administration, The economy experienced GDP growth from 4% in 2002 to 7% growth in 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like the LRT Line 2 in 2004 and managed to avoid the Great Recession. Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections. On November 23, 2009, the Maguindanao massacre led to the murder of 34 journalists.
Benigno Aquino III won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines. He was the third youngest person to be elected president and the first to be a bachelor. During the previous years, The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro. However, territorial disputes in eastern Sabah and the South China Sea have escalated. The economy in the country performed well especially in 2013 at 7.2% GDP growth which is 2nd fastest in Asia Aquino signed the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program in May 15, 2013 aiming to enhance the educational system in the country. On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) struck the country and heavily devastated the country especially in the Visayas. On April 28, 2014, when United States President Barack Obama visited the Philippines, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed. From January 15 to 19, 2015, Pope Francis stayed in the Philippines for a series of publicity tours and paid visits to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda). On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force were killed after a clash took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao putting efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.
The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term. The senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.
The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 11 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.
In addition to membership in the United Nations, the country is also a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region. It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.
The Philippines values its relations with the United States. It supported the United States during the Cold War and the War on Terror and is a major non-NATO ally. Despite this history of goodwill, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in Subic Bay and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time. Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of comfort women, much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II have faded.
Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain. Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.
With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and China have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.
The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the military force of the Philippines that is responsible for national security and is composed of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy (includes the Marine Corps). Currently, The Armed Forces of the Philippines' manpower is a voluntary force meaning it acquires its personnel from volunteers through recruitment however, according to the Section 4, Article II of the Constitution of the Philippines, conscription may be possible. Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).
In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the Abu Sayyaf which have been reported of kidnappings of foreigners, where victims are held for ransom, particularly in the southern island of Mindanao, but their presence has decreased in recent years due to successful security provided by the Philippine government.
The Philippines has been an ally of the United States since World War II. A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars. It was a member of the now dissolved SEATO, a group that was intended to serve a role similar to NATO and that included Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. After the start of the War on Terror, the Philippines was part of the coalition that gave support to the United States in Iraq.
The Philippines are divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are divided into 18 regions, 81 provinces, 144 cities, 1,490 municipalities, and 42,029 barangays. In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of Sabah.
|Ilocos Region||Region I||San Fernando, La Union|
|Cagayan Valley||Region II||Tuguegarao|
|Central Luzon||Region III||San Fernando, Pampanga|
|Bicol Region||Region V||Legazpi|
|Western Visayas||Region VI||Iloilo City|
|Central Visayas||Region VII||Cebu City|
|Eastern Visayas||Region VIII||Tacloban|
|Zamboanga Peninsula||Region IX||Pagadian|
|Northern Mindanao||Region X||Cagayan de Oro|
|Davao Region||Region XI||Davao City|
|Negros Island Region||NIR||to be designated|
|Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao||ARMM||Cotabato City|
|Cordillera Administrative Region||CAR||Baguio|
|National Capital Region||NCR||Manila|
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.
Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.
The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.
There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.
Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. Geothermal energy is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.
The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries. Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.
The Philippines lacks large predators, with the exception of snakes, such as pythons and cobras, saltwater crocodiles and birds of prey, such as the national bird, known as the Philippine eagle, which scientists suggest as the largest eagle in the world. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao.
Other native animals include the palm civet cat, the dugong, the cloud rat and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol. With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. However, new records and species discoveries continuously increase these numbers underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.
Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century. According to Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.
|Climate data for Philippines|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||147.8
|Source: World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal (1990–2009)|
The Philippine economy is the 39th largest in the world, with an estimated 2014 gross domestic product (nominal) of $289.686 billion. Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP).
A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 Million, the agricultural sector employs close to 32% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.
The unemployment rate as of December 14, 2014 stands at 6.0%. Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion. The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation.
After World War II, the Philippines was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan. In the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.
The economy is heavily reliant upon remittances from overseas filipinos, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Remittances peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.
Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the "Next Eleven" economies but China and India have emerged as major economic competitors. Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 20th largest economy in the world. HSBC also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050. The Philippines is a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong, the Colombo Plan, the G-77 and the G-24 among other groups and institutions.
The transportation infrastructure in the Philippines is relatively underdeveloped. This is partly due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but also the result of the lower investment of the government in infrastructure. In 2013, about 3% of the GDP went to infrastructure development which was lower than that of some of its neighbors. There are 213,151 kilometers (132,446 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with 25.56% of the roads being paved. The current administration under President Benigno Aquino III has been pushing to improve the country's infrastructure and transportation systems through various projects. Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.
The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines has the responsibility of the management of airports and the implementation of policies regarding safe air travel with 85 public airports that are currently operational. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) serves the Greater Manila Area along with Clark International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.
Philippines' roads and highways consist of a network of national and provincial highways, Expressways, secondary and municipal avenues and roads spanning a length of 205,497 km (127,690 mi) as of December 2007. The expressways and highways in the country are mostly located on the island of Luzon including the Pan-Philippine Highway, connecting the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, the North Luzon Expressway, South Luzon Expressway, and the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway.
Rail transport in the Philippines plays a vital role of transporting passengers within Metro Manila only. The area is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT-1, and LRT-2 and MRT-3. In the past railways were serving major parts of Luzon, and railroad services were available on the island of Cebu and Negros. Railways were used for agricultural purposes, like in the tobacco and sugar cane production. Rail freight transportation is currently almost non-existent. A few transportation systems are currently under development: DOST-MIRDC and UP are implementing pre-feasibility studies on Automated Guideway Transit. A so-called Hybrid Electric Road Train which is a long bi-articulated bus, is being tested as of 2015.
As an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. 2GO Travel and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns through passenger vessels. The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. The Pasig River Ferry Service serves the major rivers in the metro including the Pasig River and Marikina River having numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina.
Science and Technology
Philippines have pursued efforts to improve the field of science and technology. The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science- and technology-related projects in the Philippines. National Scientist of the Philippines award was given to individuals that have contributed to different field of science in the country. Notable Filipino scientists include Maria Orosa, a food technologist famous for her formulated food products like calamansi nip, soyalac and the banana ketchup,
Fe del Mundo, a pediatrician whose pioneering work in pediatrics as an active medical practice spanned 8 decades, Paulo Campos, a physician who was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines" for his contributions in the field of nuclear medicine, Ramon Barba, an inventor and horticulturist known for his method to induce more flowers in mango trees.
In July 1996, The country's first satellite, The Palapa B-2P, acquired by the Mabuhay Philippines Satellite Corporation from Indonesian company Pasifik Satelit Nusantara, was moved to a new orbital slot in August 1, 1996 and renamed as Mabuhay. Agila-2, the first Filipino satellite not acquired while in orbit was launched on August 19, 1997. Plans of launching the country's first microsatellite was visioned by the Department of Science and Technology within July 2016 in cooperation with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Research organizations formed in the country, including the International Rice Research Institute, an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna. focusing on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques to help farmers in the country improve their lives.
The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks. The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country.
The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country went live on the Internet through a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint communication's router in California via a 64 kbit/s connection. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.
Tourism is one of the major contributor to the economy of the Philippines, contributing 5.9% to the Philippine GDP in 2011. The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy, contributing 7.1% share in the Philippine GDP and employing 1,226,500 jobs, accounting for 3.2 percent of total employment in the country in 2013. The industry had grown by US$4.8 billion in 2013 2,433,428 international visitors have arrived in the country from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan accounted for 58.78% while Americas accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%. The Department of Tourism has the responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector. On January 6, 2012 it launched a new slogan named "It's More Fun in the Philippines" and ranked third in world's best marketing campaigns according to Warc 100.
The country's rich biodiversity is the main tourist attraction of the Philippines. Its beaches, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots are among the country's most popular tourist destinations. The country's rich historical and cultural heritage is also one of the attractions of the Philippines.
As an archipelago consisting of 7,107 islands, Philippines has numerous beaches, caves and other rock formations. Tourist attractions in the country includes the white sand beaches of Boracay, named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012, commercial shopping malls located in Manila including the SM Mall of Asia, Festival Supermall, etc., Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao, historic town of Vigan, Chocolate Hills in Bohol, Magellan's Cross in Cebu, Tubbataha Reef in Visayas and others in the rest of the country.
The population of the Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.
It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.
Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 12 million Filipinos living overseas.
According to the official count the population of the Philippines hit 100 million at the time of midnight on July 27, 2014, making it the 12th country to reach this number.
Metro Manila is the most populous of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.
Metro Manila's gross regional product is estimated as of July 2009 to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. In 2011, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers, it ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia.
|1||Quezon City||National Capital Region||2,761,720||11||Parañaque||National Capital Region||588,126||
|2||Manila||National Capital Region||1,652,171||12||Dasmariñas||CALABARZON||575,817|
|3||Caloocan||National Capital Region||1,489,040||13||Valenzuela||National Capital Region||575,356|
|4||Davao City||Davao Region||1,449,296||14||Las Piñas||National Capital Region||552,573|
|5||Cebu City||Central Visayas||866,171||15||General Santos||SOCCSKSARGEN||538,086|
|6||Zamboanga City||Zamboanga Peninsula||807,129||16||Makati||National Capital Region||529,039|
|8||Pasig||National Capital Region||669,773||18||Bacolod||Negros Island Region||511,820|
|9||Taguig||National Capital Region||644,473||19||Muntinlupa||National Capital Region||459,941|
|10||Cagayan de Oro||Northern Mindanao||602,088||20||San Jose del Monte||Central Luzon||454,553|
According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan. There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan. Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.
Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands.
Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan. Two important non-indigenous minorities are the Chinese and the Spaniards.
The Chinese, mostly descendants of immigrants from Fujian, China after 1898, number 2 million, although there is an estimated 18 million Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial Chinese migrants. Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas.
At least one-third of the population of Luzon as well as a few old settlements in the Visayas and Zamboanga City at Mindanao, have partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from Latin America to Spain).
Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family. The only non-Austronesian language indigenous to the Philippines is Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole.
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. However, most people outside cities do not speak much English. In most towns, either Tagalog or the local indigenous language is spoken. The Filipino constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used in the country on as wide a scale as in the past. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, but is experiencing revival due to government promotions, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao. However, Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages.
Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as mediums of instruction: Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan. Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Malay, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. The Chavacano language, a creole language born from Spanish (of the Mexican and Peruvian strain), is also spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga.
Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. Mandarin is used in Chinese schools catering to the Chinese Filipino community. Islamic schools in Mindanao teach Modern Standard Arabic in their curriculum. French, German, Japanese, Korean, Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions. The Department of Education began teaching the Malay languages Indonesian and Malaysian in 2013.
The Philippines is a secular state with a constitutional separation of church and state. As a result of Spanish cultural influence, the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor, a former Portuguese colony. More than 90% of the population is Christian. In 2011, it was estimated that 75.5 million Filipinos, or roughly 80% of the population, profess Catholicism. Of the roughly 76 million Catholics, 37 per cent regularly hear mass, 29 per cent consider themselves very religious, and about 1 of every 11 or about 9.2% of the members sometimes think of leaving the church. The National Statistics Office found that 2.45% of the population in the Philippines is affiliated with the Iglesia ni Cristo, making it the third largest religion in the Philippines and the second largest Christian group in the country. The rest belong to other Christian denominations, such as Mormons (over 710,764 people), Jehovah's Witnesses, The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, Members Church of God International and a variety of Protestant confessions such as the Philippine Independent Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church and the United Church of Christ in the Philippines. Some sources showed that Christianity is 85% of the country's population.
According to National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF), as of 2012 Muslims comprised 11% of the population, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi'i school. There are some Ahmadiyya Muslims in the country.
Philippine traditional religions are practiced by an estimated 2% of the population, made up of many aboriginal and tribal groups. These religions are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism is practiced by 1% of the populations, and as of 2010[update] together with Taoism and Chinese folk religion it was dominant in Chinese communities. There are smaller number of followers of Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism and Baha'i. About 1% to 11% of the population is non-religious.
Healthcare in the country are mostly taken up by private health providers. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the WHO target of 5%. As of 2009, 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about $597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill).
There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses.
In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals, of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005 to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people that were under anti-retroviral therapy, the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.
The Philippines has a simple literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines has a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. Literacy in females is greater than in males. Education spending accounts for 16.11% in the proposed 2015 national budget.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary and 4-year high school education is mandatory with an additional two years being added in 2013.
Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulate standards in higher education.
In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU). The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines.
Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population. The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo. Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there. However, certain areas in the country like Batanes has slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino way of life assimilated differently due to the climate that the place has, thus the different structured houses made of limestone and coral can be found there. Idjangs or Ivatan castles were the primary shelter of the people prior to the Spanish conquest of the whole Philippines.
The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food and Western film and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals. In Iloilo, a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and one example is in Calle Real.
Pottery and weaving are among the very first art forms that showcase Filipino grandeur in art design. Evidences from cave dwellings all over the country were found. Among those were mostly anthropomorphic earthenware jars dating 5 BC. - 225 A.D. Weaving was also existent prior to Spanish colonization. Mostly done by women, fibers from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and bark cloth are used to create clothes, rugs and hats. Baskets as well were done in order to be utilized as carriers for mostly grain and food. Filipinos first exposure to painting happened when Spain conquered the Philippines. These were used as religious propaganda and are often displayed in churches. However, as progress of education happened to Filipinos and the wealthier they have gotten, more and more artists started to shift from the traditional religious motifs to a more secular pattern of imagery. Some of these well known painters are Damian Domingo, Fernando Amorsolo, Felix Hidalgo and Juan Luna.
Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming out from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music are reminiscent or was heavily influenced by nature. Some examples of these tribal music are Koyu No Tebulul of the T'boli and Ambo Hato of the Ifugao. This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the Kulintang. During the Spanish era, Rondalya music has been widespread where traditional string orchestra, mandolin type instruments are used. Rondalya, in the Philippines, refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using the plectrum or pick. The Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood and the plectrum, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the 14-string bandurria found only in the country, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, and other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the guitar. Harana and Kundiman are prevalent during this time wherein these songs are often used in courtship rituals. Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and Doña Dolores Paterno (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media. However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been done due to the different choir groups in and out of the country like the Philippine Madrigal Singers.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism with regards to present situations and events, the concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines has a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This is due mainly to the fact that Philippines is an island thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. On the other hand, Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim inspired dances and Spanish influence was minimal in the region of Zamboanga. However, all dances in the country are in unison when categorized in accordance to societal functions such as rituals, mimicry, life cycle and party. During the Spanish colonialism in the country, most dances are accompanied by Rondalya music usually with 14-string bandurrias that the Filipinos invented or by other type of stringed instruments that locally evolved in to the culture as well. One famous dance that is well known is called the Tinikling, where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the Singkil. Nowadays, in the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing to name a few.
Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas.
Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, milkfish, and fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.
Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as Kamayan was seen more often in less urbanized areas. However, due to the different Filipino restaurants that introduce Filipino food to other nationalities, Kamayan is fast becoming popular. This recent trend incorporates the use of "Boodle Fight" as coined by the Philippine Army, wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates mixing both rice and Filipino viands all together on top.
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.
Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed). He is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. Several Filipino writers were awarded National Artist of the Philippines such as N. V. M. Gonzalez, Amado V. Hernandez, Francisco Arcellana, Nick Joaquín, F. Sionil José and many more.
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.
The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, and anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga and It's Showtime. Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.
Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, boxing, cockfighting, volleyball, football, badminton, karate, taekwondo, billiards, ten-pin bowling, chess, and sipa. Motocross, cycling, and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA), World Boxing Council (WBC), and World Boxing Organization (WBO). The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis, Eskrima or Kali in some regions
The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924 and was the first country in Southeast Asia to compete and win a medal. The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 edition.
Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. Sungka is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities. Sabong or cockfight is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and has been in existence prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the country. The yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language.
- "Republic act no. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.
- "Philippines in Figures 2014" (PDF). National Statistics Office. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
- "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Author: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
- "Philippines". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 2014.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
- "Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- Joselito Guianan Chan, Managing Partner. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7.". Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (PDF), United Nations, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23, retrieved 2007-12-10
- "Philippines joyous as baby Chonalyn's arrival means population hits 100m". the Guardian.
- "Philippine population officially hits 100 million". Rappler.
- Isidore Dyen (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages". Internationald Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir 19: 38–46.
- "History of Cebu". Cebu City Tour. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye. Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 0-8248-1829-6.
- "The Original People Power Revolution". QUARTET p. 77. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- The N-11: More Than an Acronym - Goldman Sachs
- CIA World Factbook, Philippines, Retrieved May 15, 2009.
- Scott, William Henry. (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 6. ISBN 971-550-135-4.
- Spate, Oskar H. K. (1979). "Chapter 4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN 0-7099-0049-X. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Friis, Herman Ralph. (Ed.). (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration. American Geographical Society. p. 369.
- Galang, Zoilo M. (Ed.). (1957). Encyclopedia of the Philippines, Volume 15 (3rd ed.). E. Floro. p. 46.
- Tarling, Nicholas. (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia – Volume One, Part Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-521-66370-9.
- Quezon, Manuel, III. (March 28, 2005). "The Philippines are or is?". Manuel L. Quezon III: The Daily Dose. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason (2009). Minimalist Inquiries Into Child and Adult Language Acquisition: Case Studies Across Portuguese. Walter de Gruyter. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-11-021534-2.
English lacks grammatical gender, and therefore there is no morphological gender agreement between nouns and adjectives or determiners.
- Henderson, Barney (August 4, 2010). "Archaeologists unearth 67000-year-old human bone in Philippines". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- Fox, Robert B. (1970). The Tabon Caves: Archaeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan. National Museum. p. 44. ASIN B001O7GGNI. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- Scott, William Henry. (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 971-10-0227-2.
- Scott, William Henry. (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 971-10-0227-2.
Not one roof beam, not one grain of rice, not one pygmy Negrito bone has been recovered. Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such.
- Bellwood, Peter (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. p. 213.
- Solheim, Wilhelm G., II. (January 2006). Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 3, 2008. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78.
- Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines 23: 40.
- "Timeline of history". Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines 23: 40.
- Prehispanic Source Materials Page 74 by William Henry Scott (NEW DAY PUBLISHERS INC.)
- Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin, and Sharon La Boda. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). Philippine Political and Cultural History. Philippine Education Co. p. 42. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Zhang Xie. (1618) (in Chinese). Dong Xi Yang Kao [A Study of the Eastern and Western Oceans] Volume 5 (Chinese: 東西洋考). ISBN 7532515931. MID 00024687. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Archie Modequillo and Carlo Rivera (2014). "Owing to its strategic central location, Cebu City is a significant hub of commercial activities, trade and education in the Visayas and Mindanao. Hence, it is called "The Queen City of the South." Cebu is the main domestic shipping port of the Philippines and is home to about 80 percent of the country’s domestic shipping companies.". Philippine Star: 1.
- William Henry Scott (1983). "The fact that Chief Kamayin's name is transliterated by the Chinese characters for "excellent," "horse," and' "silver" led Berthold Laufer in his 1907 "The relations of the Chinese to the Philippines" to list horses and silver among the Pangasinan gifts (Historical Bulletin 1967 reprint, Vol. 11, p. 10); this error was carelessly copied by Wu Ching-hong in his 1962 "The rise and decline of Chuanchou's international trade" (Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia, p. 477), whence it passed into more than one Philippine text, but was not repeated by Wu himself in his later works.Laufer also refers to a Philippine embassy led by a "high official called Ko-ch'a-lao" whom no other scholar has been able to locate and whom Beyer identifies as a "Chinese governor appointed for the island of Luzon" (op. cit., loc. cit.)." (PDF). Guttenburg Free Online E-books 1: 8.
- 100 Events That Shaped The Philippines (Adarna Book Services Inc. 1999 Published by National Centennial Commission) Page 72 "The Founding of the Sulu Sultanate"
- Bascar, C.M. (n.d.). Sultanate of Sulu, "The Unconquered Kingdom". Retrieved December 19, 2009 from The Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu & Sabah Official Website.[unreliable source?]
- "The Maguindanao Sultanate", Moro National Liberation Front web site. "The Political and Religious History of the Bangsamoro People, condensed from the book Muslims in the Philippines by Dr. C. A. Majul." Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Pusat Sejarah Brunei. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
- McAmis, Robert Day (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 18–24, 53–61. ISBN 0-8028-4945-8. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
- U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (June 2009). Background Note: Brunei. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- David P. Barrows (2014). "Fourth.—In considering this Spanish conquest, we must understand that the islands were far more sparsely inhabited than they are to-day. The Bisayan islands, the rich Camarines, the island of Luzon, had, in Legaspi’s time, only a small fraction of their present great populations. This population was not only small, but it was also extremely disunited. Not only were the great tribes separated by the differences of language, but, as we have already seen, each tiny community was practically independent, and the power of a dato very limited. There were no great princes, with large forces of fighting retainers whom they could call to arms, such as the Portuguese had encountered among the Malays south in the Moluccas.". Guttenburg Free Online E-books 1: 139.
- Locsin, Joel (November 1, 2014). "For improved response? PAGASA to adopt ‘super typhoon’ category in 2015". GMA News Online. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Garotech Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 971-8711-06-6.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. and Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company.
- Fernando A. Santiago Jr., Isang Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pandacan, Maynila 1589–1898, retrieved July 18, 2008
- Kurlansky, Mark. (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker & Company. p. 64. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1.
- Joaquin, Nick. (1988). Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Manila: Solar Publishing.
- McAmis 2002, p. 33
- "Letter from Francisco de Sande to Felipe II, 1578". Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Borao, José Eugenio (2010). The Spanish experience in Taiwan, 1626-1642: the Baroque ending of a Renaissance endeavor. Hong Kong University Press. p. 199. ISBN 962-209-083-4. JSTOR j.ctt1xcrpk.
- http://micsem.org/pubs/articles/religion/frames/cathmissionsfr.htm Francis X. Hezel, SJ , Catholic Missions in the Carolines and Marshall Islands
- Schurz, William Lytle. The Manila Galleon, 1939. P 193.
- Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Education". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Country Studies US Website.
- Jan Lahmeyer (1996). "The Philippines: historical demographic data of the whole country". Retrieved July 19, 2003.
- Voz de Galicia (1898). "CENSOS DE CUBA,PUERTO RICO , FILIPINAS Y ESPAÑA .ESTUDIO DE SU RELACION". Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 119–120. ISBN 971-23-3934-3.
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. University of Nevada Press. pp. 81–83. ISBN 0-87417-590-9.
- Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
- Joaquin, Nick. A Question of Heroes.
- Richardson, Jim. (January 2006). "Andrés Bonifacio Letter to Julio Nakpil, April 24, 1897". Documents of the Katipunan. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2009.
- Ocampo, Ambeth. (1999). Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 971-27-0920-5.
- Price, Michael G. (2002). Foreword. In A. B. Feuer, America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913 (pp. xiii–xvi). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96821-9.
- Gates, John M. (November 2002). "The Pacification of the Philippines". The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
- Guillermo, Emil (February 8, 2004), "A first taste of empire", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: 03J
- Smallman-Raynor 1998
- Burdeos 2008, p. 14
- Kho, Madge. "The Bates Treaty". PhilippineUpdate.com. Retrieved December 2, 2007.
- "History of The Republic of Zamboanga (May 1899 – March 1903)". Zamboanga City, Philippines: Zamboanga (zamboanga.com). July 18, 2009. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- "2014 Philippines Yearly Box Office Results". boxofficemojo.com.
- Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on January 9, 2011.
- "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 28, 2014.
- Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
- Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.
- White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan.
- "LIEUTENANT RAMSEY'S WAR" by EDWIN PRICE RAMSEY and STEPHEN J. RIVELE.Published by Knightsbride publishing Co,Los Angeles,California
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-313-31395-4.
- "Cebu". encyclopedia.com, citing The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co. p. 354. ISBN 971-642-071-4.
- "Founding Member States". United Nations.
- Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, ISBN 0-521-62948-9, ISBN 978-0-521-62948-5
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the Centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
- Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, The Magsaysay Story (1956), is a full-length biography
- "Our Vision and Mission". prescarlosgarcia.org.
- Diosdado Macapagal. "Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day". Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- Manuel S. Satorre, Jr. "President Diosdado Macapagal set RP Independence Day on June 12". positivenewsmedia.net. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- Weatherbee, Donald E.; Ralf Emmers; Mari Pangestu; Leonard C. Sebastian (2005). International relations in Southeast Asia. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 68–69. ISBN 0-7425-2842-1.
- What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. January 24, 2013.
- Tarling, Nicholas (2000). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From World War II to the Present, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-66372-5.
- Chandler, David P. and David Joel Steinberg (1987). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (Revised 2nd ed.). University of Hawaii Press. pp. 431–442. ISBN 0-8248-1110-0.
- Osborne, Milton E. (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (9th ed.). Allen & Unwin. pp. 235–241. ISBN 1-74114-448-5.
- "Gov't drafts new framework to guide peace talks with leftist rebels". The Philippine Star. May 6, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Julie Alipala (October 2, 2010). "RP terror campaign cost lives of 11 US, 572 RP soldiers—military". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- Shenon, Phillip (September 16, 1991). "Philippine Senate votes to Reject U.S. Base Renewal". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- De Santos, Jonathan (September 16, 2011). "Philippine Senators remember day when they rejected US bases treaty". Sun Star Manila. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Whaley, Floyd (April 26, 2013). "Shadows of an Old Military Base". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- Drogin, Bob (November 27, 1991). "After 89 Years, U.S. Lowers Flag at Clark Air Base". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- "Tarlac map". University of Texas in Austin Library. Retrieved on August 2, 2011.
- "Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, 1901 Vol. III", pg. 141. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901.
- Pempel, T. J. The Politics of the Asian Economic Crisis. Cornell University Press, 1999. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-801-48634-0. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Gargan, Edward A. (December 11, 1997). "Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
- Shen, Andrew (July 2009). "Financial Crisis and Global Governance: A Network Analysis". Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Yenilmez, Taylan and Saltoglu, Burak. "Analyzing Systemic Risk with Financial Networks During a Financial Crash" (PDF). fma.org. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
- "THE PHILIPPINES: CONSOLIDATING ECONOMIC GROWTH". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. March 13, 2000. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Records prove Estrada's achievements". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- "Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict". Philippine Human Development Network. September 18, 2008. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Philippine Military Takes Moro Headquarters". People's Daily. July 10, 2000. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "2 US Navy men, 1 Marine killed in Sulu land mine blast". GMA News. September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
Two US Navy personnel and one Philippine Marine soldier were killed when a land mine exploded along a road in Indanan, Sulu Tuesday morning, an official said. The American fatalities were members of the US Navy construction brigade, Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) spokesman Lt. Col. Romeo Brawner Jr. told GMANews.TV in a telephone interview. He did not disclose the identities of all three casualties.and
Al Pessin (September 29, 2009). "Pentagon Says Troops Killed in Philippines Hit by Roadside Bomb". Voice of America. Retrieved January 12, 2011. and
"Troops killed in Philippines blast". Al Jazeera. September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009. and
Jim Gomez (September 29, 2009). "2 US troops killed in Philippines blast". CBS News. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Dirk J. Barreveld (2001). Philippine President Estada Impeached!: How the President of the World's 13th Most Populous Country Stumbles Over His Mistresses, a Chinese Conspiracy and the Garbage of His Capital. iUniverse. pp. 476. ISBN 978-0-595-18437-8.
- "Timeline: LRT, MRT construction". The Philippine Star. July 19, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Dante B. Canlas, Muhammad Ehsan Khan, Juzhong Zhuang (2011). Diagnosing the Philippine Economy: Toward Inclusive Growth. Anthem Press. p. 107. ISBN 0-85728-939-X.
- "Bolante Faces Off with Senators Over Fertilizer Fund Scam". ANC. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
- "Arroyo claims hollow victory" by Leslie Davis, Asia Times Online, September 27, 2005.
- Dizon, David. "Corruption was Gloria's biggest mistake: survey". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
- Press, Associated (November 18, 2011). "Philippines charges Gloria Arroyo with corruption". The Guardian. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
Former president is formally accused of electoral fraud after government rushed to court as she tried to leave country
- Jimenez-Gutierrez, Jason (November 23, 2010). "Philippines mourns massacre victims". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- Analyn Perez (November 25, 2009). "The Ampatuan Massacre: a map and timeline". GMA News (gmanews.tv).
- Manuel L. Quezon III (June 19, 2010). "Trivia on Aquino and Binay". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- gov.ph (October 15, 2012). "Speech of President Benigno Aquino III during the signing of the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro". Gov.ph. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- "The Republic of the Philippines v. The People's Republic of China". Pca-cpa.org. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Del Cappar, Michaela (April 25, 2013). "ITLOS completes five-man tribunal that will hear PHL case vs. China". GMA News One. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- Frialde, Mike (February 23, 2013). "Sultanate of Sulu wants Sabah returned to Phl". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Philippine economy expands 7.2% in 2013". The Philippine Star. January 30, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Aquino signs K-12 bill into law". Rappler. May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Typhoon Haiyan death toll rises over 5,000 (Report). BBC. November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "Tacloban: City at the centre of the storm". BBC. November 12, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "Obama to stay overnight in PH". Rappler. April 1, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "US, PH reach new defense deal". ABS-CBN News. April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Philippines, US sign defense pact". Agence France-Presse. ABS-CBN News. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- Aquino, Leslie Ann (November 13, 2014). "Pope Francis’s 2015 visit confirmed". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Alviola, Derek (January 10, 2015). "Palo archbishop checks papal Mass site preparations". Rappler. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
- "At least 30 elite cops killed in clash with MILF". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Arcon, Dennis (January 26, 2015). "PNP-SAF casualties in encounter now 50 - ARMM police chief". Interaksyon. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
- "Country description". US State Department Website. US State Department Website. January 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
The Philippines is an emerging economy with a democratic system of government.
- Robles, Alan C. (July–August 2008). "Civil service reform: Whose service?". D+C (Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung [InWEnt]) 49: 285–289. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Bigornia, Amante. (September 17, 1997). "The 'consultations' on Charter change". The Manila Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "General Information". September 21, 2014.. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines.
- U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (October 2009). "Background Note: Philippines". Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. About Us. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
- United Nations Security Council. (October 25, 1999). Resolution 1272 [S-RES-1272(1999)]. Retrieved March 21, 2010.
- Bangkok Declaration. (August 8, 1967). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Wikisource.
- "ASEAN Primer" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 17, 2007). (1999). 3rd ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. [c. 2009]. "Japan's ODA Data by Country – Philippines" (PDF). Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
- Matikas Santos (September 15, 2014). "PH-Spain bilateral relations in a nutshell". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2009" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- "Filipino Among Royal Guards of King of Spain". ABS CBN News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Leonard, John (July 3, 2008). "OFW rights violation worsens under the Arroyo administration". Filipino OFWs Qatar. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- Olea, Ronalyn (October 25, 2008). "Middle East is 'Most Distressing OFW Destination' – Migrant Group". Bulatlat News. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- Torres, Estrella (January 22, 2009). "Saudi Arabia will still need RP medical professionals". Business Mirror. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- Balana, Cynthia. (May 26, 2009). "RP nears observer status in OIC – DFA". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
- "Shoulder Ranks (Officers)". The Philippine Army. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Philippine Military Rank Insignia". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "AFP Organization". Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- "The Philippine Constitution".
- "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Lawphil.net. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- "Republic Act No. 6975". The LAWPHiL Project. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Hayden Cooper, May 1, 2012, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Government urged to help kidnapped Australian, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Warren Richard Rodwell from Australia being held captive by this group since December 5, 2011...please do whatever to raise the 2 million US dollars they are asking for my release ..."
- RICHARD SHEARS and DANIEL MILLER, January 31, 2013, Daily Mail, 'He will suffer unusual way of death': Islamic terrorists' chilling threat to murder Australian captive unless ransom is paid, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Former soldier, 54, seized from his home in the Philippines 13 months ago..."
- Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."
- Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao...."
- Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."
- "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). BBC News. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- Liefer, Michael. (2005). Michael Liefer – Selected Works on Southeast Asia (Chin, Kin-Wah & Leo Suryadinata, Eds.). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-270-0.
- The White House. (March 27, 2003). "Coalition Members". Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- "Philippine Standard Geographic Codes as of June 2015" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. June 24, 2015. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- RONALD ECHALAS DIAZ, Office Manager (September 18, 1968). "Republic Act No. 5446 – An Act to Amend Section One of Republic Act Numbered Thirty Hundred and Forty-Six, Entitled "An Act to Define the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the Philippines". Republic of the Philippines". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Mohamad, Kadir (2009). "Malaysia's territorial disputes – two cases at the ICJ : Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan [and the Sabah claim] (Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. p. 46. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
Map of British North Borneo, highlighting in yellow colour the area covered by the Philippine claim, presented to the Court by the Philippines during the Oral Hearings at the ICJ on 25 June 2001
- "Memorandum Circular No. 75, s. 2004". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. November 12, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- "A Resolution Endorsing Zamboanga City as the location of Regional Center of Region IX" (PDF). Regional Development Council IX. March 3, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- "Executive Order No. 183, s. 2015". Official Gazette (Philippines). May 29, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- "General Profile of the Philippines : Geography". Philippine Information Agency.
- Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing :: Coastline". Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- Philippine Sea, encarta.msn.com (archived from the original on August 20, 2009).
- "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (rchived from the original on 2013-02-133)
- C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Celebes Sea. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P.Saundry & C.J.Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
- "An Awesome Island". Borneo: Island in the Clouds. PBS. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- "Philippines Mountain Ultra-Prominence". peaklist.org. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
- (2011-04-06). "The World Factbook – Philippines". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on March 14, 2011.
- Bruun, Anton Frederick (1956). The Galathea Deep Sea Expedition, 1950–1952, described by members of the expedition. Macmillian, New York.
- Kundel, Jim (June 7, 2007). "Water profile of Philippines". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Republic of the Philippines. Department of Tourism. [c. 2008]. Leyte is Famous For... at the Wayback Machine (archived April 27, 2012) (archived from the original on April 27, 2012). Retrieved March 21, 2010 from www.travelmart.net.
- "Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982". United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009.
- La Putt, Juny P. [c. 2003]. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website.
- Newhall, Chris, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H. Stauffer. (February 28, 2005). "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97)". U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- "Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Greenlees, Donald. (May 14, 2008). "Miners shun mineral wealth of the Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Davies, Ed and Karen Lema. (June 29, 2008). "Pricey oil makes geothermal projects more attractive for Indonesia and the Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- "Natural Resources and Environment in the Philippines". (n.d.). eTravel Pilipinas. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Chanco, Boo. (December 7, 1998). "The Philippines Environment: A Warning". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from gbgm-umc.org.
- Williams, Jann, Cassia Read, Tony Norton, Steve Dovers, Mark Burgman, Wendy Proctor, and Heather Anderson. (2001). "Biodiversity Theme Report: The Meaning, Significance and Implications of Biodiversity (continued)". CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. ISBN 0-643-06749-3. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
- Carpenter, Kent E. and Victor G. Springer. (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes (Springer Netherlands) 74 (2): 467–480. doi:10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4.
- Rowthorn, Chris and Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 52. ISBN 1-74104-289-5.
- "Biological diversity in the Philippines". Eoearth.org. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Tabaranza, Blas R., Jr. (January 17, 2005). "The largest eagle in the world". Haribon Foundation. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- BirdLife International. (2004). Pithecophaga jefferyi. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on January 7, 2009.
- ""Lolong" holds world record as largest croc in the world". Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. November 17, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- Britton, Adam (November 12, 2011). "Accurate length measurement for Lolong". Croc Blog. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Hub of Life: Species Diversity in the Philippines". Foundation for the Philippine Environment. February 18, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- Bos, A.R. and Smits, H.M. (2013). "First Record of the dottyback Manonichthys alleni (Teleostei: Perciformes: Pseudochromidae) from the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records 6 (e61). doi:10.1017/s1755267213000365.
- Bos, Arthur R. and Gumanao, Girley S. (2013). "Seven new records of fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic habitats in Southern Mindanao, the Philippines". Marine Biodiversity Records 6 (e95): 1–6. doi:10.1017/s1755267213000614.
- Bos A.R.; Gumanao, G.S.; Salac, F.N. (2008). "A newly discovered predator of the crown-of-thorns starfish". Coral Reefs 27: 581. doi:10.1007/s00338-008-0364-9.
- Ocaña O., J.C.; den Hartog, A. Brito; Bos, A.R. (2010). "On Pseudocorynactis species and another related genus from the Indo-Pacific (Anthozoa: Corallimorphidae)". Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias XXI (3–4): 9–34.
- Bos A.R. (2014). "Upeneus nigromarginatus, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Philippines". Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 745–753.
- "About the Philippines". (October 17, 2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Philippine History Website.
- Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). "21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate. BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. (n.d.). "Climate of the Philippines". Retrieved April 24, 2010.
- Lonely Planet. (n.d.). Philippines: When to go & weather. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
- Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Chong, Kee-Chai, Ian R. Smith, and Maura S. Lizarondo. (1982). "III. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds". Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System. The United Nations University. ISBN 92-808-0346-8. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2009.
- Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). (January 2009). "Member Report to the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, 41st Session" (PDF). Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.
- Glossary of Meteorology. Baguio. Retrieved on June 11, 2008.
- "Average Monthly Temperature and Rainfall for Philippines from 1990–2009". World Bank. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. "Third Quarter 2009 Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin". Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (October 2009). "Quickstat" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Philippines jobless rate eases to 6% in October". MarketWatch. December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "Philippine Unemployment Rate Falls In October". RTTNews. December 10, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Magtulis, Prinz P. (August 28, 2014). "Philippine GDP Growth Beats Estimate in Boost to Aquino Goal". Bloomberg News. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Denis Somoso. (September 30, 2013). "$83.201 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves". Philippines, ASIA and the Global Economy Site. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Debt-to-gov't ratio hits 38.1% in end-March". Rappler. September 23, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Dela Peña, Zinnia B. (September 24, 2014). "Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to improve". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- Mendoza, Ronlad U. (June 25, 2012). "Debt free?". Rappler. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- "From butt of jokes in 1986, Philippines has risen to creditor nation, says ex-finance chief". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. February 28, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- The Filipina sisterhood. (December 20, 2001). The Economist. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- Ure, John (2008). Telecommunications Development in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 301–302. ISBN 978-962-209-903-6.
- "Philippines". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- United Nations Development Programme. (2009). "Table G: Human development and index trends, Table I: Human and income poverty". ISBN 978-0-230-23904-3.
- Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines [PowerPoint slides]. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. September 14, 2006. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "OFW remittances to increase by 8.5% in 2014—Standard Chartered". Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 13, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Why PH improves in competitiveness ranking". Rappler. Aug 22, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Poverty and regional development imbalance". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 5, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Llorito, David. (May 10, 2006). "Help wanted for Philippines outsourcing". Asia Times. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- "Beyond the Brics: A Look at the 'Next 11'" (PDF). April 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Armstrong, Aristidi (April 21, 2013). "Move over BRICS, the "Next Eleven" has emerged". Economics Student Society of Australia. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Olchondra, Riza T. (October 2, 2006). As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 16, 2009.
- "GOLDMAN: Here's What Global GDP Will Look Like In 2050". Business Insider. November 19, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Platt, Eric (January 13, 2012). "These Economies Will Dominate The World In 2050". Business Insider. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Fajardo, Fernando (February 29, 2012). "The Philippines in 2050". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Kevin Voigt (January 12, 2012). World's top economies in 2050 will be... CNN. (archived from the original on August 14, 2012)
- "ARANGKADA PHILIPPINES 2010: A BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE – Infrastructure" (PDF). Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Larano, Cris (June 3, 2014). "Philippines Bets on Better Infrastructure". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "The CIA World Factbook – Philippines". Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Government keen on improving public transport system". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Republic of the Philippines. Land Transportation Office. Number of Motor Vehicles Registered. (January 29, 2008). Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Republic Act No, 9447". Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Manual of Standards for AERODROMES". Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Airport Directory". Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. July 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "About PAL". Philippineairlines.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- State of Hawaii. Department of Transportation. Airports Division. [c. 2005]. "Philippine Air Lines". Hawaii Aviation. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Oxford Business Group. (2009). The Report: Philippines 2009. p. 97. ISBN 1-902339-12-6.
- Cabral, Maria Catalina E. (December 2009). "Road Infrastructure Development in the Philippines" (PDF). Republic of the Philippines : Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Philippines Transportation". Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "Linking the Philippine Islands, Through the highway of the Sea." (PDF). p. 51. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
- "The LRT Line 1 System". Light Rail Transit Authority. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993). Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries. UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. ISBN 92-1-131220-5.
- "About Us – MRT3 Stations". Metro Rail Transit. Retrieved September 21, 2014."About Us – Background". Metro Rail Transit. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Valmero, Anna. "DoST to develop electric-powered monorail for mass transport". Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Regidor, Anna Kristine. "UPD monorail project begins". July 27, 2011. University of the Philippines Diliman. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Usman, Edd K. (February 27, 2014). "Bigger Automated Guideway Train ready for testing". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "BUS O TREN? DOST's road train rolls off to vehicle test". Interaksyon. September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Hybrid electric road train to be road-tested this month". Manila Bulletin. September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Roadworthiness tests for hybrid train to start next month". The Philippine Star. September 14, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- The Philippine Transportation System. (August 30, 2008). Asian Info. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Strong Republic Nautical Highway. (n.d.). Official Website of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Gov't revives Pasig River ferry service. (February 14, 2007). GMA News. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- "MMDA to reopen Pasig River ferry system on April 28; offers free ride". Philippine Information Agency. April 25, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "The DOST in Brief". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Roces, Alejandro R. (November 29, 2007). "Maria Ylagan Orosa". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Engel, KeriLynn. "Fe del Mundo, first female student at Harvard Medical School". Amazing Wome History. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Sabater, Madel R. (June 5, 2007). "National Scientist Dr. Paulo Campos passes away at 85". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved December 29, 2007.
- Sabater, Madel (August 12, 2014). "Dr Ramon Barba: Science 'against all odds'". Rappler. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "Mabuhay acquires Indon satellite;sets new orbit". Manila Standard. July 25, 1996. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- McDowwel, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- De Guzman, RJ (June 24, 2014). "PH soon in space; DOST to launch satellite by 2016". Kicker Daily News. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "IRRI website: About IRRI".
- "International Rice Research Institute on Google maps".
- "An adventure in applied science: A history of the International Rice Research Institute". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- "Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone". Forbes. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14.
- Francisco, Rosemarie. (March 4, 2008). Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Reuters. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007). Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Special Report: The Global 2000. (April 2, 2008). Forbes. p.10. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- "LAWS, RULES & REGULATIONS". National Telecommunications Commission. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Telecommunications Commission. [c. 2010]. "Broadcast(AM,FM,TV,CATV) – Number of Broadcast and CATV Stations by Region". Archived from the original on June 28, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Guerrero, Alora Uy (March 20, 2014). "#20PHnet: A timeline of Philippine Internet". Yahoo. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Telecommunications Commission. [c. 2010]. "Internet Service Providers – Internet Service". Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
- Internet World Stats. (2009). Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report. Miniwatts Marketing Group. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Liao, Jerry. (May 9, 2008). "The Philippines – Social Networking Capital of the World". Cnet Asia. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- "Philippines – Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP – Travel & Tourism Total Contribution to GDP – % share". Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Travel and tourism to contribute P490B or 3.8% to 2014 PHL output, says council". GMA News and Current Affairs. March 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Philippines' tourism sector bullish on 2015 Asean integration". AsiaOne News. September 6, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS and RECEIPTS FOR JANUARY TO JUNE 2014". Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "UPDATED: New DOT slogan is "It's more fun in the Philippines," new logo also unveiled". Spot.ph. January 6, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Malacanang welcomes award for global tourism campaign 'It's More Fun in the Philippines'". InterAksyon. July 13, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "BORACAY 2012 WORLD'S BEST ISLAND". July 11, 2012. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 (pdf page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (2008). "Official population count reveals..". Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- "Bishops threaten civil disobedience over RH bill". GMA News. September 29, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- Central Intelligence Agency. "Field Listing :: Life expectancy at birth". Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Asis, Maruja M.B. (January 2006). "The Philippines' Culture of Migration". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- "Selected Population Profile in the United States: Filipino alone or in any combination". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2009. The U.S. Census Bureau 2007 American Community Survey counted 3,053,179 Filipinos; 2,445,126 native and naturalized citizens, 608,053 of whom were not U.S. citizens.
- Global Pinoys to rally at Chinese consulates – The Philippine Star » News » Headlines. The Philippine Star (April 27, 2012). Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (April 2008). "Total Population and Annual Population Growth Rates by Region: Population Censuses 1995, 2000, and 2007". Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Demographia. (July 2010). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 6.1). Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009). 2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- Hawksworth, John, Thomas Hoehn and Anmol Tiwari. "Global City GDP Rankings 2008–2025". UK Economic Outlook November 2009. PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 20. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (2009). The Philippines in Figures 2009 (PDF). ISSN 1655-2539. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- "Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015). . Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
- Capelli; Christian; James F. Wilson; Martin Richards; Michael P. H. Stumpf; Fiona Gratrix; Stephen Oppenheimer; Peter Underhill; Ko, Tsang-Ming (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular South Asia and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276. PMID 11170891. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- "Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). Retrieved December 18, 2009.
- Filipino Food and Culture. Food-links.com. Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Indian Dating and Matchmaking in Philippines – Indian Matrimonials. Futurescopes.com (January 3, 2011). Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Filipino Foods. Philippinecountry.com. Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News. Newsinfo.inquirer.net (May 30, 2011). Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino. Asiapacificuniverse.com. Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
- Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes
- "The Impact of Spanish Rule in the Philippines". (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project.
- Philippine Census, 2010. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex, and Region: 2013.
- (2013). Languages of Philippines. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
- Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael. "New Prospects for the Spanish Language in the Philippines". Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- "Spanish language in Philippines". Retrieved March 1, 2015.
- "Ethnologue Report on Chavacano". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Muslim education program gets P252-M funding. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 13, 2011.
- DepEd to continue teaching French in select public schools in 2013. Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 6, 2012.
- Philippines: Students to take foreign language. Gulf News. March 22, 2013.
- "Filipino Catholic population expanding, say Church officials". inquirer.net.
- "9% of Catholics Sometimes Think of Leaving the Church". sws.org.ph.
- "Demography". Philippines in Figures (PDF). Manila: National Statistics Office. 2014. p. 27. ISSN 1655-2539. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
- Philippines, CIA Factbook
- "Philippines - LDS Statistics and Church Facts - Total Church Membership". www.mormonnewsroom.org.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (February 18, 2003). "2000 Census: Additional Three Persons Per Minute". Archived from the original on June 10, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "CHRISTIANITY IN THE PHILIPPINES". niu.edu.
- Author Name. "Welcome to NCMF".
- RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference. (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...".
- U.S. Department of State. (2010). Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-20, "Islam is the largest minority religion, and Muslims constitute between 5 and 9 percent of the total population."
- R Michael Feener, Terenjit Sevea. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia. p. 144. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010.
- The Largest Baha'i Communities. (September 30, 2005). Retrieved April 26, 2010 from www.adherents.com.
- "図録▽世界各国の宗教". ttcn.ne.jp.
- "PHL spends less on health care amid economic boom — PIDS". GMA News and Public Affairs. September 4, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- World Health Organization. (2009). World Health Statistics 2009 (PDF). Geneva. ISBN 978-92-4-156381-9. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Philippine News Agency. (December 14, 2009). "Senate approves proposed 2010 national budget". Retrieved December 18, 2009 from the Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "DOH budget increase for 2014 'biggest ever' due to sin tax law". Action for Economic Reforms. January 15, 2014. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- World Health Organization. (April 2006). Philippines. Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008). USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- Santos, Tina G. (April 1, 2013). "HIV cases rose 43% to 486 in February; 16 AIDS deaths reported — DOH". Philippines Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Mydans, Seth (April 20, 2003). "Low Rate Of AIDS Virus In Philippines Is a Puzzle". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "LITERACY OF MEN AND WOMEN IN THE PHILIPPINES" (PDF). National Statistics Office. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Highlights of the 2008 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS)" (PDF). Technical Education and Skills Development Authority. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "'Last leg' before K to 12: DepEd gets highest budget". Rappler. September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "DepEd gets largest share of proposed 2015 budget". Manila Bulletin. July 31, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). Information on Higher Education System at the Wayback Machine (archived July 4, 2011). Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
- Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: August 11, 2001). Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
- Dexter San Pedro (May 15, 2013). "Aquino signs K-12 enhanced basic education law". InterAksyon.com. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "K to 12 Basic Education Program Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Department of Education. November 25, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
- Jerry E. Esplanada (July 20, 2009). "Mainstreaming Madrasa". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008). Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University. Chan Robles Law Library.
- Baringer, Sally E. [c. 2006]. "The Philippines". In Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg Inc. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from www.everyculture.com.
- Rowthorn, Chris and Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 44. ISBN 1-74104-289-5.
- Dumont, Jean-Paul. (1992). Visayan Vignettes: Ethnographic Traces of a Philippine Island. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-226-16954-5.
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2010). "Baroque Churches of the Philippines". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
- Rowthorn, Chris and Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 145. ISBN 1-74104-289-5.
- "The Jollibee Phenomenon". Jollibee Inc. Archived from the original on June 23, 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Conde, Carlos H. (May 31, 2005). "Jollibee stings McDonald's in Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Anthropomorphic Pots : Metal Age : Ayub Cave, Saranggani Province". Nationalmuseum.gov.ph. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "History Of Philippine Painting". Wiziq.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- Social Values and Organization, Philippines, country studies.us
- Chris Rowthorn; Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4.
- Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs, The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, on pages 2 and 10, http://didache.nts.edu.
- Talisayon, Serafin. Filipino Values, Chapeter XIII, Teaching Values in the Natural and Physical Sciences in the Philippines, crvp.orgp
- Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil. (2005). Authentic Though not Exotic: Essays on Filipino Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 281. ISBN 971-550-479-5.
- Rowthorn, Chris and Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 48. ISBN 1-74104-289-5.
- Zibart, Eve. (2001). The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion: Understanding the Cuisines of the World. Menasha Ridge Press. p. 277. ISBN 0-89732-372-6.
- Lopez, Mellie Leandicho. (2006). A Handbook of Philippine Folklore. University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 971-542-514-3.
- Zaide, Gregorio and Sonia (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero. Quezon City: All Nations publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 971-642-070-6.
- Republic of the Philippines. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. The National Artists of the Philippines. Retrieved December 26, 2009 from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts Website.
- Country profile: The Philippines. (December 8, 2009). BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
- Santiago, Erwin (April 12, 2010). AGB Mega Manila TV Ratings (April 7–11): Agua Bendita pulls away at the Wayback Machine (archived June 23, 2011). Retrieved May 23, 2010 from the Philippine Entertainment Portal Website.
- "Restoring Himala". Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 5, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "May Himala! Restored film proves real global classic". Yahoo!. August 16, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- "Restored version of Himala will premiere at the 69th Venice Film Festival". pep.ph. August 13, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Cannes Classics 2013 line-up unveiled". Screen Daily. Retrieved April 30, 2013.
- "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (April 26, 2007). The Economist. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
- "Billiard Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees". (2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Billiard Congress of America Website.
- Mga Kilalang Pilipino [Known Filipinos]. (n.d.) (in Filipino). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project.
- Himmer, Alastair (June 5, 2010). "Pacquiao named fighter of the decade". Reuters.
- Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: December 11, 2009). An Act Declaring Arnis as the National Martial Art and Sport of the Philippines. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from the Senate of the Philippines Website.
- "The Games of the VIII Olympiad: Official Report (part 1, page 91)" (PDF). la84foundation.org (in French). French Olympic Committee. July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Smothers, Ronald (July 19, 1996). "OLYMPICS;Bitterness Lingering Over Carter's Boycott". The New York Times.
- The Official Report of XIth Winter Olympic Games, Sapporo 1972 (PDF). The Organizing Committee for the Sapporo Olympic Winter Games. 1973. pp. 32, 145, 447. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- Mga Larong Kinagisnan at the Wayback Machine (archived November 6, 2007) [Games One Grows Up With]. Hagonoy.com. (archived from the original on November 6, 2007)
- Mga Larong Pilipino [Philippine Games]. (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original on June 28, 2014)
- Dundes, Alan (1994). The Cockfight: A Casebook. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-0-299-14054-0.
- Yo-yo. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Garotech Publishing. ISBN 9718711066.
- Armes, Roy (1987). Third World Film Making and the West. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520908017.
- Chandler, David P.; Steinberg, David Joel (1987). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (revised 2nd edition ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824811100.
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 0874175909.
- Dumont, Jean-Paul (1992). Visayan Vignettes: Ethnographic Traces of a Philippine Island. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226169545.
- Fox, Robert B. (1970). The Tabon Caves: Archaeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan. National Museum. ASIN B001O7GGNI.
- Friis, Herman Ralph. ed. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration. American Geographical Society.
- Go, Julian; Foster, Anne L. (2003). The American Colonial State in the Philippines: Global Perspectives. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822330997.
- Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. ISBN 9712339343.
- Hirahara, Naomi (2003). Distinguished Asian American Business Leaders. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 1573563447.
- Kurlansky, Mark (1999). The Basque History of the World. Nueva York: Walker & Company. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1.
- McAmis, Robert Day (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0802849458.
- Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9814155675.
- Osborne, Milton E. (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (9th ed.). Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1741144485.
- Oxford Business Group (2009). The Report: Philippines 2009. Oxford Business Group. ISBN 1902339126.
- Price, Michael G. (2002). America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913. Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96821-9.
- Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1884964044.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31395-4.
- Rowthorn, Chris; Bloom, Greg (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1741042895.
- Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 9711002272.
- Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9715501354.
- Solheim, Wilhelm G., II (2006). Archeology and Culture in Southeast Asia. University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 9789715425087.
- Spate, Oskar H. K. (1979). "Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan I. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 070990049X.
- Tarling, Nicholas (1999). "Part Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800". The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia 1. Cambridge, RU: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521663709.
- Tarling, Nicholas (2000). "From World War II to the Present". The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia 4. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521663725.
- Tople, Lily Rose R.; Nonan-Mercado, Detch P. (2002). Philippines. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761414754.
- Ure, John (2008). Telecommunications Development in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9789622099036.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). Philippine Political and Cultural History. Philippine Education Co.
- Zanini, Gianni (1999). Philippines: From Crisis to Opportunity : Country Assistance Review. World Bank Publications. ISBN 0821342940.
- Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil (2005). Authentic Though not Exotic: Essays on Filipino Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9715504795.
- Zibart, Eve (2001). The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion: Understanding the Cuisines of the World. Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 0897323726.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website of the Republic of the Philippines (Official Gazette online)
- Official website of the Senate of the Philippines
- Official website of the House of Representatives of the Philippines
- Official website of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
- Official website of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)
- Official website of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
- Official website of the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
- Official website of the Philippine National Police (PNP)
- Official website of the Department of Tourism
- The Philippines Online Tourism Guide
- General information
- Philippines profile from the BBC News
- Philippines at the Wayback Machine (archived May 21, 2011) at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Philippines entry at The World Factbook
- The Philippines Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal
- Philippines at DMOZ
- Philippines at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Philippine News and Current Events
- Key Development Forecasts for the Philippines from International Futures
- Books and articles
- History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor)
- Washington Post – How the Philippines Sees America
- Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- Filipinana.net – Free digital library and a research portal
- WikiSatellite view of Philippines at WikiMapia