Arlie Russell Hochschild

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Arlie Russell Hochschild
Arlie Russell Hochschild (crop).jpeg
Hochschild in 2017
Arlie Russell

(1940-01-15) January 15, 1940 (age 81)
Alma materSwarthmore College (BA)
University of California-Berkeley (MA, PhD)
Known forThe Second Shift, The Managed Heart, Strangers in Their Own Land, The Time Bind, Emotional labor, Work-family relations, Emotion work, Gender division of labor in the household, Feeling rules, Framing rules, Market culture,Global care chain
Spouse(s)Adam Hochschild
Scientific career
FieldsSocial Psychology, Sociology of Emotions, Gender and Politics
InstitutionsUniversity of California-Berkeley
InfluencesC. Wright Mills, David Riesman

Arlie Russell Hochschild (/ˈhkʃɪld/; born January 15, 1940) is an American professor emerita of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley[1] and writer. Hochschild has long focused on the human emotions which underlie moral beliefs, practices, and social life generally. She is the author of nine books including, most recently Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right, a finalist for the National Book Award. In The Second Shift, The Managed Heart, The Time Bind and others of her books, she continues the tradition of C. Wright Mills drawing links between private troubles and public issues.[2]

Hochschild seeks to make visible the underlying role of emotion and the work of managing emotion, the paid form of which she calls "emotional labor." For her, "the expression and management of emotion are social processes. What people feel and express depend on societal norms, one's social category and position, and cultural factors."[3]

In 2021 she was elected to the American Philosophical Society.[4]


Early life and family background[edit]

Hochschild was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the daughter of Ruth Alene (Libbey) and Francis Henry Russell, a diplomat who served in Israel, New Zealand, Ghana, and Tunisia.[5] In Hochschild's early life, she became fascinated with the boundaries people draw between inner experience and outer appearance. As she writes in the preface to her book The Managed Heart: The Commercialization of Human Feeling,

"I found myself passing a dish of peanuts among many guests and looking up at their smiles; diplomatic smiles can look different when seen from below than when seen straight on. Afterwards I would listen to my mother and father interpret various gestures. The tight smile of the Bulgarian emissary, the averted glance of the Chinese consul . . . I learned, conveyed messages not simply from person to person but from Sofia to Washington, from Peking to Paris, and from Paris to Washington. Had I passed the peanuts to a person, I wondered, or to an actor? Where did the person end and the act begin? Just how is a person related to an act?"[6]

Education and academic career[edit]

Hochschild graduated from Swarthmore College in 1962 and then earned her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, whose faculty she soon joined. She wrote her first book, The Unexpected Community, in 1973. As a graduate student, Hochschild was greatly inspired by the writings of Erving Goffman and C. Wright Mills. In White Collar, Mills argued that we "sell our personality." This resonated with Hochschild, however she felt that more needed to be added. As she writes,

"Mills seemed to assume that in order to sell personality, one need only have it. Yet simply having personality does not make one a diplomat, any more than having muscles makes one an athlete. What was missing was a sense of the active emotional labor involved in the selling. This labor, it seemed to me, might be one part of a distinctly patterned yet invisible emotional system—a system composed of individual acts of 'emotion work,' social 'feeling rules,' and a great variety of exchanges between people in private and public life."[7]

Hochschild went on to create concepts which illuminate the power of emotion in social life. With her husband, writer Adam Hochschild, she raised two sons.

Hochschild's Thought[edit]

Emotion as social[edit]

Hochschild starts with the thesis that human emotions—joy, sadness, anger, elation, jealousy, envy, despair—are, in large part, social. Each culture, she argues, provides us with prototypes of feeling which, like the different keys on a piano, attune us to different inner notes. Tahitians, she points out, have one word, "sick," for what in other cultures might correspond to envy, depression, grief or sadness.[8]

Culture guides the act of recognizing a feeling by proposing what's possible for us to feel. In The Managed Heart Hochschild cites the Czech novelist Milan Kundera, who writes that the Czech word "litost" refers to an indefinable longing, mixed with remorse and grief—a constellation of feelings with no equivalent in any other language. It is not that non-Czechs never feel litost, she notes; it is that they are not, in the same way, invited to lift out and affirm the feeling—instead of to disregard or suppress it.[9]

Apart from what we think a feeling is, Hochschild asserts in The Managed Heart, we have ideas about what it should be. We say, "You should be thrilled at winning the prize" or "you must be furious at what he did." We evaluate the fit between feeling and context in light of what she calls "feeling rules," which are themselves deeply rooted in culture.[9] In light of such feeling rules, we try to manage our feelings—i.e., we try to be happy at a party, or grief-stricken at a funeral. In all of these ways—our experience of an interaction, our definition of feeling, our appraisal and management of feeling—feeling is social.

In Hochschild's later work, she introduces the "concept of "framing rules", which provide the context for feeling rules."[10] She explains that framing rules are the "rules governing how we see situations"[10] and how they "point to the cognitive, meaningful, and interpretive frame within which feeling rules are situated."[10] An example that clarifies the relationship between framing rules and feeling rules would be: "The norm that women should be at home is a framing rule, while the norm to feel happy about being at home, or to feel guilty about being absent, is a feeling rule."[10]

Emotional expression and management are learned in the private sphere, then later through participation in public life.[11]

Emotional labor[edit]

"Emotional labor" refers to the management of one's feelings and expressions based on the emotional requirements of a job.[9] For example, in The Managed Heart Hochschild writes of how flight attendants are trained to control passengers' feelings during times of turbulence and dangerous situations while suppressing their own fear or anxiety. Bill collectors, too, are often trained to imagine debtors as lazy or dishonest, and so to feel suspicious and be intimidating.[9] As the number of service jobs grows, so too does the amount and number of kinds of emotional labor. In the era of COVID-19, she argues, many front-line workers do the emotional labor of bracketing heightened anxieties about their own health and that of their families while dealing with the fear, anxiety and sometimes hostility of the public.[12]

Increasingly, Hochschild argues, emotional labor has gone global. In her essay, "Love and Gold," in Global Woman she describes immigrant care workers who leave their children and elderly back in the Philippines, Mexico or elsewhere in the global South, to take paid jobs caring for the young and elderly in families in the affluent North. Such jobs call on workers to manage grief and anguish vis-a-vis their own long-unseen children, spouses, and elderly parents, even as they try to feel—and genuinely do feel—warm attachment to the children and elders they daily care for in the North. In an interview with Journal of Consumer Culture, Hochschild focuses on the emotional labor of female immigrants, "So you have women from the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, and Mexico leaving their children and elderly behind to take jobs caring for American, Canadian, Saudi, and European children and elderly. It was also not uncommon to hear nannies say, ‘I love the kids I take care of now more than my own. I hate to say it, but I do'".[13] Extending from the eldest daughter in a rural village who takes care of siblings while a mother cares for an employer's children in the city of a poor country to that employer's employer—and children—in a rich country, outsourcing care work creates a global care chain with a different emotional task at each link of it.[14] Hochschild coined the term global care chain to refer to "a pattern of women leaving their own families in developing countries to care for the children of well-off families."[2]

Work and family[edit]

In other books, Hochschild applies her perspective on emotion to the American family. In The Second Shift, she argues that the family has been stuck in a "stalled revolution." Most mothers work for pay outside the home; that is the revolution. But the jobs they go out to and men they come home to haven't changed as rapidly or deeply as she has; that is the stall. So working mothers end up doing the lion's share of the work—both emotional and physical—of tending the home, which leads her to feel resentment. Hochschild traces links between a couple's division of labor and their underlying "economy of gratitude."[15] Who, she asks, is grateful to whom, and for what?[15]

In The Time Bind, Hochschild studied working parents at a Fortune 500 company dealing with an important contradiction. On one hand, nearly everyone she talked to told her that "my family comes first."[16] She argues that working parents in the United States put in long hours at work not because "employers demand long hours nor out of financial need, but because their work lives are more rewarding than their home lives."[17] For this reason, working parents feel a magnetic draw to work. For about a fifth of these working parents, she found, home felt like work and work felt like home. Where, she asked informants, do you get help when you need it? Often the answer was work. Where are you most rewarded for what you do, work or home? Often the answer was work. One man told her, "When I'm doing the right thing with my teenage son, chances are he's giving me hell for it. When I'm doing the right thing at work, my boss is clapping me on my back."[16] Parents, she found, handled this strain in several ways. One way was to reduce their idea of what they needed. ("Oh, I don't really need time to unwind.") Another was to outsource personal tasks. A third was to develop an imaginary self, the self you would be if only you had time.[16] The "time bind" refers to the lack of time parents had to themselves, the feeling that they were always running late and the thought that they were confined to the limited hours of the day.[18] Thus, in the "time bind" Hochschild denotes this paradox of "reversed worlds, in which family becomes like work and work takes on the feel and tone of family."[19]

In an interview with Journal of Consumer Culture, Hochschild describes how capitalism plays a role in one's “imaginary self”. She explains, “Many workers put in long hours, and return home exhausted. They turn to television as a form of passive ‘recovery’ from work. In the four hours of television, they're exposed to thousands of amusing, fun advertisements. Those ads function as a conveyor belt to the mall. At the mall, they spend the money they've earned on objects that function as totems to a ‘potential self’ or hypothetical self – a self we would be if only we had time”. It is also a self in danger of being perpetually in emotional debt to loved ones.[13]

Politics and emotion[edit]

Her latest book, Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right, is based on five years of immersion research among Louisiana supporters of the Tea Party. It explores the role of emotion in politics by first posing a paradox. Why, she asks, do residents of the nation's second poorest state vote for candidates who resist federal help? Why in a highly polluted state, do they vote for politicians reluctant to regulate polluting industries? Her search for answers leads her to the concept of the "deep story." A deep story is a story that feels true about a highly salient feature of life. One takes facts out of a deep story. One takes moral precepts out of the deep story. What remains is simply what feels true about a highly salient issue, and can be described through a metaphor, as the experience of "waiting in line" for a valued reward, and witnessing unwelcome "line-cutters." Everyone, she argues, has a deep story—and for many on the right, it reflects a keen sense of decline, the sting of scorn, and sense of being a stranger in one's own land. In an 2020 OpEd for The Guardian, she proposes the concept of "emotional strategy"—a strategy of focusing primarily on emotion—which many politicians pursue as a minor part of an overall strategy, and others pursue as a central project.[20] She has added other "chapters" to the deep story that have occurred since 2016, which she relates in an interview Derik Thompson conducted with her in "The Deep Story of Trumpism" for the Atlantic Monthly.[21] She's suggested other ideas on politics through OpEds and book reviews.

Hochschild's work describes the many ways in which each individual self becomes a shock absorber of larger forces, and focuses on the impact of these forces on emotion.


Hochschild has received Honorary Doctoral Degrees from Harvard University, 2021, Swarthmore College, 1993, Aalborg University, 2004 (Denmark), the University of Oslo, 2000, (Norway), the University of Lapland, 2012, (Finland), Mount St. Vincent University, 2013 (Canada), Westminster College (Pennsylvania), 2018 (U.S.) and University of Lausanne, 2018 (Switzerland). She also received the Ulysses Medal from University College Dublin, 2015 Ireland, and was elected to the American Philosophical Society, 2021.

Hochschild was a finalist for the 2016 National Book Award for Strangers In Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right and the book was a New York Times Bestseller. The book was also listed by the New York Times as one of "6 Books to Help Understand Trump's Win" (November 9, 2016.) She was also awarded a prize for this book (translated by Xia Fan and published by SSAP) in 2020 by the Beijing News Book Review, Beijing, Mainland China.

For earlier work she was awarded the Ulysses Medal from University College Dublin, Ireland. Hochschild has also won Guggenheim, Fulbright and Mellon fellowships, and three awards granted by the American Sociological Association—the Charles Cooley Award (for The Managed Heart) the Jessie Bernard Award (for The Second Shift, The Time Bind and Global Woman), and the Award for Public Understanding of Sociology (for lifetime achievement). In awarding Hochschild the Jessie Bernard Award, the citation observed her "creative genius for framing questions and lines of insight, often condensed into memorable, paradigm-shifting words and phrases."

The Managed Heart, The Second Shift, The Time Bind, and Strangers In Their Own Land have been named "Notable Books of the Year" by The New York Times.

The Outsourced Self: Intimate Life in Market Times was chosen by Publisher's Weekly as one of the "Best Books of 2012." The last chapter was excerpted in The New York Times (May 5, 2012).


"Most women without children spend much more time than men on housework; with children, they devote more time to both housework and child care. Just as there is a wage gap between men and women in the workplace, there is a "leisure gap" between them at home. Most women work one shift at the office or factory and a "second shift" at home."[22]

"The more anxious, isolated and time-deprived we are, the more likely we are to turn to paid personal services. To finance these extra services, we work longer hours. This leaves less time to spend with family, friends and neighbors; we become less likely to call on them for help, and they on us."[22]

"For many of us, work is the one place where we feel appreciated. The things that we long to experience at home- pride in our accomplishments, laughter and fun, relationships that aren't complex- we sometimes experience most often in the office. Bosses applaud us when we do a good job. Co-workers become a kind of family we feel we fit into."[22]

"The deal we made with the workplace wasn't made with families in mind: to work year-round in eight hour workdays through thick and thin, newborns, normal childhood illnesses, difficulties at school, elderly people getting sick. In whose interest is this? And can't we change it, making of two nine-hour days three six hour days, creating an extra job and making life livable for everyone?"[23]


Within sociology, Hochschild is known as the founder of the sociology of emotion and, outside of it, as a public sociologist, contributing to publications, such as The New York Times op-ed page and Book Review, The Washington Post, Mother Jones, The American Prospect, Harper's Magazine, The Progressive and The New York Review of Books.

Concepts developed by Hochschild, such as "emotional labor," "feeling rules", the "economy of gratitude," and "global care chains" have been adopted by scholars in a range of disciplines. Capturing a range of research and debate, a collection published in 2011, At the Heart of Work and Family: Engaging the Ideas of Arlie Hochschild, critically explores some of her key concepts.[24] Another collection of papers devoted to her work is Pathways to Empathy: New Studies on Commodification, Emotional Labor and Time Binds (2013) edited by Gertraud Koch and Stephanie Everke Buchanan (Campus Verlag-Arbeit und Alltag, University of Chicago Press). The book is based on papers given at an "International Workshop in Honour of Hochschild" at Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany (November 12–13, 2011). A monograph by Madalena d'Oliviera-Martins entitled Arlie Russell Hochschild: Un Camino Hacia El Corazon De La Sociologia explores the main ideas found in her work. (Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas, Monograph 309, 242 ps, Montalban, 8, 28014, Madrid, Spain, 2018). Her work appears in 16 languages


  • Hochschild, Arlie Russell (1973). The Unexpected Community. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-936385-6.
  • The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1983. ISBN 978-0-520-05454-7
  • The Second Shift: Working Families and the Revolution at Home. New York, N.Y: Viking. 1989. ISBN 978-0-670-82463-2
  • The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Metropolitan Books. 1997. ISBN 978-0-8050-4471-3
  • The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes from Home and Work. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-520-21488-0.
  • Hochschild, Arlie Russell; Ehrenreich, Barbara, eds. (2003). Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-7509-0.
  • The Outsourced Self: Intimate Life in Market Times. New York: Metropolitan Books. 2012. ISBN 978-0-8050-8889-2
  • So How's the Family? and Other Essays. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2013. ISBN 978-0-520-27228-6.
  • Hochschild, Arlie Russell; Tronto, Joan; Gilligan, Carol (2013). Contre l'Indifférence Des Privilégiés: à Quoi Sert le Care (in French). Paris: Payot. ISBN 978-2-228-90877-1.
  • Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right. New York: The New Press. 2016. ISBN 978-1-62097-225-0.

Juvenile fiction[edit]

  • Coleen the Question Girl. London, Great Britain: Invisible Spaces of Parenthood. 2016. ISBN 978-1-367-45897-0.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Emeritus Faculty | UC Berkeley Sociology Department".
  2. ^ a b Nadasen, Premilla (2017). "Rethinking Care: Arlie Hochschild and the Global Care Chain". WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly. 45 (3–4): 124–128. doi:10.1353/wsq.2017.0049. S2CID 90203592.
  3. ^ Wharton, Amy S. (2011). "The Sociology of Arlie Hochschild". Work and Occupations. 38 (4): 459–464. doi:10.1177/0730888411418921. S2CID 145525401.
  4. ^ "The American Philosophical Society Welcomes New Members for 2021". American Philosophical Society.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Hochschild, 1983; p. ix.
  7. ^ Hochschild, 1983; p. x.
  8. ^ Hochschild, 2003a.
  9. ^ a b c d Hochschild, 1983.
  10. ^ a b c d
  11. ^ Wharton, A. S. (2011). The Sociology of Arlie Hochschild. Work & Occupations, 38(4), 459-464.
  12. ^ Stix, Gary. "Emotional Labor Is a Store Clerk Confronting a Maskless Customer". Scientific American. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  13. ^ a b Wilson, N. H., & Lande, B. J. (n.d). Feeling Capitalism: A Conversation with Arlie Hochschild. Sage Publications, Ltd.
  14. ^ Hochschild, 2004.
  15. ^ a b Hochschild, 1989.
  16. ^ a b c Hochschild, 2001.
  17. ^ Kasmir, Sharryn (1999). "Reviewed work: The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work, Arlie Russell Hochschild". Science & Society. 63 (3): 380–382. JSTOR 40384312.
  18. ^ Hochschild, A. R. (2006). Chapter 33: The Time Bind. In , Inequality Reader: Contemporary & Foundational Readings in Race, Class, & Gender (pp. 284-289). Perseus Books, LLC.
  19. ^ Wharton, Amy S. (2011). "The Sociology of Arlie Hochschild". Work and Occupations. 38 (4): 459–464. doi:10.1177/0730888411418921. S2CID 145525401.
  20. ^ "The secret to Donald Trump's electoral strategy? Emotion, not policy | Arlie Russell Hochschild". The Guardian. September 2, 2020. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  21. ^ Thompson, Derek (December 29, 2020). "The Deep Story of Trumpism". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  23. ^ "Gale - Product Login".
  24. ^ Anita Ilta Garey and Karen V. Hansen, ed. (2011). At the Heart of Work and Family: Engaging the Ideas of Arlie Hochschild. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4956-9.

Further reading[edit]

  • Adams, Bert N. and R.A. Sydie. 2001. Sociological Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
  • Alis, David. 2009. "Travail Emotionnel, Dissonance Emotionnelle, et Contrefaçon De I’Intimité: Vingt-Cinq Ans Après La Publication de Managed Heart d’Arlie R. Hochschild." in Politiques de L’Intime, edited by I. Berrebi-Hoffmann. Paris, France: Editions La Decouverte.
  • Farganis, James. 2007. Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Garey, Anita Ilta and Karen V. Hansen. 2011. "Introduction: An Eye on Emotion in the Study of Families and Work." pp. 1–14 in At the Heart of Work and Family: Engaging the Ideas of Arlie Hochschild, edited by Anita Ilta Garey and Karen V. Hansen. New Brunswick: NJ.
  • Introduction by A. Grandey, in Emotional Labor in the 21st Century: Diverse Perspectives on Emotion Regulation at Work (2013) by Grandey, A., Diefendorff, J.A., & Rupp, D. (Eds.). New York, NY: Psychology Press/Routledge.
  • Greco, Monica, Carmen Leccardi, Roberta Sassatelli and Arlie Hochschild. "Roundtable on and with A. R. Hochschild, Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia," October/December 2014, pp. 819–840.
  • Hanninen, Vilma, Jukka Partanen, and Oili-Helena Ylijoki, eds. 2001. Sosiaalipsykologian Suunnannäyttäjiä. Tampere, Finland: Vastapaino.
  • Kimmel, Sherri. 2013. "A Playful Spirit," Swarthmore College Bulletin, April, A Playful Spirit - Swarthmore College Bulletin.
  • Koch, Gertraud, & Stephanie Everke Buchanan (eds). 2013. Pathways to Empathy: New Studies on Commodification, Emotional Labor and Time Binds. Campus Verlag-Arbeit und Alltag, University of Chicago Press. (The book is based on papers given at an "International Workshop in Honour of Arlie Russell Hochschild," Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany (November 12–13, 2011).)
  • Mazzarela, Marete. 2014. "How to Turn Emotions into Capital," Svenska Dagbladet (February 27).
  • Sakiyama, Haruo. 2008. "Theoretical Contribution of Arlie Hochschild" (in Japanese). In Japanese Handbook of Sociology, edited by S. Inoue and K. Ito. Kyoto, Japan: Sekai-Shiso-Sya
  • Skucinska, Anna. 2002. "Nowe Obszary Utowardowienia" (in Czech).
  • Smith, Stephen Lloyd. 1999. "Arlie Hochschild: Soft-spoken Conservationist of Emotions: Review and Assessment of Arlie Hochschild's work," in Soundings, Issue 11 – Emotional Labour, Spring 1999, pp. 120–127.
  • Smith, Stephen. 2014. "Arlie Russell Hochschild: Spacious Sociologies of Emotion," Oxford Handbook of Sociology, Social Theory, and Organization Studies: Contemporary Currents, (edited by Paul Adler, Paul du Gay, Glenn Morgan and Mike Reed).
  • Wharton, Amy S. 2011. "The Sociology of Arlie Hochschild", Work and Occupations, 38(4), pp. 459–464.
  • Williams, Simon J. 1998. Chapter 18. pp. 240–251 in Key Sociological Thinkers, edited by R. Stones. New York: New York University Press.
  • Wilson, N. H., & Lande, B. J. (n.d). Feeling Capitalism: A Conversation with Arlie Hochschild. Sage Publications, Ltd.
  • American Sociological Association. Arlie Hochschild Award Statement, [1]

External links[edit]