Unite the Right rally
|Part of Terrorism in the United States, Antisemitism in the United States and Neo-Nazism in the United States|
|Date||August 11–12, 2017|
|Location||Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.|
|Organized by||Jason Kessler, Richard Spencer|
|Participants||Various alt-right, neo-Nazi, neo-Fascist, white supremacist, white nationalist, Ku Klux Klan, neo-Confederate, Identitarian and other far-right groups.|
|Part of the Politics and elections and Politics series on|
|Part of a series on|
The Unite the Right rally was a white supremacist and neo-Nazi rally that took place in Charlottesville, Virginia, from August 11 to 12, 2017. Protesters were members of the far-right and included self-identified members of the alt-right, neo-Confederates, neo-fascists, white nationalists, neo-Nazis, Klansmen, and various right-wing militias. The marchers chanted racist and antisemitic slogans and carried weapons, Nazi and neo-Nazi symbols, the Valknut, Confederate battle flags, Deus Vult crosses, flags, and other symbols of various past and present anti-Muslim and antisemitic groups. The organizers' stated goals included unifying the American white nationalist movement and opposing the proposed removal of the statue of General Robert E. Lee from Charlottesville's former Lee Park.
The rally occurred amidst controversy generated by the removal of Confederate monuments by local governments following the Charleston church shooting in 2015, in which a white supremacist shot and killed nine black members, including the minister (a state senator), and wounded others. The event turned violent after protesters clashed with counter-protesters, resulting in more than 30 injured.
On the morning of August 12, Virginia governor Terry McAuliffe declared a state of emergency, stating that public safety could not be safeguarded without additional powers. Within an hour, at 11:22 a.m., the Virginia State Police declared the rally to be an unlawful assembly. At around 1:45 p.m., self-identified white supremacist James Alex Fields Jr. deliberately rammed his car into a crowd of counter-protesters about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) away from the rally site, killing Heather Heyer and injuring 19 other people. Fields fled the scene in his car but was arrested soon afterward; he was tried and convicted in Virginia state court of first-degree murder, malicious wounding, and other crimes in 2018, with the jury recommending a sentence of life imprisonment plus 419 years. The following year, Fields pleaded guilty to 29 federal hate crimes in a plea agreement to avoid the death penalty in this trial.
US President Donald Trump's remarks on Charlottesville generated negative responses. In his initial statement on the rally, Trump "condemned hatred, bigotry, and violence on many sides". While Trump condemned both neo-Nazis and white nationalists, his first statement and subsequent defenses of it, in which he also referred to "very fine people on both sides", were seen by critics as implying moral equivalence between the white supremacist marchers and those who protested against them. Some interpreted his remarks as sympathetic to white supremacists.
The rally and resulting death and injuries resulted in a backlash against white supremacist groups in the United States. A number of groups that participated in the rally had events canceled by universities, and their financial and social media accounts closed by major companies. Some Twitter users led a campaign to identify and publicly shame marchers at the rally from photographs; at least one rally attendee was dismissed from his job as a result of the campaign. While the organizers intended for the rally to unite far-right groups with the goal of playing a larger role in American politics, the backlash and resultant infighting between alt-right leaders has been credited with causing a decline in the movement.
After Charlottesville refused to approve another march, Unite the Right held an anniversary rally on August 11–12, 2018, in Washington, D.C. The rally drew only 20–30 protesters amidst thousands of counter-protesters, including religious organizations, civil rights groups, and anti-fascist organizers.
In the wake of the Charleston church shooting in June 2015, efforts were made across the South to remove Confederate monuments from public spaces and rename streets honoring notable figures from the Confederacy. While often successful, these efforts faced a backlash from people concerned about protecting their Confederate heritage. The August 11–12 Unite the Right rally was organized by Charlottesville native Jason Kessler to protest the Charlottesville City Council's decision to remove the Robert E. Lee statue honoring the Confederate general, as well as the renaming of the statue's eponymous park (renamed to Emancipation Park in June 2017, and again to Market Street Park in 2018). The Charlottesville resident and University of Virginia graduate took up the cause in March 2016 when Charlottesville Vice Mayor Wes Bellamy held a press conference to call for removal of the statue. Kessler, referring to Bellamy as "anti-white," exposed a series of offensive tweets made by Bellamy several years earlier and began an unsuccessful petition drive which sought to remove Bellamy from office. In the first of many altercations in which he was involved, Kessler was charged with assault for his January 22, 2017, punching of a resident who rebuked his recall petition and refused to sign it. While Bellamy stepped down from his post on the Virginia Board of Education, resigned his teaching position at Albemarle High School, and apologized for the offensive tweets, he ultimately remained on City Council after Kessler's petition was dismissed by a judge. Lee Park became the site of numerous neo-Confederate events throughout the spring of 2017, including a campaign rally by Virginia Republican gubernatorial candidate Corey Stewart, which further politicized this public space.
Summer rallies in Charlottesville
On May 13, 2017, white supremacist Richard Spencer led a nighttime rally in Charlottesville to protest the city's plans to remove the statue of Lee. The event involved over 100 protesters, from various alt-right groups from around the country, chanting "Jews will not replace us!" and "Russia is our friend!" while holding lit torches near the statue, a spectacle which many Charlottesville residents found intimidating, and which the mayor denounced as a "harken[ing] back to the days of the KKK." The next night, hundreds of anti-racist Charlottesville residents held a candlelight counterprotest in response. Throughout the spring of 2017, tensions mounted as neo-Confederate and alt-right groups' sporadic gatherings in Charlottesville's downtown parks and pedestrian mall were confronted by anti-racist activists, resulting in occasional scuffles and some arrests. On July 8, 2017, the Loyal White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, a group from Pelham, North Carolina, held a rally at the Stonewall Jackson statue in Charlottesville. In opposition to the rally, the Charlottesville Clergy Collective created a safe space two blocks from the Klan rally at First United Methodist Church, which was used by over 600 people. About 50 Klan members were drowned out by 1,000 counterprotesters (including 23 civil disobedience activists arrested for attempting to block the Klan group's entry into the park), who gathered at a loud but nonviolent rally dubbed by anti-racist organizers as the "#BlocKKKParty." After the Klan group's departure, however, the Charlottesville Police Department declared the remaining counterprotesters to be an unlawful assembly, and ordered their dispersal—an order which, given the din of the crowd and the police helicopter hovering overhead, went unheard by many in the crowd. Although the Charlottesville chief of police had denied permission for the measure, the Virginia State Police acted upon an unapproved order and fired three tear gas canisters into a retreating group of counterprotesters. Police and city government officials later defended the action, which anti-racist counter-demonstrators and legal observer organizations characterized as police brutality. The resulting mistrust between law enforcement and local activists clouded the remainder of the summer, setting the stage for the August 12 Unite the Right rally.
Among the far-right groups engaged in organizing the march were the Stormer Book Clubs (SBCs) of the neo-Nazi news website The Daily Stormer, The Right Stuff, the National Policy Institute, and four groups that form the Nationalist Front: the neo-Confederate League of the South and Identity Dixie, the neo-Nazi groups Traditionalist Worker Party, Vanguard America, and the National Socialist Movement. Other groups involved in the rally were the Ku Klux Klan (specifically the Loyal White Knights and the Confederate White Knights branches), the Fraternal Order of Alt-Knights, the neo-nazi White supremacist group Identity Evropa (since rebranded as the 'American Identity Movement'), the Southern California-based fight club Rise Above Movement, the American Guard, the Detroit Right Wings – misappropriating the name of the Detroit Red Wings NHL team, which usage was condemned by the team, True Cascadia, the Canada-based ARM (Alt-Right Montreal) and Hammer Brothers, and Anti-Communist Action.
Prominent far-right figures in attendance included National Policy Institute Chairman and white supremacist Richard Spencer, entertainer and internet troll Baked Alaska, former Libertarian Party candidate Augustus Invictus, former Ku Klux Klan Imperial Wizard David Duke, Identity Evropa leader Nathan Damigo, Traditionalist Workers Party leader Matthew Heimbach, Right Stuff founder Mike Enoch, Eric Striker of The Daily Stormer, League of the South founder and leader Michael Hill, Red Ice host and founder Henrik Palmgren, The Rebel Media commentator Faith Goldy, Right Side Broadcasting Network host Nick Fuentes, YouTube personality James Allsup, Altright.com European editor Daniel Friberg, former Business Insider CTO Pax Dickinson, Right Stuff blogger Johnny Monoxide, Daily Stormer writers Robert "Azzmador" Ray and Gabriel "Zeiger" Sohier-Chaput, Daily Caller contributor and rally organizer Jason Kessler, and Radical Agenda host Christopher Cantwell. Gavin McInnes, the leader of the self-described "Western chauvinist" Proud Boys was invited to attend but declined because of an unwillingness "to be associated with explicit neo-Nazis" although the militia wing of the group the aforementioned Fraternal Order of the Alt-Knights did attend. In June, ahead of the rally, McInnes declared that "we need to distance ourselves from them", but "after backlash to the original disavowal flared-up from Alt-Right circles, the statement was withdrawn and replaced with another distancing the Proud Boys from the event yet also encouraging those who 'feel compelled' to attend".
Airbnb cancelled a number of bookings and accounts when it learned that they were being used by attendees at the rally, citing a request that users endorse a commitment to "accept people regardless of their race, religion, national origin, ethnicity, disability, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, or age".
Numerous armed, right-wing militia groups were present at the rally, claiming to be there to protect the First Amendment rights of the demonstrators. Groups involved included the Pennsylvania Light Foot Militia, the New York Light Foot Militia, the Virginia Minutemen Militia, and the 3 Percenters.
Those who marched in opposition to the rally were unified in opposition to white supremacy, but "espoused a wide array of ideological beliefs, preferred tactics and political goals. A large number were ordinary residents of Charlottesville who wanted to show their disdain for white supremacist groups, particularly after the Ku Klux Klan held a rally in the city on July 8." Ahead of the rally, an array of "faith-based groups, civil rights organizations, local businesses, and faculty and students at the University of Virginia" planned counterprotests. In July 2017, the ecumenical and interfaith clergy group Congregate Charlottesville called for a thousand members of the clergy to counterprotest at the rally. The Charlottesville House of Prayer also gathered at the site to pray. Groups counterprotesting included representatives from the National Council of Churches, Black Lives Matter, Anti-Racist Action, the Democratic Socialists of America, the Workers World Party, the Revolutionary Communist Party, Refuse Fascism, Redneck Revolt, the Industrial Workers of the World, the Metropolitan Anarchist Coordinating Council, and Showing Up for Racial Justice. Members of the antifa movement were also in attendance. Some counter-protesters came armed.
University and city preparations
The rally was scheduled between the summer and fall terms of the University of Virginia (UVA). On August 4, University President Teresa Sullivan sent an e-mail to students and faculty, which said, "I urge students and all UVA community members to avoid the August 12 rally and avoid physical confrontation generally. There is a credible risk of violence at this event, and your safety is my foremost concern." The University of Virginia Medical Center canceled all elective surgeries and preemptively activated its emergency response plan. Fearing possible violence, the Virginia Discovery Museum and some downtown businesses closed for the day of the rally.
Virginia Secretary of Public Safety and Homeland Security Brian Moran said that the state had made a number of security recommendations to the City for the event, including banning weapons and sticks; designating certain parking areas, and blocking traffic for at least ten blocks. The city, however, did not enact any of these restrictions; city manager Maurice Jones said that city ordinances made it impossible for the city to enact some of the state's suggestions.
Permits and court case
Organizer Jason Kessler applied for a permit from the City of Charlottesville to hold the event at Lee Park. The week before the event, the city government—including Mayor Michael Signer, city council, City Manager Maurice Jones, and Police Chief Al Thomas—said they would approve the permit only if the event was moved to the larger McIntire Park. The city's leaders cited safety concerns and logistical issues associated with holding the event at Lee Park, which is adjacent to the densely populated Downtown Mall. Kessler refused to relocate the rally, but the city overruled him and announced that the rally was to be moved to McIntire Park, a decision praised by the Downtown Business Association of Charlottesville.
Kessler, supported by the Rutherford Institute and the ACLU, sued the City of Charlottesville and Jones on First Amendment grounds in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia. On the evening of August 11, the night before the rally, Judge Glen E. Conrad granted an emergency injunction declaring that the Unite the Right rally could go forward at Lee Park as originally planned. Conrad cited several factors in his decision: that Lee Park was where the Robert E. Lee statue, the primary reason for the rally, was located; that resources would be needed at both parks for both the rally and the counterprotesters; and that the decision to move the rally to McIntire Park was due to the organizers' viewpoints and not the safety of the public. The court's decision was praised by the ACLU. Mayor Signer issued a statement saying: "While the City is disappointed by tonight's ruling, we will abide by the judge's decision. ... Chief Thomas, his team and the hundreds of law enforcement officials in our City will now turn their full attention to protecting the Downtown area during tomorrow's events." Following the rally, on August 17 the executive director of the ACLU announced that "the ACLU will no longer defend hate groups protesting with firearms."
Before the rally, counterprotesters obtained permits to gather at McGuffey Park and Justice Park, both less than a quarter-mile from Lee Park. Charlottesville City Council spokeswoman Miriam I. Dickler later stated that counterprotesters did not need permits to protest the rally at Lee Park.
On the evening of Friday, August 11, a group of white nationalists—variously numbered from "dozens" to "about 250"— gathered for an unannounced (and unsanctioned by the city) march through the University of Virginia's campus. They marched towards the University's Lawn chanting Nazi and white supremacist slogans, including "White lives matter"; "You will not replace us"; and "Jews will not replace us". (The phrase "You will not replace us" has been reported by the Anti-Defamation League to "reflect the white supremacist world view that ... the white race is doomed to extinction by an alleged 'rising tide of color' purportedly controlled and manipulated by Jews".) The Nazi slogan "Blood and Soil" was also used. The group was primarily composed of white men, many of them wielding tiki torches.
At the Rotunda, the group encountered a group of about 30 counterprotesters, mostly UVA students, who had locked arms around a statue of Thomas Jefferson. The white nationalists encircled the smaller group of counterprotesters at the base of the statue, and a brawl ensued. Several people on both sides were reportedly hit with pepper spray, and several people were treated for minor injuries. The white nationalists began swinging and throwing their lit tiki torches amid the chaos. It was several minutes before Virginia State Police came to break up the brawl.
The Cavalier Daily reported, "While waiting for rides at Nameless Field after the march, several of the 'alt-right' protesters hurled antisemitic, homophobic and misogynistic slurs at several reporters and community members asking them questions. One man asking questions was thrown to the ground and surrounded by marchers after a brief physical altercation." Mayor Michael Signer condemned the gathering, writing the following: "When I think of candlelight, I want to think of prayer vigils. Today, in 2017, we are instead seeing a cowardly parade of hatred, bigotry, racism, and intolerance march." University of Virginia President Teresa A. Sullivan at first denied, then later minimized, the university administration's prior knowledge of the impending August 11 torch rally. But subsequent reporting revealed that, throughout the week, university police had been in contact with Identity Evropa leader Eli Mosley about the planned route of the Friday night march through campus, and that university officials ignored warnings relayed by their own faculty six hours before the torch rally, and had under-estimated the threat of violence posed by the alt-right group led by UVA alumus Richard Spencer. The assaults upon UVA students on the night of August 11 presaged more violence at the Unite the Right rally the next day.
Protesters and counterprotesters began gathering as early as 8 a.m. in the morning at Emancipation Park in anticipation of the rally, which was slated to begin at noon and last until 5 p.m.
White nationalist protesters again chanted white supremacist and Nazi-era slogans. Some waved Confederate flags, and others held posters targeting Jews that read "the Goyim know," and "the Jewish media is going down". Protesters also shouted racial slurs and "Jew" when Charlottesville mayor Michael Signer was mentioned, and some waved Nazi flags and signs claiming, among other things, that "Jews are Satan's children." Dozens of protesters wore Donald Trump's red "Make America Great Again" campaign hats.
Saturday morning Sabbath worshippers at synagogue Beth Israel, faced with men in fatigues with semiautomatic rifles across the street, and a call on Nazi web sites to burn their building, felt it prudent to exit the synagogue through a back door, carrying the synagogue's Torah scrolls with them for safekeeping.
Counterprotests began with an interfaith, interracial group of clergy who linked arms, prayed, and sang songs of peace, such as "This Little Light of Mine". Later in the day, counterprotesters chanted slogans including "Kill All Nazis" and "punch a Nazi in the mouth". The armed leftist group Redneck Revolt posted on their website: "To the fascists and all who stand with them, we'll be seeing you in Virginia." Harvard professor Cornel West, who organized some of the counter-demonstrators, said that a group of "20 of us who were standing, many of them clergy, we would have been crushed like cockroaches if it were not for the anarchists and the anti-fascists who approached, over 300, 350 anti-fascists". West stated, "The neofascists had their own ammunition. And this is very important to keep in mind, because the police, for the most part, pulled back."
Virginia allows the open carrying of firearms under state law, and many demonstrators and counter-demonstrators were armed, some with semi-automatic weapons. This presented major challenges for police at the scene. Many of the protesters and counter-protesters carried shields, sticks, and clubs, as well as body armor and helmets. Separately at the rally, Richard W. Preston, the self-identified Imperial Wizard of the Maryland-based Confederate White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was caught on video shooting a pistol at Corey A. Long, an African-American counter-protester who had been carrying an aerosol can whose spray he'd lit. Preston was later found guilty of firing a weapon within 1,000 feet of a school after pleading no contest. Long was charged with misdemeanor assault and disorderly conduct. Long's assault charges were dismissed when the prosecutor, Commonwealth Attorney Joe Platania, could not produce the alleged victim, Harold Crews. Long had struggled over a flagpole wielded by Crews. Platania asked the judge not to impose any active incarceration and said Long was always polite and voluntarily spoke with detectives about the incident. Long was convicted of disorderly conduct and sentenced to 20 days in jail, 340 more days suspended, and 100 hours of community service. A bystander testified at Long's trial that someone behind him yelled, "Kill the nigger!," regarding Long, and he turned, saw Preston and another man advancing toward Long, with Preston pulling a pistol. He said he feared that Long, who was standing on a low wall, would be killed. He said the shot fired by Preston hit the dirt next to Long's feet.
Beginning in the morning, ahead of the rally's official noon start time, "protesters and counterprotesters faced off, kicking, punching, hurling water bottles at and deploying chemical sprays against one another". An estimated 500 protesters and more than a thousand counterprotesters were on the site. The Associated Press reported that "people threw punches, screamed, set off smoke bombs, hurled water bottles and unleashed chemical sprays"; some engaged in combat while "others darted around, trying to avoid the chaos". At least 14 people were injured in street brawls. Following the rally, four warrants for the arrest of white supremacist Christopher Cantwell were issued after Cantwell was charged by Virginia prosecutors with felonies related to "illegal use of gases, and injury by caustic agent or explosive". Separately, The Hill journalist Taylor Lorenz said that she was punched by counter-protesters during the violence, while video posted to social media showed a male protester punching a woman as the crowd left Lee Park; both men were arrested the same day. Both later pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault and battery. Steven Balcaitis, of York, South Carolina, was arrested for assault and battery for choking a counter-protester in an attack that was captured on video. Balcaitis pled guilty to assault and received a 180-day suspended sentence.
U.S. Marine Vasillios Pistolis, a member of the terrorist group Atomwaffen Division, was recorded yelling "White Lives Matter" and "You will not replace us!" with his fellow protesters; later he bragged that he had assaulted a trans woman with a modified version of the Confederate flag. He was later court-martialed by the United States Marine Corps for disobeying orders and making false statements in June 2018 and sentenced to a month's confinement and a presumed discharge thereafter.
At 11:00 a.m. on the 12th the City of Charlottesville declared a state of emergency, citing an "imminent threat of civil disturbance, unrest, potential injury to persons, and destruction of public and personal property". One hour later, Virginia governor Terry McAuliffe declared a state of emergency, stating: "It is now clear that public safety cannot be safeguarded without additional powers, and that the mostly-out-of-state protesters have come to Virginia to endanger our citizens and property. I am disgusted by the hatred, bigotry and violence these protesters have brought to our state."
At 11:22 a.m., before the rally was scheduled to begin, Virginia State Police declared the gathering an unlawful assembly via megaphones, and riot police cleared the scene. Following this, "a hard core of about 100 far-right protesters" moved to McIntire Park about 2 miles (3 km) away, where they gathered to hear speakers who had been scheduled for the "Unite the Right" event.
Vehicular attack and homicide
After the aborted rally, at around 1:45 p.m. James Alex Fields Jr. drove his car into a crowd of counter-protesters, hitting several and slamming into a stopped sedan, which in turn struck a stopped minivan; both were pushed into the crowd. Fields then reversed his car through the crowd and drove off. One person was killed and 19 others injured. Police determined the attack was deliberate.
The ramming occurred at a pedestrian mall at Water and Fourth streets, about four blocks from Lee Park ( Heather D. Heyer, a 32-year-old paralegal from Charlottesville, was fatally injured in the attack and pronounced dead at the University of Virginia's University Hospital. Video footage recorded at the scene by Brennan Gilmore showed a gray 2010 Dodge Challenger accelerating towards crowds on a pedestrian mall, hitting people and sending them airborne, then reversing at high speed, hitting more people. The moment when the car was driven into the crowd was captured on video by bystanders and in aerial video footage taken by a drone. A photographer present at the scene said the car "plowed into a sedan and then into a minivan. Bodies flew. People were terrified and screaming." Bystanders said it was "definitely a violent attack", according to The Guardian. Of the 19 injured survivors, the University of Virginia Medical Center reported that five were initially in critical condition. By the afternoon of August 14, ten patients had been discharged from the hospital, and the nine remaining patients were in good condition.).
Heather Danielle Heyer (May 29, 1985 – August 12, 2017) was the only person killed in the attack. She worked as a paralegal at a law firm, and as a bartender and waitress, at the time of the rally. Heyer and a longtime friend of hers had agreed not to protest the rally, because they thought it would be too dangerous, but the night before the protests, Heyer felt compelled to go.
Heyer's mother, Susan Bro, said she wanted Heather's name to become "a rallying cry for justice and equality and fairness and compassion". Heyer's memorial service was held at Charlottesville's Paramount Theatre on August 16; Heyer's mother spoke to hundreds of mourners, asking them to honor Heyer by acting against injustice and turning "anger into righteous action".
Arrest of James Alex Fields Jr.
Shortly after the collision, James Alex Fields Jr., a 20-year-old from Ohio who reportedly had expressed sympathy for Nazi Germany during his time as a student at Cooper High School in Union, Kentucky, was arrested and charged with second-degree murder.
Fields had been photographed taking part in the rally, holding a shield emblazoned with the logo of Vanguard America, a white supremacist organization. Vanguard America's leaders later stated he was not a member and that "The shields seen do not denote membership" as they were "freely handed out to anyone in attendance." On August 14, Fields was again denied bail. He was held at the Albemarle-Charlottesville County Regional Jail.
National Security Adviser H. R. McMaster and several U.S. senators described the alleged ramming attack as an act of domestic terrorism, as did various commentators. Late on the night of August 12, U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions said the U.S. Department of Justice would open a civil rights investigation into the incident; federal investigators are investigating whether the suspect "crossed state lines with the intent to commit violence". Later, Sessions said the ramming meets the definition of 'domestic terrorism' and that it was "an unacceptable, evil attack".
Separate GoFundMe pages were set up for the Heyer family and for those injured in the crash; the latter was organized by the Anchorage co-chairman of the Democratic Socialists of America. The UVA Health Foundation created a fund for medical expenses of "patients at UVA Medical Center and Sentara Martha Jefferson Hospital who were injured and impacted by this unwanted violence in our community".
Two motorists injured in the vehicle incident have sued the organizers of the event and the driver.
Trial, conviction and sentencing
Fields was charged with second-degree murder, three counts of malicious wounding and failure to stop following an accident resulting in death, and held without bail. On August 18, 2017, Fields was charged with three additional counts of aggravated malicious wounding and two additional counts of malicious wounding. The murder charge was changed to first-degree murder on December 14, 2017. Footage introduced as new evidence for elevating the charges included a video from the Red Pump Kitchen (an Italian restaurant) on the northeast corner of 4th and Main and aerial footage from a Virginia State Police helicopter. Both videos were sealed by the lead prosecutor. The helicopter the footage was from is the same one that crashed later.
On June 27, 2018, Fields was charged with multiple federal hate crimes, including one act which led to the death of Heather Heyer, and 28 counts of hate crimes "causing bodily injury and involving an attempt to kill" referring to the dozens of others injured during the attack.
Fields' trial in Virginia state court lasted two weeks. At trial, Fields did not dispute that he drove the car, but claimed that he acted out of fear and lacked the intent to kill. Video footage and eyewitness testimony, however, showed that Fields was not under attack before he rammed his car into a crowd. Other evidence introduced at trial included a text message exchange the day before the rally, in which Fields' mother wrote to him "Be careful" and Fields responded with a picture of Adolf Hitler and the message "We're not the one[s] who have to be careful." Prosecutors also played a jailhouse phone recording of Fields after the attack, in which Fields called the slain woman's mother "a communist" and "anti-white liberal."
On December 7, 2018, Fields was found guilty of first-degree murder and nine other counts. Four days later, the jury recommended to the trial judge a sentence of life in prison plus 419 years, as well as thousands of dollars in fines; the judge accepted the jury's recommendation. The formal sentencing was scheduled to take place in March 2019, at which time the judge could impose a weaker sentence, but not a stronger one.
Fatal helicopter crash
Around 4:40 p.m. on August 12, a Bell 407 helicopter owned by the Virginia State Police crashed 7 miles (11 km) southwest of Charlottesville-Albemarle Airport, killing two Virginia state troopers who were on board. Lieutenant H. Jay Cullen, 48, of Midlothian, Virginia, and Trooper-Pilot Berke M. M. Bates, 40, of Quinton, Virginia, were on the way to assist with security and public safety in the city. The crash is being investigated by the Federal Aviation Administration, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and Virginia State Police.
The NTSB's preliminary report did not reveal the cause of the crash, but said the aircraft did not collide with anything such as a bird or other aircraft. It noted the helicopter had been in a crash in 2010, attributed to improper maintenance. There is no known link between that 2010 incident and the 2017 crash. On September 5, it was estimated that a final report was expected to take 12–18 months to complete. The final report was released in July 2020 and determined the helicopter had entered a Vortex Ring State.
On August 14, 2019, Cullen and Bates's wives filed separate wrongful death lawsuits over their husbands' deaths against the state of Virginia, the Secretariat of Public Safety and Homeland Security, and the Virginia State Police.
Assault of DeAndre Harris
Twenty-year-old DeAndre Harris, a former special education instruction assistant from Charlottesville, was beaten in a parking garage after intervening swinging a flashlight in a struggle between Corey Long and white supremacists, an assault that was captured by photographers and video footage. Subsequent footage showed a group of six men beating Harris with poles, a metal pipe, and wooden slabs. as Harris attempted to get off the ground. He received a head laceration requiring stitches, a concussion, a knee injury, a fractured wrist, and a spinal injury. The attack was investigated by Charlottesville police, with help from the Virginia State Police and the FBI. Four men were arrested and charged with malicious wounding, a felony, in connection with the attack on Harris. Two of them, Alex Michael Ramos of Georgia, who received six years, and Jacob Scott Goodwin of Arkansas who had worn a military helmet and full-length body shield while kicking Harris on the ground, who got eight years, were convicted following jury trials in Charlottesville. Daniel Borden, of Ohio, was sentenced to nearly four years. The fourth person, Tyler Watkins Davis, only struck Harris once, with a flagpole, but gashed his scalp badly and was sentenced to 23 months in jail. Two other assailants had not been identified, though there was video and photographs of both. One was named "Red Beard," and the other named "Preppy" by the police.
The charge against Harris arose from the claim of Harold Crews, the state chairman of the League of the South, that Harris had attacked him; they further argued the fight was in self defense. In March 2018, a judge acquitted Harris, finding that while Crews was trying to retain a Confederate flag being grabbed by another black counterprotester, Harris had believed Crews was spearing the man with the flagpole, prompting Harris to act in defense of his friend.
Criticism of the police's handling of the rally
ACLU criticism, ProPublica report, and officials' response
In the aftermath of the rally and the car ramming, some criticized the police handling of the rally. Claire Gastañaga, executive director of the Virginia ACLU, wrote that "The situation that occurred was preventable" and the ACLU's lawsuit, which resulted in a federal court granting an injunction allowing the rally to go forward at Lee Park, "did not cause it." Gastañaga wrote that: "The lack of any physical separation of the protesters and counterprotesters on the street was contributing to the potential of violence. [Police] did not respond. In fact, law enforcement was standing passively by, waiting for violence to take place, so that they would have grounds to declare an emergency, declare an 'unlawful assembly' and clear the area."
On August 12, investigative news organization ProPublica published an article reporting that Virginia State Police troopers and Charlottesville police "wearing protective gear watched silently from behind an array of metal barricades" and allowed "white supremacists and counterprotesters to physically battle" without intervening. A. C. Thompson wrote that in "one of countless such confrontations", police watched passively as "an angry mob of white supremacists formed a battle line across from a group of counterprotesters, many of them older and gray-haired, who had gathered near a church parking lot. On command from their leader, the young men charged and pummeled their ideological foes with abandon. One woman was hurled to the pavement, and the blood from her bruised head was instantly visible."
Virginia officials defended the police actions. Governor Terry McAuliffe said police did a "magnificent job" and, "We were unfortunately sued by the ACLU, and the judge ruled against us. That rally should not have been in the middle of downtown: to disperse all those people from the park where they dispersed all over the city streets and it became a powder keg. We have to do a better job working with the judiciary. They need to listen to local city officials. ... I am angry that this was not moved to McIntire Park where the city of Charlottesville requested."
Charlottesville Police Chief Al Thomas said that while he had "regrets" about planning, police officers had attempted to separate protesters and counterprotesters but were unable to effectively do so, in part because "Unite the Right" participants had failed to follow a previously agreed-upon plan for entering Lee Park: "We had a plan to bring them in at the rear of the park. They had agreed to cooperate with the plan; unfortunately they did not follow the plan. They began entering at different locations in and around the park." Thomas also wrote: "They also chose to leave the park on a number of occasions, entering the area designated for counterprotesters, walking along the street and confronting counter-protestors." Thomas denied the implications by the Virginia ACLU that police were ordered not to intervene or make arrests, saying "There were no directives from me or any other commander to stand down or disengage" and that "there were a number of altercations throughout the area in which officers intervened".
Following the rally and criticism of police handling of it, the City of Charlottesville hired Timothy J. Heaphy, the former U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Virginia, to undertake an independent review of the "Unite the Right" rally and two other supremacist events in the city. City officials also "urged residents to come forward with firsthand accounts of crimes that went ignored."
On December 1, 2017, Heaphy and his law firm Hunton & Williams LLP released the final report of their independent review. The detailed report was sharply critical of the city's handling of the rally. The report found that the Charlottesville Police Department had failed to adequately prepare for its events, had a flawed plan of response, and was not properly trained. The report also criticized actions by the Charlottesville City Council, attorneys from the city and state, the University of Virginia and the Virginia State Police. The report specifically found that:
- Law enforcement failed to break up fights or take an active role in preventing fights and were instructed not to intervene except in cases of "extreme violence." This decision represented "a tremendous tactical failure that has real and lasting consequences." Police supervisors "devised a poorly conceived plan that under-equipped and misaligned hundreds of officers. Execution of that plan elevated officer safety over public safety."
- Charlottesville police and Virginia State Police failed to operate under a unified command and did not even use the same radio channel.
- University of Virginia officials were aware of plans for a torchlit rally by white nationalists but "took no action to enforce separation between groups or otherwise prevent violence."
On the afternoon of August 13, Unite the Right organizer Jason Kessler attempted to hold a press conference in front of Charlottesville City Hall, but was forced to abandon the conference after being attacked by an angry crowd. One man reportedly either punched or attempted to punch Kessler, and a woman tackled Kessler as he was trying to leave the scene. Police came to Kessler's aid and escorted him from the area. Hundreds of people shouted "shame" at Kessler and "say her name" (referring to Heather Heyer, the woman killed the day before). Before ending the short news conference Kessler stated: "I disavow any political violence and what happened yesterday was tragic." He later posted videos online in which he blamed the city for the violence and death. One man was charged with misdemeanor assault and battery for allegedly spitting on Kessler during the news conference.
Speaking in an interview on the morning of the rally, former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard David Duke called the protests "a turning point for the people of this country. We are determined to take our country back. We're going to fulfill the promises of Donald Trump. That’s why we voted for Donald Trump, because he said he’s going to take our country back." Following Trump's initial comments made three days after the rally, Duke tweeted, "Thank you President Trump for your honesty & courage to tell the truth about #Charlottesville & condemn the leftist terrorists in BLM/Antifa."
Vigils and protests
On August 13, the day following the rally, many groups organized vigils and demonstrations in a number of cities across the country with a variety of goals, including showing support for those against white supremacy, pushing for the removal of Confederate monuments, and denouncing fascism and actions and statements by the president of the United States.
In Brooklyn, demonstrators at the "Peace and Sanity" rally heard addresses by Public Advocate Letitia James and City Comptroller Scott Stringer. In Los Angeles, hundreds gathered on the steps of City Hall to condemn white-nationalist violence and honor those killed.
Thousands of anti-Trump protesters marched around Trump Tower, with many shouting "Shame, shame, shame!" and "Lock Him Up!". In response, pro-Trump counterprotesters waved American flags and yelled "Make America White Again" at protesters, a play on the Trump campaign slogan Make America great again.
Confrontations at the park continued on Tuesday, August 15, with counter-protesters demanding that a North Carolina man in Confederate uniform holding a Confederate flag and semi-automatic rifle leave the park. When police asked him if he would like to leave, he said he would and was escorted to his vehicle.
Domain registrar GoDaddy demanded that The Daily Stormer move its website's domain to another provider after editor Andrew Anglin described the car-ramming victim in derogatory terms. The Daily Stormer then moved to Google Domains on August 14. Google canceled the site's registration for violation of its terms of service just over 3 hours after The Daily Stormer registered for the service.
PayPal suspended accounts of the right-wing extremist groups run by several of the rally organizers for violating the website's terms of service, which forbid raising money for "activities that promote hate, violence or racial intolerance".
Hacktivist collective Anonymous shut down numerous websites associated with the Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi groups following the protests. Alt-right website Red Ice TV was also hacked. In a video statement, they claimed that their coverage and support of the rally was the cause of the cyberattack. A Discord server frequented by alt-right elements was also taken down.
Before the suspect in the vehicular ramming on August 12 was revealed, an online campaign by far-right outlets to identify the driver of the car had been conducted. CNN reported that this was "seemingly in hopes of proving the person was not of a right-wing political persuasion" and of blaming a liberal for the attack. The far-right news website GotNews and various other outlets misidentified an innocent man as the driver. That man and his family received numerous death threats and were advised by local police to temporarily leave their home. The family sued GotNews and its editor, Charles C. Johnson, for defamation; in 2018 Johnson and the website agreed to pay the misidentified men nearly $30,000 to settle the suit. The suit continues against other "alt-right" figures who promoted the false claims.
On Twitter, a group of users identified white nationalist or supremacist marchers from photographs, publicizing at least nine names and identities. After being identified as a demonstrator at the rally, one individual resigned from his job at a hot dog stand in Berkeley, California.
Reportedly the public shaming resulted in at least one case of mistaken identity: a University of Arkansas engineering professor was mistakenly identified as being at the rally and received threatening messages from Twitter users.
Don't Be a Sucker (1943), a short film made by the United States War Department during World War II, found a new audience for its anti-racist and anti-fascist themes. It was posted repeatedly as a viral online video.
According to journalist Angela Nagle, the Internet troll subculture on websites like 4Chan and Tumblr changed as a result of the rally. Many who had seen the subculture as a game confronted the reality of their alt-right beliefs.
In an address later in the day following the rally, Virginia Governor Terry McAuliffe, flanked by Charlottesville mayor Michael Signer, and Charlottesville's police chief, directly addressed the rally participants: "I have a message to all the white supremacists and the Nazis who came into Charlottesville today. Our message is plain and simple. Go home ... You are not wanted in this great commonwealth. Shame on you." Signer said he was disgusted that white supremacists came to his town and he faulted President Donald Trump for inflaming racial tensions during his 2016 campaign, stating: "I'm not going to make any bones about it. I place the blame for a lot of what you're seeing in America today right at the doorstep of the White House and the people around the president."
University of Virginia Center for Politics director Larry J. Sabato, who lives on the university grounds and saw the march on August 11, said that the weekend was among the university's darkest days, stating: "I hope people will put it into context and understand that we had no control over the individuals organizing it, nor the people who showed up. What we can control is our personal and institutional reaction to it. What I saw was pure evil."
German Chancellor Angela Merkel called the violence "horrifying" and "evil" and said: "It is racist, far-right violence and clear, forceful action must be taken against it, regardless of where in the world it happens." German Justice Minister Heiko Maas similarly condemned the violence, antisemitism, and racism of the neo-Nazis at the rally.
White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon in his interview with Robert Kuttner, called the far-right "irrelevant" after Kuttner asked him about the "ugly white nationalism epitomized by the racist violence in Charlottesville and Trump's reluctance to condemn it." He quoted Bannon as saying, "Ethno-nationalism – it's losers. It's a fringe element. I think the media plays it up too much, and we gotta help crush it, you know, uh, help crush it more ... These guys are a collection of clowns."
The Republican National Committee issued a statement saying it was "unified in revulsion at the abhorrent white supremacists demonstration in Charlottesville ... We urge swift and certain justice be meted out to domestic terrorists and groups aiding and abetting through the propagation of hateful ideology."
On April 25, 2019, former Vice President Joe Biden launched his Presidential campaign with a video condemning the events of Charlottesville and President Trump's response to it, arguing that "with those words, the President of the United States assigned a moral equivalence between those spreading hate and those with the courage to stand against it, and at that moment, I knew the threat to this nation was unlike any I had ever seen in my lifetime."
The General Secretary of the World Council of Churches, Olav Fykse Tveit, stated, "Terror and violence against peaceful people seeking justice in Charlottesville must be condemned by all ... We are proud of moral leadership by clergy and lay people standing against this promotion of racism and white supremacy."
The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Methodist Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and the Orthodox Church in America, all of which are members of the World Council of Churches, each individually condemned the Unite the Right rally and the racist ideology behind it, as did The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Catholic Church.
The Rabbinical Council of America, Rabbinical Assembly and United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, and Union for Reform Judaism—representing American Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Jews, respectively—all strongly condemned the white supremacist and neo-Nazi violence in Charlottesville. Alan Zimmerman, president of Congregation Beth Israel in Charlottesville, recalled the day's events in a blog post: "The fact that a calamity did not befall the Jewish community of Charlottesville on Saturday was not thanks to our politicians, our police, or even our own efforts, but to the grace of God. ... And yet, in the midst of all that, other moments stand out for me, as well. ... At least a dozen complete strangers stopped by the synagogue Saturday to ask if we wanted them to stand with us."
According to Princeton University historian Kevin M. Kruse, there is a historical "false equivalency" precedent to blaming "both sides" in disputes over race relations. Kruse notes that segregationist politicians often equated white supremacists with the civil rights movement, condemning both the KKK and the NAACP. Various historians also questioned Trump's suggestion that the individuals calling for the removal of Confederate monuments would next demand the removal of figures like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Harvard historian Annette Gordon-Reed and others noted that Washington and Jefferson were imperfect men who are notable for creating the United States, whereas the sole historical significance of Confederate figures such as Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis is that they went to war against the United States to defend "the right of people to own other people."
Other historians noted that some wanted the Confederate monuments moved to museums where the monuments could be appropriately contextualized. Douglas A. Blackmon, senior fellow at the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs and author of a book on slavery and its aftermath in the U.S. told The Washington Post: "Trump either does not understand the history of the Confederacy or he's sympathetic to white nationalist views. ... [T]hese statues are offensive to millions of citizens that he governs. ... When you reach a point that there are hate groups that engage in terrorist attacks, that these statues are being appropriated and used in [that] way ... simply take [them] down."
A week after Charlottesville, the Medieval Academy and 28 other scholarly groups released a statement condemning the “fantasy of a pure, white Europe that bears no relationship to reality.”
The leaders of several branches of the United States Armed Forces took to Twitter to denounce the march. Army Chief of Staff General Mark Milley, Air Force Chief of Staff General Dave Goldfein, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral John Richardson, Commandant of the Marine Corps General Robert Neller, Chief of the National Guard Bureau General Joseph Lengyel all tweeted statements condemning racial intolerance as anathema to what their institutions stand for. The 82nd Airborne Division took the opportunity to remind its Twitter followers that it had fought Nazis in Europe during World War II. Veterans groups, such as the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars, also publicly criticized the march.
Taken together, these responses were extremely unusual in United States history. Military leaders almost never take part in political controversies. Furthermore, in whole-heartedly condemning the march and its motives, their public comments were at odds with the President's to whom they are supposed to serve. Milley said that his statement was not intended to be political.
President Trump's statements
President Trump's remarks on Charlottesville first occurred August 12, nearly two hours after the vehicular attack, Trump spoke on camera from his vacation home in Bedminster, New Jersey, saying "We all must be united and condemn all that hate stands for. There is no place for this kind of violence in America. Let's come together as one!" He said, "we condemn in the strongest possible terms this egregious display of hatred, bigotry and violence on many sides, on many sides." He added, "What is vital now is a swift restoration of law and order."
A spokesperson for Trump later released an addendum to his remarks on August 13, stating, "The President said very strongly in his statement yesterday that he condemns all forms of violence, bigotry, and hatred. Of course that includes white supremacists, KKK, Neo-Nazi and all extremist groups. He called for national unity and bringing all Americans together."
Whereas members of both political parties condemned the hatred and violence of white nationalists, neo-Nazis and alt-right activists, The New York Times wrote that Trump "was the only national political figure to spread blame for the 'hatred, bigotry and violence' that resulted in the death of one person to 'many sides'." The decision was reported to have come from White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon.
The Congressional Black Caucus decried what it saw as Trump's false equivalency and dog-whistle politics, saying "White supremacy is to blame." Republican U.S. Representative Justin Amash and Senators Cory Gardner, Jeff Flake, Orrin Hatch, and Marco Rubio all called upon Trump to specifically condemn white supremacists and neo-Nazis; in a tweet that was retweeted by Flake, Gardner said: "Mr. President – we must call evil by its name. These were white supremacists and this was domestic terrorism." Virginia Attorney General Mark Herring said: "The violence, chaos, and apparent loss of life in Charlottesville is not the fault of 'many sides.' It is racists and white supremacists."
Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT), whose brother was killed in action in Europe during World War II, tweeted: "We should call evil by its name. My brother didn't give his life fighting Hitler for Nazi ideas to go unchallenged here at home."
Senator Cory Gardner (R-CO) called it "domestic terrorism" in a tweet, and a few hours later Republican senator Ted Cruz wrote on Facebook, "The Nazis, the KKK, and white supremacists are repulsive and evil, and all of us have a moral obligation to speak out against the lies, bigotry, anti-Semitism, and hatred that they propagate ... [H]aving watched the horrifying video of the car deliberately crashing into a crowd of protesters, I urge the Department of Justice to immediately investigate and prosecute this grotesque act of domestic terrorism."
Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke responded by saying that Trump should "take a good look in the mirror & remember it was White Americans who put you in the presidency, not radical leftists." Other white supremacists and neo-Nazis did not object to Trump's remarks. Daily Stormer editor Andrew Anglin said "Trump did the opposite of cuck. He refused to even mention anything to do with us. When reporters were screaming at him about White Nationalism he just walked out of the room."
The NAACP released a statement saying that while they "acknowledge and appreciate President Trump's disavowment of the hatred which has resulted in a loss of life today", they called on Trump "to take the tangible step to remove Steve Bannon – a well-known white supremacist leader – from his team of advisers." The statement further described Bannon as a "symbol of white nationalism" who "energizes that sentiment" through his current position within the White House.
Political scientist Larry Sabato, playwright Beau Willimon, conservative journalist David A. French, Democratic U.S. Representative Ted Lieu and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi also called for Bannon's firing. Two former federal government lawyers, Vanita Gupta and Richard Painter, who worked in the administrations of Barack Obama and George W. Bush, respectively, called for both Bannon and Deputy Assistant to the President Sebastian Gorka to be fired.
Bannon was fired on August 18, on the heels of an American Prospect interview, in which he mockingly downplayed Trump's threats of military action on North Korea, and put down his administration colleagues and the far-right, which White House aides felt would likely provoke Trump; two unnamed administration officials said that Trump had informed senior aides of his decision to remove Bannon that day, while White House correspondent Maggie Haberman wrote in The New York Times that "a person close to" Bannon said that Bannon had submitted his resignation on August 7, but the formal announcement of his departure as chief strategist (which was to have occurred earlier that week) was delayed in the wake of the Charlottesville rally.
The Congressional Progressive Caucus and U.S. Representative Bill Pascrell (D-NJ) called on Trump to fire Senior Advisor to the President Stephen Miller in addition to Bannon and Gorka, because of Miller's alleged white nationalist ties.
On August 14, from the White House, President Trump said:
To anyone who acted criminally in this weekend's racist violence, you will be held fully accountable. Justice will be delivered. ... Racism is evil. And those who cause violence in its name are criminals and thugs, including the K.K.K., neo-Nazis, white supremacists and other hate groups that are repugnant to everything we hold dear as Americans.
Richard B. Spencer dismissed Trump's second statement as "hollow" and he also said that he believed that Trump had not denounced either the alt-right movement or white nationalism. South Carolina Senator Tim Scott (one of three African Americans serving in the U.S. Senate, and the only Republican among the three), also said the second statement came too late. The Los Angeles Times's editorial board wrote that "Trump's first response to Charlottesville was tepid and mealy mouthed. His second was too late."
NAACP president Cornell William Brooks said Trump's second statement stuck to a "rhetorical minimum" of a condemnation, and "gave the impression that the President was trying to have his hate cake and eat it too".
Trump later tweeted: "Made additional remarks on Charlottesville and realize once again that the #Fake News Media will never be satisfied ... truly bad people!"
On August 15, Trump appeared before the media from his home at Trump Tower in New York City, to give prepared remarks about the state of the U.S. infrastructure and other economic issues. After reading his prepared statement, Trump took question from the media who asked questions mostly about the Charlottesville events. Trump defended his August 12 statement and repeated his claim that there was "blame on both sides". He also defended White House advisor Steve Bannon, and accused the media of unfair treatment of the rally's participants. Trump said: "Not all of those people were neo-Nazis, believe me. Not all of those people were white supremacists by any stretch", adding in a later response that he believed there were "very fine people on both sides". adding that "I'm not talking about the neo-Nazis and the white nationalists, because they should be condemned totally". Trump also said that the push to remove Confederate statues was "changing history" and "changing culture".
TRUMP: ... you had some very bad people in that group, but you also had people that were very fine people, on both sides. You had people in that group ... that were there to protest the taking down of, to them, a very, very important statue and the renaming of a park from Robert E. Lee to another name.
REPORTER: George Washington and Robert E. Lee are not the same.
TRUMP: George Washington was a slave owner. So will George Washington now lose his status? Are we going to take down statues to George Washington? How about Thomas Jefferson? What do you think of Thomas Jefferson? You like him?
REPORTER: I do love Thomas Jefferson.
TRUMP: Okay, good. Are we going to take down the statue? Because he was a major slave owner. Now, are we going to take down his statue? So you know what, it’s fine. You’re changing history. You’re changing culture. And you had people—and I’m not talking about the neo-Nazis and the white nationalists, because they should be condemned totally—but you had many people in that group other than neo-Nazis and white nationalists.
Trump criticized what he called the "very, very violent alt-left", and falsely stated that counter-demonstrators lacked a permit. A municipal spokeswoman said that the counter-protesters did have a permit for two other nearby parks and "counterprotesters did not need permits to protest that rally" in Lee Park.
President Trump also made remarks confirming that he had watched the "tiki torch march" that moved through the University of Virginia on August 11, the night before the rally. During that march hundreds of people were seen carrying flaming torches and chanting phrases including "You will not replace us", "Blood and soil" and "Jews will not replace us" as they made their way through the campus to a statue of Thomas Jefferson, where they encountered counter-demonstrators who had formed a barrier around the statue, resulting in fighting between the two groups.
Regarding the events of August 11, President Trump made the statement that:
I looked the night before -- if you look, there were people protesting very quietly the taking down of the statue of Robert E. Lee. ... You had a lot of people in that group that were there to innocently protest, and very legally protest -- because I don’t know if you know, they had a permit. The other group didn’t have a permit.
In an interview published the next day, Bannon said the press conference was a "defining moment" and that Trump chose to jettison the "globalists" and align himself with "his people". He said he was "proud of how [Trump] stood up to the braying mob of reporters".
More than 60 Democratic and Republican members of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate condemned Trump's remarks. Among those were Senators Bernie Sanders, John McCain, Tim Scott, Susan Collins, Chuck Schumer, Cory Booker, Elizabeth Warren, Jeff Flake, Orrin Hatch, Heidi Heitkamp, Claire McCaskill, Joe Manchin, Dean Heller and Tammy Duckworth, and House members Robert C. "Bobby" Scott, Don Beyer, Barbara Comstock, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Will Hurd and Gerry Connolly, as well as Ohio Governor John Kasich and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said, "The president's continued talk of blame 'on many sides' ignores the abhorrent evil of white supremacism ..." Speaker of the House Paul Ryan stated, "We must be clear. White supremacy is repulsive. This bigotry is counter to all this country stands for. There can be no moral ambiguity."
Former presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush stated that, "America must always reject racial bigotry, anti-Semitism, and hatred in all forms. As we pray for Charlottesville, we are reminded of the fundamental truths recorded by that city's most prominent citizen in the Declaration of Independence: we are all created equal and endowed by our Creator with unalienable rights. We know these truths to be everlasting because we have seen the decency and greatness of our country."
On August 16, Representatives Jerrold Nadler of New York, Pramila Jayapal of Washington state and Bonnie Watson Coleman of New Jersey unveiled a resolution that the three House Democrats co-authored, which would censure Trump for his "inadequate response to the violence", his "failure to immediately and specifically name and condemn the white supremacist groups responsible for actions of domestic terrorism", and for employing chief strategist Steve Bannon and national security aide Sebastian Gorka despite their "ties to white supremacist movements".
Criticism of the comments also extended to the corporate world; among others, 21st Century Fox CEO James Murdoch said in an email to friends that was obtained by The Hollywood Reporter, "[W]hat we watched this last week in Charlottesville and the reaction to it by the president of the United States concern all of us as Americans and free people. These events remind us all why vigilance against hate and bigotry is an eternal obligation—a necessary discipline for the preservation of our way of life and our ideals" Murdoch also pledged a $1 million donation to the Anti-Defamation League, urging his friends to also make contributions. (Murdoch's statement drew some criticism from media columnists, including The Washington Post's Jennifer Rubin and Erik Wemple, who have accused Fox News Channel for helping bring Trump to the political mainstream and its repeated defense of his administration as well as perpetuating a culture of exploiting female employees and using dog-whistle commentary on its opinion programs.)
The fallout from the third statement led to renewed calls for Trump to resign or be removed from office through either impeachment or through invocation of Section 4 of the 25th Amendment to the Constitution. In an August 15 Twitter post, Democratic House Representative Jackie Speier of California suggested that the never-before-used section of the 25th Amendment (which allows the vice president and either a majority of the cabinet or another body such as Congress to declare that a president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office) be invoked to remove Trump. However, on August 22, in an interview with Matt Lauer on the Today Show, Vice President Mike Pence passionately endorsed Trump, saying in part:
I know this president. I know his heart ... I heard it. I heard him on the day that the Charlottesville tragedy happened when he denounced hate and violence in all of its forms from wherever it comes. I heard him on that Monday, and I heard him as well on Tuesday like millions of Americans did where he condemned the hate and the bigotry that was evidenced there. He condemned the violence that was there and we'll continue to do that. We understand that criticism comes with this job, and this president has the kind of broad shoulders to be able to take it.
Democratic Rep. Steve Cohen of Tennessee announced on August 17, that he would introduce articles of impeachment against President Trump for his remarks in the press conference, stating that Trump had "failed the presidential test of moral leadership." Arnold Schwarzenegger made an online video criticizing Trump's statement and presented a speech condemning the racists and stating Trump should've said something like that.
In an August 18 interview with ABC's Good Morning America, Heather Heyer's mother, Susan Bro, stated that she has not "and now ... will not" meet with President Trump after hearing about his statement. Bro said, "I'm not talking to the president now. I'm sorry, after what he said about my child. It's not that I saw somebody else's tweets about him. I saw an actual clip of him at a press conference equating the protesters, like Ms. Heyer, with the KKK and the white supremacists."
The fallout from this statement also led to renewed calls for Trump to be stripped of honors he won before his presidency. Before the SummerSlam event that weekend, protesters outside the Barclays Center called for Trump's removal from the WWE Hall of Fame. Additionally, a petition to revoke Trump of an honorary law degree from Lehigh University by a recent graduate went viral following his comments, gaining more than 25,000 signatures. Trump was previously stripped of an honorary degree from Scotland's Robert Gordon University in 2015. If he loses his degree from Lehigh, Trump will only have three honorary degrees remaining; two from Liberty University and one from Wagner College. A number of alumni of Liberty University announced their intentions to return their diplomas to the university in response to university president Jerry Falwell, Jr.'s continued support of Trump.
In the days following Trump's August 15 statement, the magazines The Economist, The New Yorker, and Der Spiegel ran cover art depicting Trump wearing or interacting with a KKK hood.
Additional controversy resulted from a Facebook post by Missouri State Sen. Maria Chappelle-Nadal in which she commented, "I hope Trump is assassinated!" in response to the president's comments. In apologizing for the remark, Chapple-Nadal said to The Kansas City Star that she posted the comment in frustration at the "trauma and despair" of Trump's statements about the Charlottesville rally. The post, which she deleted shortly after posting it but not before it was circulated online, led several state and national politicians, including U.S. Senator Claire McCaskill and House Representative Lacy Clay, to call for her resignation; State Rep. Joshua Peters also submitted a letter to State Senate President pro tempore Tom Dempsey (chairman of the Missouri Rules, Joint Rules, Resolutions and Ethics Committee) requesting that a special committee consider Chappelle-Nadal's "censure or removal" from office. Missouri State Sen. Gina Walsh (leader of the state's Senate Democratic Caucus) announced on August 22 that Chapple-Nadal had been removed from all committee assignments, commenting that the controversy had made her a "distraction" to senators.
Donald Trump further defended his previous statements at a Phoenix, Arizona rally on August 22, 2017. He then accused people of "trying to take away our culture" in reference to the removal of the Confederate statues.
Does anybody want George Washington's statue [taken down]? No. Is that sad, is that sad? To Lincoln to Teddy Roosevelt. I see they want to take Teddy Roosevelt's down too. They're trying to figure out why, they don't know. They're trying to take away our culture, they're trying to take away our history. And our weak leaders, they do it overnight.
Following criticisms from former Vice President Joe Biden in a video announcing that he was running for President in 2020, Trump again, in April 2019, addressed his earlier comments:
I have answered that question, and if you look at what I said, you will see that question was answered perfectly. And I was talking about people that went because they felt very strongly about the monument to Robert E. Lee, a great general, whether you like it or not, he was one of the great generals. I have spoken to many generals here, right at the White House, and many people thought, of the generals they think that he was maybe their favorite general. People were there protesting the taking down of the monument of Robert E. Lee. Everybody knows that."
Resignations from and dissolution of presidential advisory councils
Kenneth Frazier, the CEO of Merck, resigned from the President's American Manufacturing Council on August 14, in reaction to the President's response to the rally. Trump quickly responded by attacking Frazier on Twitter. Frazier received widespread support from major figures in politics, media and business, and commentator Keith Boykin said that "It took Trump 54 minutes to condemn ... Frazier" but "two days of issuing equivocal statements" before denouncing the neo-Nazis and white supremacists who marched in Charlottesville. Under Armour founder and CEO Kevin Plank and Intel chief executive Brian Krzanich also resigned from the council that same day, followed by the resignations of AFL–CIO president Richard Trumka, economist and former AFL–CIO deputy chief of staff Thea Lee, and Alliance for American Manufacturing president Scott Paul on August 15. The following morning, two more CEOs—Denise Morrison of Campbell Soup and Inge Thulin of 3M—announced that they would resign from American Manufacturing Council. Wal-Mart CEO Doug McMillon also directly criticized Trump's leadership, saying Trump "missed a critical opportunity to help bring our country together".
On August 16, after the members of the advisory councils moved to disband, Trump dissolved both councils. Stanford Graduate School of Business professor Anat R. Admati said that Trump's equivocations on white nationalist groups had "put them in a very difficult position" and caused critical damage to the president's relationship with corporate leaders.
Sixteen of the 17 members of the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities resigned on August 18, in protest of Trump's response to the rally. The resigning members stated in a letter to the President, "Reproach and censure in the strongest possible terms are necessary following your support of the hate groups and terrorists who killed and injured fellow Americans in Charlottesville." Representatives for the sole remaining member, film director George C. Wolfe, stated that he, too, would be resigning and would add his name to the letter. The White House responded by saying a decision had previously been made not to renew the committee after it expired later in 2017.
In late August, eight of the 28 members of the National Infrastructure Advisory Council resigned, stating in a joint letter that Trump "threatened the security of the homeland". The letter cited Trump's response to the Charlottesville rally as one of the reasons for leaving.
Defenses of Trump and rebuttal
Several conservative commentators argued that Trump was being unjustly criticized by the media and left-wing political figures for him blaming both sides. Some critics argued that members of the media were excusing the violence from Antifa, a loosely affiliated group of far-left protesters. Jonah Goldberg wrote that the presence of the alt-right did not excuse Antifa from its policies that "oppose free speech, celebrate violence, despise dissent and have little use for anything else in the American political tradition". Journalists Paul Waldman and Peter Beinart criticized this argument as an ineffective tactic to defend Trump and it also stated that none of the violence from the counter-protesters justified any moral equivalency between the two sides at the rally. Beinart wrote that unlike the alt-right, the members of Antifa are not practitioners of an ideology that advocates the ethnic cleansing of other racial and religious groups nor do they "celebrate regimes that committed genocide and enforced slavery", and Antifa promotes egalitarianism unlike the alt-right.
Ray Arsenault of the Tampa Bay Times wrote that although there were some violent members among their ranks, the counter-protesters were mostly made up of "peaceful activists committed to nonviolence", including several clergymen and Black Lives Matter activists. Linda Qiu of The New York Times mentioned that although both sides were violent that day, only one side—the alt-right—was responsible for a deadly act of domestic terrorism. Jonathan Tobin of The Times of Israel mentioned that the explicit presence of Nazi and Ku Klux Klan imagery from the white supremacists and Fields' attack "render irrelevant" Antifa's presence at the rally. Beinart and Qiu also both wrote that right-wing terrorism was far more common than left-wing terrorism.
Public opinion polls showed that reactions to Trump's response were overwhelmingly negative, receiving near universal disapproval from Democrats and only modest support from Republicans. A Washington Post/ABC News national poll of American adults taken in the aftermath of the rally showed that 56% disapproved of Trump's response to the violence in Charlottesville, while only 28% approved. The same survey showed that 83% of Americans said that holding neo-Nazi or white supremacist views is unacceptable, while 9% said holding such views were acceptable.
A Marist Poll of American adults showed that 52% believed that Trump's response to the violence in Charlottesville was "not strong enough". The same poll showed that 4% of Americans said they agreed with the beliefs of white nationalists, with 73% saying they disagreed, 7% having no opinion, and 15% unsure. The poll also showed that 67% believed that the fatal crash should be "investigated as an act of domestic terrorism", while 21% said it should not, and 12% were unsure.
A CBS News poll of American adults indicated that 55% of respondents disapproved of Trump's response, while 33% approved. A roughly similar split indicated that respondents found Trump's description of events to be inaccurate.
An Economist/YouGov poll of Americans showed that 42% of respondents disapproved of Trump's handling of "the situation in Charlottesville", while 27% approved and 31% had no opinion. When asked "which group ... is more likely to use violence"; 32% of respondents said white nationalists, 10% said anti-racism protesters, and 45% said "both equally likely", while 14% were unsure; Democrats were more likely to attribute violence to white nationalists, while Republicans were most likely to blame both sides equally.
In the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) August 18 report, experts recalled the "horrific events in Charlottesville of 11–12 August 2017 leading to the death of Ms. Heather Heyer, and the injuries inflicted on many other protesters, as well as the terrible beating of Mr. Deandre Harris by white supremacists". The UN Committee experts condemned "the failure at the highest political level of the United States of America to unequivocally reject and condemn" racist violence.
Albemarle County, the City of Charlottesville and the University of Virginia and its medical center collectively incurred $540,000 in costs from responding to the Ku Klux Klan rally in July 2017 and the Unite the Right rally in August 2017. Costs included police overtime and other expenses, costs from the fire department and the public works department, legal fees, and fees from a crisis communications firm. Sentara Martha Jefferson Hospital, a private hospital, spent more than $59,000.
The violence in Charlottesville accelerated the removal of public Confederate statues from many U.S. cities. About twenty monuments were removed in the weeks immediately following the rally. In Baltimore, the city's four Confederate statues were removed on the night of August 15–16; Mayor Catherine Pugh said that she had ordered the overnight removals to preserve public safety. In Durham, North Carolina, a group toppled a statue outside the Old Durham County Courthouse; four activists were arrested in connection with the toppling. Three Confederate statues were also removed from the University of Texas at Austin in the aftermath of the Charlottesville violence.
In Lexington, Kentucky, Mayor Jim Gray asked the city council to approve the relocation of two statues from a courthouse. Proposals to relocate Confederate memorials were also made in Jacksonville, Florida and Memphis, Tennessee, among many other places.
A plaque in Montreal that was installed in a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis's brief stay in the city by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1957 was removed following the rally, after many complaints.
Most senior city officials in office at the time of the rally had resigned or retired a year later, or were about to. The city attorney (who had considered that the city couldn't legally stop the rally) left Charlottesville for another job, the chief of police resigned in the wake of a report concluding that the police failed to protect the public, and the city manager was set to retire by the end of 2018.
As a consequence of the rally, a left-wing political coalition became ascendant in local politics, with the aim of overturning what they considered age-old racial and economic injustice. Nikuyah Walker, one of the local activists who charged into a city council meeting days after the rally to confront the city leadership, was elected mayor in January 2018. A New York Times report in July 2018 concluded that the issue of whether the rally's violence was mainly the fault of outsiders or a consequence of local racism remained controversial in Charlottesville, and that the city remained divided between activists for change and those who would prefer to return to the status quo.
Sines v. Kessler
In November 2017 following the rallies, a number of Charlottesville residents including some injured during the rally, backed by the non-profit group Integrity First for America and represented by Roberta A. Kaplan, filed suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia against Jason Kessler and fourteen organizers of the rallies, claiming that their civil rights were violated as the organizers had urged those attending to arm themselves and partake in violence. The plaintiffs sought both compensatory and injunctive relief from the trial. The defendants all sought to dismiss the case, claiming that the tactic was equivalent to "lawfare" to silence them and hurt them financially. Judge Norman K. Moon denied the motions to dismiss in July 2018, allowing the case to proceed to the discovery phase with jury trial expected to be held July 2019. The lawsuit is based on the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, which was passed by Congress to protect African Americans from vigilante attacks. Although the law is applicable, Jack Beerman, a law professor from Boston University who has written extensively about the act, says that the Supreme Court has historically been reluctant to apply the law to private citizens.
To demonstrate their claims that the organizers colluded to incite violence, the plaintiffs turned to the social media tools used by the organizers as well as anonymous users that communicated with them on the alt right servers on the Discord application. Many of these Discord messages were obtained and distributed to the media by Unicorn Riot, which collected more than one thousand screenshots of the Discord servers used during the time of the rally's planning. The plaintiffs requested subpoenas to Discord to reveal the identity of about 30 users, but at least one of those users moved to quash the subpoena, arguing they had the right to engage in anonymous speech through Discord. In August 2018, U.S. Magistrate Judge Joseph C. Spero denied the motion to quash the portion of the subpoena seeking the identity of the senders, but granted the motion to quash the subpoena seeking the contents of the messages (based on the Stored Communications Act). The identities were ordered to kept confidential. Spero wrote that "While even limited disclosure of this information may create some chilling effect, the protections available through a designation of 'highly confidential' mitigate that harm, and Plaintiffs' interest in this information, which is relevant to testing their claims of an alleged violent conspiracy based on racial and religious animus, outweighs the potential harm to [Jane Doe's] right to association."
On April 26, 2019, a judge gave one of the defendants seven days to comply with plaintiffs’ discovery requests after they alleged he was avoiding producing court-ordered evidence in the lawsuit. Another defendant made violent anti-semitic threats against the plaintiff's lawyers, and two attorneys representing defendants have asked to be allowed to stop representing them because of their "repugnant or imprudent" behavior. Another defendant, Kyle Chapman, who is representing himself, called the plaintiffs "verminous cretins" in an email to NPR.
Indictment of "Rise Above Movement" members
In August 2018, four members of the Southern California-based Rise Above Movement (RAM), were indicted in federal court on Virginia on charges of violating, and conspiring to violate, a federal rioting statute. Federal prosecutors and investigators charged the four California men—Benjamin D. Daley, Thomas W. Gillen, Michael P. Miselis, and Cole E. White—with planning violent acts at the Charlottesville rally and carrying out multiple assaults against counterprotesters. RAM, a white supremacist and neo-Nazi gang, was described by federal prosecutors and investigators as militant, racist, and antisemitic. The group, which claimed a membership of more than 50 people, had previously "boasted publicly of their violence during protests in Huntington Beach, San Bernardino and Berkeley."
Daley, Gillen, Miselis, and White all pleaded guilty in May 2019, admitting that they "collectively pushed, punched, kicked, choked, head-butted, and otherwise assaulted several individuals, resulting in a riot."
Robert Rundo, the founder of RAM, was charged in federal court in California in a criminal complaint unsealed in October 2018. Other members of the group—Robert Boman, Tyler Laube, and Aaron Eason—were also arrested and charged in federal court in California with violations of the federal Anti-Riot Act, specifically conspiracy to commit rioting and use of interstate commerce with intent to riot. Rundo fled to Central America, where he was quickly arrested and extradited to the United States.
A federal judge dismissed the charges against Rundo, Boman, and Eason in June 2019, ruling that the federal Anti-Riot Act is "unconstitutionally overbroad in violation of the First Amendment." Laube's case was also dismissed, following the 2019 withdrawal of a November 2018 guilty plea.
Threats against a local politician
Charlottesville community activist Don Gathers, the co-founder of Charlottesville's Black Lives Matter chapter, who also served on the blue-ribbon committee which, after the Unite the Right rally, met to decide whether to remove or relocate the Confederate statues which were the putative focus of the rally, announced in a press release on January 7, 2019 that he would be a candidate for the Charlottesville city council, using the slogan "Community Driven, Community Focused". Gathers – who was also a member of the city's Civilian Police Review Board, and a deacon at First Baptist Church– scheduled a public event for the next day, but instead of officially announcing his candidacy, Gathers, who is black, withdrew from the race. He also resigned from the Review Board that night.
On September 18, 2019, white supremacist Daniel McMahon of Brandon, Florida was arrested and charged with willful interference with a candidate for elective office, bias-motivated interference with a candidate for elective office, threats to injure in interstate commerce, and cyberstalking for threatening physical violence to Gathers, because he was a black man running for public office, causing Gathers to fear bodily injury or even death. McMahon, who is known online as the trolls "Jack Corbin" and "Pale Horse", described himself on Gab – a social network popular with far-right users – as a "Goddamn fascist". He praised both James Alex Fields Jr., the neo-Nazi who drove his car into a crowd of counter-protesters at the Unite the Right rally, killing one person and injuring 28, and was sentenced to life imprisonment, and Robert Bowers, the alleged perpetrator of the 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, frequently citing Fields as an exemplar to intimidate anti-fascists. Corbin has expressed the opinions that "white people are superior to members of other racial, ethnic and religious groups," that undocumented immigrants deserve to be treated "like the cockroaches they are," and white people have the right to exist, but gay people do not.
2018 anniversary rally
In November 2017, Jason Kessler, the organizer of the rally, applied for a permit to hold a rally in Charlottesville in August 2018, on the anniversary of the march. In December 2017, the city of Charlottesville denied the permit, writing that Kessler's application "likely underestimates the number of participants" and that "no reasonable allocation of city funds or resources can guarantee that event participants will be free of any 'threat of violence'". While Kessler filed suit against the city, he withdrew the suit before any ruling was made.
In June 2018, Jason Kessler's application for a "White Civil Rights Rally" was approved for August 11 and 12 by the National Park Service. The rally was planned to be held in Washington DC. A coalition of 18 activist groups under the collective title D.C. Against Hate planned "to counter-protest the event on a massive scale, with the aim of shutting down the rally entirely".
On July 31, 2018 Facebook announced that it had deleted a number of accounts which were engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behavior". Among the activities being pursued by these accounts was the organization of a counter-protest of the 2018 anniversary rally in Washington DC. Initial reports showed links between the deleted accounts and the Russian-based Internet Research Agency (IRA), which was connected to Russian misinformation campaigns during the 2016 US presidential election.
The Unite the Right 2 rally occurred on August 12, 2018, and saw low turnout, with up to 30 Kessler supporters while counter-protesters who demonstrated against the rally numbered into the thousands. There were only a few arrests, no one was injured, and the crowd was dispersed early by a rainstorm.
In popular culture
The attack has been the subject of various songs. Wilco released a single entitled "All Sides, You Say?" in reference to President Trump's comments after the attacks. Wilco donated all their earnings from the single to the Southern Poverty Law Center. Guitarist Jesse Dayton penned a song about the attack called "Charlottesville" for his 2018 album The Outsider. In addition, the Drive-by Truckers' song "The Perilous Night" contains numerous direct references to the rally, and criticizes Donald Trump's comments. The Eminem song "Like Home" references Heather Heyer and the Charlottesville rally in one of the song verses "If we start from scratch like a scab for scars to heal/And band together for Charlottesville/And for Heather, fallen heroes". In 2019, the band Abraham Inc released a song about Heather Heyer entitled "Lullaby for Charlottesville".
The rally has also been referenced on film. The 2018 film BlacKkKlansman features video footage of the attack. The film was released on August 10, 2018, which was chosen to coincide with the one-year anniversary of the rally. The director of 2018 film The First Purge, Gerard McMurray, named Charlottesville as one of the various events that the film takes inspiration from, while the 2018 Marvel superhero film Deadpool 2 based one of its villains (the Headmaster of Russell "Rusty" Collins' school) after the Charlottesville marchers.
- 2017 Berkeley protests
- Boston Free Speech Rally
- "Documenting Hate, Charlottesville" - collaboration between Frontline and ProPublica
- Robert Edward Lee (sculpture) § Protests against its removal
- Liberation and Freedom Day, a new (2019) holiday officially celebrated in the city of Charlottesville
- 1939 Nazi rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City, held by the pro-Nazi organization named the German American Bund and attended by 20,000 Bundmen who espoused racism and antisemitism and beat a Jewish counter-protester named Isadore Greenbaum. The rally has frequently been compared to the march in Charlottesville.
- Matthew Q. Gebert, US State Department employee who attended the Unite the Right rally
- 2020 VCDL Lobby Day
- List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States
- Weiner, Rachel (August 12, 2017). "Two state police troopers killed in Charlottesville helicopter crash while covering protest". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Carla Herreria (August 26, 2017). "Video Shows Man Shooting At Crowd During Charlottesville Rally, With No Police Response". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
- "Charlottesville suspect arrested in Georgia to be extradited". Associated Press. August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Fortin, Jacey (August 13, 2017). "The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville's Storm". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- "Black man beaten during Charlottesville rally acquitted of assault". Fox News. March 17, 2018. Archived from the original on July 19, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Haag, Matthew (June 21, 2018). "'White Civil Rights Rally' Planned Near White House by Charlottesville Organizer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Lind, Dara (August 12, 2017). "Unite the Right, the violent white supremacist rally in Charlottesville, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Thrush, Glenn; Haberman, Maggie (August 15, 2017). "Trump Gives White Supremacists an Unequivocal Boost". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Fausset, Richard; Feuer, Alan (August 13, 2017). "Far-Right Groups Surge Into National View In Charlottesville". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "Charlottesville: One killed in violence over US far-right rally". BBC News. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on September 10, 2019.
- Stapley, Garth (August 14, 2017). "'This is a huge victory.' Oakdale white supremacist revels after deadly Virginia clash". The Modesto Bee. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Weill, Kelly (March 27, 2018). "Neo-Confederate League of the South Banned From Armed Protesting in Charlottesville". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
- Gunter, Joel (August 13, 2017). "A reckoning in Charlottesville". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
- Kelkar, Kamala (August 12, 2017). "Three dead after white nationalist rally in Charlottesville". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Wootson, Cleve R. Jr. (August 13, 2017). "Here's what a neo-Nazi rally looks like in 2017 America". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
- Park, Madison (August 12, 2017). "Why white nationalists are drawn to Charlottesville". CNN. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Early, John, ed. (May 16, 2018). "3 Militia Groups Connected to Unite the Right Rally Settle Lawsuits". WVIR-TV. Archived from the original on February 14, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
- "Deconstructing the symbols and slogans spotted in Charlottesville". The Washington Post. August 18, 2017. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- "Flags and Other Symbols Used By Far-Right Groups in Charlottesville". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Feuer, Alan (August 14, 2017). "Far Right Plans Its Next Moves With a New Energy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017.
- Heim, Joe; Silverman, Ellie; Shapiro, T. Rees; Brown, Emma (August 13, 2017). "One dead as car strikes crowds amid protests of white nationalist gathering in Charlottesville; two police die in helicopter crash". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Green, Emma (August 15, 2017). "Why the Charlottesville Marchers Were Obsessed With Jews". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Rosenthal, Brian M. (August 12, 2017). "Man Charged After White Nationalist Rally in Charlottesville Ends in Deadly Violence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "Hospitals: 30 treated after Aug. 12 car attack". The Daily Progress. August 21, 2017. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Holly Yan, Devon M. Sayers and Steve Almasy. "Charlottesville white nationalist rally: What we know". CNN. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- Paul Duggan (December 11, 2018). "James A. Fields Jr. sentenced to life in prison in Charlottesville car attack". Washington Post.
- Julia Jacobs (December 11, 2018). "Jury Recommends Life in Prison for James Fields in Fatal Charlottesville Attack". New York Times.
- Justin Jouvenal & Paul Duggan, Neo-Nazi sympathizer pleads guilty to federal hate crimes for plowing car into crowd of protesters at 'Unite the Right' rally in Charlottesville, Washington Post (March 27, 2019).
- Politico Staff (August 15, 2017). "Full text: Trump's comments on white supremacists, 'alt-left' in Charlottesville". POLITICO. Politico.
I'm not talking about the neo-Nazis and the white nationalists, because they should be condemned totally – but you had many people in that group other than neo-Nazis and white nationalists
- Kirkland, Allegra (August 18, 2017). "White Nationalists Are Feeling The Squeeze After Charlottesville Backlash". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- "Twitter Users Are Outing Charlottesville Protesters". NBC News. August 14, 2017.
- Doubek, James (June 21, 2018). "'White Civil Rights Rally' Approved For D.C. In August". NPR. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Joe Heim, Reis Thebault, Peter Jamison & Marissa Lang, Anti-hate protesters far outnumber white supremacists as groups rally near White House, Washington Post (August 12, 2018).
- Allen, Bob (August 8, 2018). "Black, white Baptists to counter D.C. alt-right rally with prayer walk, communion". Baptist News Global. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- McWhirter, Cameron (August 8, 2018). "A Year After Charlottesville, the Alt-Right Movement Frays". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
- "Bickering Galore Precedes 'Unite the Right' Rally". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- "Another right-wing group plans event for Aug. 12". The Cavalier Daily. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- "Charlottesville City Council changes the names of two renamed parks". The Daily Progress. July 16, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- "Wes Bellamy | City of Charlottesville". www.charlottesville.org.
- Chris Suarez (July 27, 2017). "Unite the Right rally attracting increasingly radical attention". The Daily Progress. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Joe Heim, "Charlottesville prepares for a white nationalist rally on Saturday"Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (August 10, 2017).
- Provence, Lisa (April 6, 2017). "Still Angry: Kessler pleads guilty to assault charge". C-Ville Weekly. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Virginia Board of Education member resigns after vulgar tweets surface". The Washington Post. December 1, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- "Charlottesville Judge Dismisses Petition to Remove Bellamy from Office". NBC29 WVIR-TV. March 8, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Fortin, Jacey (August 13, 2017). "The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville's Storm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Seal, Dean (February 22, 2017). "GOP's Corey Stewart rallies against Charlottesville Lee statue's removal". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Wildman, Sarah (August 15, 2017). ""You will not replace us": a French philosopher explains the Charlottesville chant". Vox. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- Brandon Griggs (May 15, 2017). "Protests over Confederate statue shake Charlottesville, Virginia". CNN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Mayor: Torch-lit protest in Charlottesville, Va. "harkens back to the days of the KKK"". CBS News. May 15, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Group Holds "Take Back Lee Park Rally" in Response to Torchlit Protest". NBC29 WVIR-TV. May 14, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Charlottesville Religious Groups Rally for Peace at Lee Park". NBC29 WVIR-TV. May 31, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Provence, Lisa (May 31, 2017). "Tactical change: Not your grandpa's protest". C-Ville Weekly News. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- "Jason Kessler, Proud Boys take to Downtown Mall". News Radio WINA 98.9 FM. June 18, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Lord, Richard (June 11, 2017). "Clergy stand up to Charlottesville KKK rally". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- McKenzie, Bryan (August 8, 2017). "City says permit will only be OK'd if rally is moved to McIntire Park". The Daily Progress. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Stewart, Courteney (July 8, 2017). "Charlottesville hosts Unity Day events ahead of planned KKK rally". ABC13 News. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Provence, Lisa (July 19, 2017). "Rashomon effect: Police chief defends tear gas; activists allege police brutality". C-Ville Weekly. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Hunton & Williams LLP (December 2017). "Final Report: Independent Review of the 2017 Protest Events in Charlottesville, Virginia". City of Charlottesville. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Kerr, Dara (August 9, 2017). "White supremacist parties? Airbnb says not in my house". Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- "Cooperation Between White Supremacist Groups Seen In Charlottesville. But Who Are They?". WBUR. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "What happened in Charlottesville today? Here's what you need to know". masslive.com. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "Officials: White Nationalist Rally Linked to 3 Deaths, Suspect ID'd", Associated Press (August 12, 2017).
- "Retaking Everyone: The Story of Identity Dixie". Southern Poverty Law Center. July 17, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
- Morgan Gsalter (May 5, 2018). "KKK leader found guilty of firing gun during Charlottesville rally". The Hill. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Sarah Rankin (August 13, 2017). "3 dead, dozens injured, amid violent white nationalist rally in Virginia". Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Roman, Gabriel San (October 20, 2017). "Hate Group's Violent Actions in OC and Beyond Exposed in ProPublica Feature". OC Weekly. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- "Racist, violent, unpunished: A white hate group's campaign of menace". A.C. Thompson,Ali Winston,Darwin BondGraham. ProPublica. October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Swastika use is on the rise, but among those who understand it least". USA Today. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- USA Today http://ftw.usatoday.com/2017/08/charlottesville-white-supremacy-detroit-red-wings-logo. Missing or empty
- "Clean Cut Frat-Boys Are The New Face of White Supremacists". Newsweek. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "Daily Stormer Propagandist 'Zeiger' Exposed as Montreal Fascist Organizer Gabriel Sohier-Chaput". Unicorn Riot.
- "Charlottesville Groups Send Out 'Call to Action' Against Upcoming Rally". Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- "Boston Blocks Free Speech Rally, Tells Organizers: We Don't Want You Here". TalkingPointsMemo. August 15, 2017.
- "David Duke: Charlottesville protests about 'fulfilling promises of Donald Trump'". The Hill. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "The families of Unite the Right participants are disavowing them". Newsweek. August 16, 2017.
- "America's dark underbelly: I watched the rise of white nationalism". The Guardian. February 17, 2018.
- "Svenska högerextremister på plats i Charlottesville". Dagens Nyheter. August 14, 2017.
- "Rebel Media: the Canadian website that Mark Latham now calls home". Sydney Morning Herald. November 8, 2017.
- "Alt-Right Protesters Tell Mediaite Why They Marched: 'A Step Toward GOP Becoming Party for Whites'". Mediaite. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- "White Nationalists Give Up Trying to Be Respectable". The Wall Street Journal. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "White Supremacists Adopt New Slogan: "You Will Not Replace Us"". Anti-Defamation League. June 9, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "SF electrician no longer employed after scheduled speech at Charlottesville white supremacist rally". The San Francisco Examiner. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- "Viral Charlottesville report puts HBO's 'Vice News Tonight' on the map". The Philadelphia Inquirer. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "Who Are The Alt-Right Leaders Addressing The White Nationalist Rally in Charlottesville?". Newsweek. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "Albemarle County Police Respond to Confrontation at Walmart". NBC 29. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "The Alt-Right Goes Panhandling". gizmodo.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- Do You Want Bigots, Gavin? Because This Is How You Get Bigots Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Hatewatch, Southern Poverty Law Center (August 10, 2017).
- Bromwich, Jonah Engel (August 9, 2017). "Airbnb Cancels Accounts Linked to White Nationalist Rally in Charlottesville". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017.
- "Charlottesville, Virginia Readies for Hate Group Rally". Rewire. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "New Derry man who led militia in Charlottesville clash condemns white supremacists". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- "Militia leaders who descended on Charlottesville condemn 'rightwing lunatics'". The Guardian. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- "White nationalists see violent Charlottesville rally as successful turning point". NewsHour. PBS. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Farah Stockman, Who Were the Counterprotesters in Charlottesville? Archived August 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (August 14, 2017).
- Chris Suarez, Group calls for 1,000 faith leaders to protest on Saturday, Aug. 12 rally Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, (July 31, 2017).
- Martin, Steven (August 14, 2017). "Reflections from Charlottesville". National Council of Churches. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Owen, Tess. "Car slams into Black Lives Matter protesters in Charlottesville". Vice News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "Charlottesville Driver Who Killed One Rallied With Alt-Right Vanguard America Group". Southern Poverty Law Center. June 20, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Josh Delk, GoFundMe campaign raises nearly $80K for leftist protesters injured in Charlottesville Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Hill (August 13, 2017).
- "Charlottesville Braces for White Nationalist Rally With National Guard Presence". Complex. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "Charlottesville Reels After a White Supremacist Rally Turns Deadly". Politico. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "Three dead, dozens hurt after Virginia white nationalist rally is dispersed; Trump blames 'many sides'". Los Angeles Times. August 12, 2017.
- "State of emergency declared as Charlottesville rally ends amidst brawls and chaos". Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "I went to counterprotest neo-Nazis in Charlottesville. I witnessed carnage". The Washington Post. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "The Misguided Attacks on ACLU for Defending Neo-Nazis' Free Speech Rights in Charlottesville". The Intercept. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "Unite the Right: White supremacists rally in Virginia". Al-Jazeera. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017.
- "What Is Antifa? Anti-Fascism Protesters And White Power Groups Were Battling Long Before Charlottesville". Newsweek. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "'Increasingly Nazified' white nationalist rally descends on Virginia amid expected protests". The Guardian. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- Mondics, Chris (August 16, 2017). "In Charlottesville, some in the left came armed, too".
- Matt Pearce (August 11, 2017), "Chanting 'blood and soil!' white nationalists with torches march on University of Virginia" Archived August 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Los Angeles Times.
- "UVA President wants UVA Community to Avoid Unite the Right" Archived August 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NBC 29, August 4, 2017.
- Mckenzie, Bryan (August 10, 2017). "Police prep for two-front response for rally". dailyprogress.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "Terror in Charlottesville: How UVA Medical Center and other hospitals responded to this weekend's violence". The Advisory Board Company. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Frances Robles, As White Nationalist in Charlottesville Fired, Police 'Never Moved', New York Times (August 25, 2017).
- "Updated: Charlottesville Leaders Ask Kessler to Move Unite the Right Rally". WVIR. August 7, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Daily Progress staff reports (August 7, 2017). "Charlottesville: Unite the Right rally must be held in McIntire Park". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- "Judge Grants Injunction, Jason Kessler Can Have Unite the Right Rally at Lee Park". WVIR. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- ‘Judge allows Unite the Right rally to stay in Emancipation Park’ Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Progress.
- "Kessler v City of Charlottesville, Virginia, et al., ___ F. Supp. 3d ___, (W.D. Va. 2017)" (PDF). Town news. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "ACLU-VA's Statement on Judge Granting Injunction Allowing Rally to Stay in Emancipation Park" (Press release). American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia. August 11, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Joe Palazzolo (August 17, 2017). "ACLU Will No Longer Defend Hate Groups Protesting With Firearms". Wall Street Journal.
- "Charlottesville Grants 2 Permits for Counterprotests of Unite the Right Rally". WVIR-TV NBC29. August 9, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "Armed militia, clergy, more unite against white nationalists". Associated Press. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "President Trump's false claim that counter-demonstrators lacked a permit". Washington Post. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- Jessica Chia (August 12, 2017). "White nationalists march through UVA with torches". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Recounting a Day of Rage, Hate, Violence and Death" August 14, 2017, Washington Post
- German Lopez (August 12, 2017). "The most striking photos from the white supremacist Charlottesville protests". Vox. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- Alexis Gravely, Daniel Hoerauf & Tim Dodson, "Torch-wielding white nationalists march at U.Va.: Protest comes to an end after fights, pepper-spray" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Cavalier Daily (August 12, 2017).
- Woo, Megan (August 11, 2017). "Hundreds gather at UVA in response to judge's decision regarding Unite the Right rally". WWBT. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- Suarez, Chris (August 11, 2017). "Faith leaders gather on the eve of 'hate-driven' Unite the Right rally". The Daily Progress. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Larkman, Connie (August 11, 2017). "Prayer service gathers clergy, community activists to stand against white supremacy in Virginia". United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Potter, David (August 8, 2017). "'White Supremacy Will Not Win Here': People of Faith to Counter-Protest Alt-Right Rally in Charlottesville". Sojourners. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Early, John (August 23, 2017). "Sullivan Letter Contradicts Claim UVA Unaware of Planned 'Alt-Right' March". NBC29 WVIR-TV. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Stripling, Jack (November 20, 2017). "Inside the U. of Virginia's Response to a Chaotic White-Supremacist Rally". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- Meg Wagner, "'Blood and soil': Protesters chant Nazi slogan in Charlottesville" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CNN (August 12, 2017).
- Green, Emma (August 15, 2017). "Why the Charlottesville Marchers Were Obsessed With Jews". The Atlantic.
- Robert King (August 12, 2017). "Meet the man in the middle of the 'Unite the Right' rally". Indianapolis Star/USA Today Network. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "Cornel West & Rev. Traci Blackmon: Clergy in Charlottesville Were Trapped by Torch-Wielding Nazis". Democracy Now!. August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Robert King (August 12, 2017). "Meet the man in the middle of the 'Unite the Right' rally". Indianapolis Star/USA Today Network. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- Mann, Brian (August 14, 2017). "Trump Supporter: 'He Called For Unity, I Never Saw Obama Call For Unity'". NPR. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Redneck Revolt: the armed leftwing group that wants to stamp out fascism". The Guardian. July 11, 2017.
- Farah Stockmanaug (August 4, 2017). "Who Were the Counterprotesters in Charlottesville?". New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Williams, Timothy; Robles, Frances; Bidgood, Jess (August 14, 2017). "Police Brace for More White Nationalist Rallies, but Have Few Options". New York Times. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
Many of the demonstrators are legally and openly carrying firearms, including semiautomatic weapons
- Dahlia Lithwick & Mark Joseph Stern, The Guns Won: Charlottesville showed that our First Amendment jurisprudence hasn't reckoned with our Second Amendment reality. Archived August 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Slate (August 14, 2017).
- Heim, Joe (August 14, 2017). "Recounting a day of rage, hate, violence and death". Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Thompson, A. C., Robert Faturechi & Karim Hajj, Police Stood By As Mayhem Mounted in Charlottesville, ProPublica (August 12, 2017).
- Becker, Amanda; Jeff Mason (August 15, 2017). "Trump blames 'both sides' for Virginia violence as many Republicans balk". Reuters. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Ian Shapira, Ku Klux Klan leader found guilty for firing gun at Charlottesville rally, Washington Post (May 8, 2018).
- Corey Long convicted of disorderly conduct sentenced to 20 days, Daily Progress, Lauren Berg, June 8, 2018.
- Doug Stanglin and Gabe Cavallaro, "1 dead, 19 injured as car hits crowd after a 'Unite the Right' rally in Charlottesville; driver in custody" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today (August 12, 2017).
- Ruiz, Joe; McCallister, Doreen (August 12, 2017). "3 Killed in Violence Surrounding White Nationalist Protest in Virginia". NPR. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Sotomayor, Marianna; McCausland, Phil; Brockington, Ariana (August 12, 2017). "Charlottesville White Nationalist Rally Violence Prompts State of Emergency". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- Matt Stevens, Christopher Cantwell, White Nationalist in Vice Video, Braces for Charges, (August 21, 2017).
- Steve Annear & Michael Levenson, Warrants issued for N.H. white supremacist, Boston Globe (August 17, 2017).
- 2 journalists allegedly assaulted by Charlottesville counter-protesters, Fox News (August 17, 2017).
- Benjamin Din, Journalist alleges she was punched in the face in Charlottesville, Washington Post (August 19, 2017).
- John Early, 2 Men Enter Guilty Pleas in Connection to Unite the Right Rally Violence, NBC 29 (November 3, 2017).
- "Steven Balcaitis Court Documents". Scribd. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- O'Neil, Renee (August 23, 2017). "York Man Charged in Charlottesville". CN2 News. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- "York Co. man arrested after attacking woman during white nationalist protest". WCNC. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- "August 12 water bottle-thrower pleads guilty". C-VILLE Weekly. September 22, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
- "He's a proud neo-Nazi, Charlottesville attacker – and a U.S. Marine". YouTube. May 11, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- "Ranks of Notorious Hate Group Include Active-Duty Military". Propublica. Retrieved June 22, 2018.[permanent dead link]
- "U.S. Marine to Be Imprisoned Over Involvement With Hate Groups". Propublica. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- Wilson, Jason; Helmore, Edward; Swaine, Jon (August 12, 2017). "Charlottesville: man charged with murder after car rams counter-protesters at far-right event". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- TEGNA. "1 dead, 19 injured as car hits crowd at rally in Charlottesville; driver in custody". wgrz.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Astor, Maggie. "A Guide to the Charlottesville Aftermath". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- Chuck Johnston. "Charlottesville car crash suspect ID'd as 20-year-old Ohio man". CNN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- T. Rees Shapiro, Ellie Silverman, Laura Vozzella and John Woodrow Cox, Alleged driver of car that plowed into Charlottesville crowd was a Nazi sympathizer, former teacher says Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (August 13, 2017).
- "Obituary: Heather Heyer died on August 12th". The Economist. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Heather Heyer identified as victim of Charlottesville car attack". Vice. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "Heather Heyer, Charlottesville Victim, Is Recalled as a 'Strong Woman'". The New York Times. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Joseph A. Wulfsohn, Drone Footage Captured the Terrifying Moment James Fields Drove Into a Crowd in Charlottesville Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Mediate (August 12, 2017).
- "The Latest: Student leaders say campuses should be safe". www.ksl.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Silverman, Ellie; Laris, Michael (August 13, 2017). "Charlottesville victim: 'She was there standing up for what was right'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Almasy, Steve; Narayan, Chandrika (December 16, 2017). "Heather Heyer died 'fighting for what she believed in'". CNN World. Cable News Network. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Caron, Christina (August 13, 2017). "Heather Heyer, Charlottesville Victim, Is Recalled as 'a Strong Woman'". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Calfas, Jennifer. "Charlottesville Victim's Mother: I Want Her Death to be 'a Rallying Cry for Justice'". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Heather Heyer remembered at Charlottesville memorial service". Mercury News. Associated Press. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- "Charlottesville Car Attack: Who Is Accused Suspect James Alex Fields Jr.?: The Two-Way". NPR. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Chuck Johnston, "Charlottesville car crash suspect ID'd as 20-year-old Ohio man" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CNN (August 12, 2017).
- Vanguard America, a white supremacist group, denies Charlottesville ramming suspect was a member Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Washington Post, August 15, 2017.
- Sotomayor, Marianna. "Charlottesville Suspect James Alex Fields Jr. Denied Bond at First Court Appearance". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "National Security Adviser McMaster on Charlottesville: "Of Course it Was Terrorism"". Slate. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Trump Saw 'Many Sides' While Some Republicans Saw White Supremacy, Domestic Terrorism Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. NPR, August 12, 2017.
- Joe Ruiz, Ohio Man Charged With Murder In Fatal Car Attack On Anti-White Nationalist March Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NPR (August 13, 2017).
- "Department of Justice Launches Probe Into Charlottesville Violence That Left Three Dead" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Slate.
- "Sessions defends Trump on Charlottesville, says car ramming fits 'domestic terrorism'". ABC News. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Boddifier, David (August 13, 2017). "Her Name Is Heather Heyer, and She Died Protesting Bigotry". Splinter. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Jeff Williamson, WSLS (August 15, 2017).
- Megan Woo, Charlottesville hospitals create fund for protest victims Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, WWBT (August 15, 2017)
- "$3M lawsuit filed against Kessler, Fields and others after fatal crash". Daily Progress. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Fields faces 5 additional felony charges related to Aug. 12 fatal crash". The Daily Progress. August 18, 2017.
- Duggan, Paul (December 14, 2017). "First-degree murder charge for driver accused of plowing into Charlottesville crowd, killing Heather Heyer". The Washington Post. Charlottesville, Virginia. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
- Provence, Lisa (December 15, 2017). "Charge upgraded: First-degree murder, nine felonies from August 12 certified to grand jury".
Even more chilling was footage from Red Pump Kitchen, the Italian restaurant on the corner of the Downtown Mall and Fourth Street. First are the vehicles that drove down Fourth Street, which was supposed to be closed: a maroon van, a black pickup truck and a ragtop white Camry, which were all stopped by the counterprotesters who had marched east on Water Street and turned left onto Fourth. Then the Dodge Challenger slowly drives down Fourth—and pauses out of view near the mall crossing for nearly a minute. The car is seen backing up, and a moment later it speeds by.
- Rankin, Sarah. "Helicopter video shows ex-Kentucky man accused of ramming crowd; charges increased". kentucky.com.
Surveillance footage from a Virginia State Police helicopter, played by prosecutors in court, captured the moment of impact by the car and the cursing of the startled troopers on board. The video then showed the car as it reversed, drove away and eventually pulled over. The helicopter had been monitoring the violence, and prosecutors questioned Charlottesville Police Detective Steven Young about the video as it played.
- Baars, Samantha (February 13, 2018). "Petitioner wants videos of fatal crash released". C-Ville Weekly.
Evans has filed a motion seeking a court order under the Freedom of Information Act that the city of Charlottesville and Commonwealth's Attorney Joe Platania unseal the videos shown in an open courtroom at Fields' December 14 preliminary hearing, and make them available to the public. "The precedent is pretty clear across the entire country, both in the Supreme Court and in federal courts and in the state courts that statutes like this, when you show something like this to a portion of the public in a public setting, at that point you don't have the right as a government entity to withhold it from anybody else who asks for it", says Evans. However, Alan Gernhardt at the Virginia Freedom of Information Advisory Council says the videos could fall under FOIA's criminal investigative files exemption, especially if they were shown at a preliminary hearing. "They're not actually introduced into the court file", he says.
- James, Mike (December 14, 2017). "Alleged reckless driver charged with first-degree murder in Charlottesville car attack". USA Today.
The video, showed in court by prosecutor Nina-Alice Antony, included some of the final words in the helicopter by crew members, Lt. H. Jay Cullen and Trooper-Pilot Berke M.M. Bates, were monitoring the demonstration. About three hours after the airborne officers witnessed Fields's alleged attack and followed his vehicle as it sped away, the helicopter crashed while Cullen and Bates were flying to another assignment, killing both men. The cause of the crash is still under investigation, the Post reported.
- Heim, Joe; Barrett, Devlin (June 27, 2018). "Man accused of driving into crowd at 'Unite the Right' rally charged with federal hate crimes". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- "White nationalist convicted of murdering protester in Charlottesville, Virginia". Reuters. December 7, 2018.
- Kristine Phillips & Joe Heim (December 6, 2018). "Jury must decide defendant's state of mind during deadly Charlottesville crash". Washington Post.
- Farah Stockman (December 5, 2018). "In Charlottesville Murder Trial, Courtroom Relives Trauma of a Violent Day". New York Times.
- Staff (December 7, 2018). "White nationalist convicted of murdering protester in Charlottesville". The Telegraph.
- Duggan, Paul (December 11, 2018). "James A. Fields Jr. sentenced to life in prison in Charlottesville car attack". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Jacobs, Julia (December 11, 2018) "Jury Recommends Life in Prison for James Fields in Fatal Charlottesville Attack" The New York Times
- Augenstein, Neal (June 28, 2018). "Hate-crime death penalty could be sought in Charlottesville car attack". WTOP-FM. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- Laurel Wamsley; Bobby Allyn (June 28, 2019). "Neo-Nazi Who Killed Charlottesville Protester Is Sentenced To Life In Prison". NPR. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- Laurel Wamsley (July 15, 2019). "Neo-Nazi James Fields Gets 2nd Life Sentence For Charlottesville Attack". NPR. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
- "New details: Deadly Virginia State Police helicopter crash". WSLS. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "NTSB Update on Investigation Into Crash of Virginia State Police Helicopter". National Transportation Safety Board Office of Public Affairs. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- "2 dead in helicopter crash near Charlottesville, police say". CBS News. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- Adam Kelsey, "2 Virginia state troopers assisting Charlottesville protest response die in helicopter accident" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News (August 12, 2017).
- Staff Report. "Troopers killed in Charlottesville helicopter crash had close ties to East Tennessee". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "NTSB releases preliminary report in Charlottesville helicopter crash that killed two Virginia state troopers". The Washington Post. September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
- "Black man beaten in Charlottesville far-right rally charged". BBC News. October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Patrick Wilson, McAuliffe wants arrests in beating of Deandre Harris during white supremacist violence, Richmond Times-Dispatch (August 21, 2017).
- Frances Robles, Two Men Arrested in Connection With Charlottesville Violence, New York Times (August 26, 2017).
- Margaret Matray, Peace walk planned for Suffolk native beaten by racists in Charlottesville, Virginian-Pilot (August 19, 2017).
- Shapira, Ian (October 12, 2017). "Black man beaten by white supremacists in Charlottesville turns himself in to police". Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Tom Jackman, Three men charged in Charlottesville attacks on counterprotesters, Washington Post (August 27, 2017).
- Fourth attacker sentenced in Charlottesville parking garage beating of black man, Washington Post, Ian Shapira, August 27, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- "Updated: Jury Finds Ramos Guilty of Malicious Wounding". NBC 29 Charlottesville. Charlottesville. May 3, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- Cameron Knight, Former Mason student Daniel Borden pleads guilty in Charlottesville attack, Cincinnati Enquirer (May 22, 2018).
- John Early, Daniel Borden Found Guilty of Malicious Wounding, NBC 29 (May 21, 2018).
- "Black man beaten at racist rally charged". BBC News. October 12, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- "https://www.cbs19news.com/our-apologies?url=https:/www.cbs19news.com/home/headlines/51055902.html". www.cbs19news.com. Retrieved June 15, 2020. External link in
- Shesgreen, Deirdre (August 11, 2018). "GOP lawmaker: Russian meddling stirred racial divisions at fatal Charlottesville rally". USA Today. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- Brinbaum, Emily (August 11, 2018). "GOP lawmaker: FBI told me Russia contributed to last year's violence at Charlottesville rally". The Hill. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- Robert Zullo, Virginia officials defend handling of violent Charlottesville rally and counterprotest Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Richmond Times-Dispatch (August 14, 2017).
- Charlottesville police chief has 'regrets' after three lives lost during violent weekend Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, WTTG (August 14, 2017).
- Vernon Freeman Jr. & Melissa Hipolit, Charlottesville Police Chief denies officers were told not to intervene in rally Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, WTVR (August 14, 2017).
- Bethania Palma (August 17, 2017). "FACT CHECK: Were Police Told to 'Stand Down' Amid Violence in Charlottesville?". Snopes.
- Joe Heim, Charlottesville response to white supremacist rally is sharply criticized in report, Washington Post (December 1, 2017).
- Sarah Rankin, Report: Officer safety put ahead of public safety at rally Archived December 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (December 1, 2017).
- Charlottesville report criticises police response and blocking of investigation, Associated Press (December 2, 2017).
- Maggie Snow, Heaphy report criticizes ‘woefully inadequate’ response from U.Va. Police on Aug. 11, Cavalier Daily (December 7, 2017).
- Angry crowd attacks "Unite the Right" organizer in Charlottesville Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News/Associated Press (August 13, 2017).
- Michael O'Connor & Michael Martz, As Charlottesville and Virginia mourn losses, rally follow-up falls flat Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Richmond Times-Dispatch (August 14, 2017).
- Chris Saurez (August 13, 2017). "CSaurez blames city officials as news conference dissolves into chaos". The Daily Progress. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Cohen, Zachary. "Trump's mixed messaging sparks concerns of 'emboldened' alt-right". CNN. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- Nelson, Libby (August 12, 2017). ""Why we voted for Donald Trump": David Duke explains the white supremacist Charlottesville protests". Vox. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
- Protests, vigils around US decry white supremacist rally Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (August 13, 2017).
- Barboza, Tony (August 13, 2017) Demonstrators gather in downtown L.A. to protest Charlottesville violence Archived August 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Los Angeles Times
- Burke, Kerry; Goldberg, Noah; and Otis, Ginger Adams. "Anti-Trump rally draws thousands for President's return to NYC". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Garcia, Catherine (August 14, 2017). "In Manhattan, Trump greeted by protesters, shouts of 'New York hates you'". The Week. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- Bragg, Michael (August 15, 2017). "N.C. man in Confederate uniform with rifle in Emancipation Park met by counter-protesters". Daily Progress. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Grierson, Jamie (August 14, 2017). "Message showing apparent hack appears on neo-Nazi website the Daily Stormer". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- "Heather Heyer: Woman Killed in Road Rage Incident was a Fat, Childless 32-Year-Old Slut". dailystormer.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Google cancels domain registration for Daily Stormer". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Google cancels Neo-Nazi site registration soon after it was dumped by GoDaddy". CNBC. Reuters. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "DailyStormer.com WHOIS". DomainTools.com. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Jonathan Berr, PayPal cuts off payments to right-wing extremists Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CBS News (August 16, 2017).
- "Anonymous shuts down neo-Nazi and KKK websites after Charlottesville rally". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Red Ice TV har hackats av vänsterextremister – Nya Dagbladet". nyadagbladet.se (in Swedish). Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Red Ice TV (August 12, 2017), Red Ice Websites Hacked – Someone Really Hates Us, archived from the original on August 14, 2017, retrieved August 14, 2017
- "Discord shuts down AltRight.com server after Charlottesville violence". pcgamer.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- Darcy, Oliver (August 16, 2017). "Man misidentified as Charlottesville driver had to flee home; plans to sue far-right sites". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Brett Barrouquere, Costly Hate, Hatewatch, Southern Poverty Law Center (June 8, 2018).
- Daniel Van Boom (August 14, 2017). "Yes, You're Racist: Twitter user names Virginia protesters". CNET. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- Jason Del Rey (August 13, 2017). "Twitter users are revealing the identities of Charlottesville white supremacist protestors". Recode. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- "Hot dog stand cook outed as Charlottesville demonstrator quits job". August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Daniel Victor (August 14, 2017). "Amateur Sleuths Aim to Identify Charlottesville Marchers, but Sometimes Misfire". Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- "Twitter users are outing neo-Nazi Charlottesville demonstrators". CNN. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017 – via KTVI.
In the online rush to name white nationalists in Charlottesville, some mistakes were made
- Cooper, Eunice; Schneider, Helen (March 17, 1948). "Don't Be a Sucker" A Study of An Anti-Discrimination Film". Berman Jewish Policy Archive @ Stanford University. Department of Scientific Research. New York: American Jewish Committee. pp. 1–44. Archived from the original on February 12, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
"Don't Be A Sucker" is an anti-discrimination film produced during World War II by the Army Signal Corps for use with the armed forces. After the war, a shortened version of the film was widely shown both commercially and under educational auspices. In 1947, the Department of Scientific Research of the American Jewish Committee undertook to study the impact of the film. (The data were collected with the cooperation of the Institute of Social Research.)(PDF)
- Derek Hawkins (August 14, 2017). "After Charlottesville violence, World War II anti-fascist propaganda video finds a new audience". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Robinson Meyer (August 13, 2017). "Why an Anti-Fascist Short Film Is Going Viral". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Friedersdorf, Conor. "The ACLU Should Keep Representing Deplorables". The Atlantic. October 6, 2017. October 6, 2017.
- "Tim Kaine Weighs in on Anticipated Unite the Right Rally". NBC 29. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- Kelsey, Adam (August 12, 2017). "Virginia Gov. McAuliffe to white nationalists: 'No place for you in America'". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Jonathan Lemire, "Trump blames 'many sides' for violent clashes in Virginia" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (August 12, 2017).
- Dave Goldiner (August 13, 2017). "Charlottesville Mayor: Trump's White House to Blame for Violent White Supremacist Rally". Haaretz. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Michael Bragg, Sullivan: UVa expected Friday march, but details changed, Daily Progress, August 16, 2017.
- Stafford, Leon (August 15, 2017). "Atlanta mayor orders flags at half-staff, considers renaming Confederate roads". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
- Melissa Eddy, Angela Merkel Condemns Charlottesville Violence as 'Racist' and 'Evil' Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times (August 14 m 2017).
- Eshman, Rob. "Gary Cohn, Steven Mnuchin: You good with this?" Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Jewish Journal. August 16, 2017. August 16, 2017.
- Levin, Sam. "Steve Bannon brands far right 'losers' and contradicts Trump in surprise interview" Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Guardian. August 17, 2017. August 17, 2017.
- Godfrey, Elaine; Coppins, McKay (August 25, 2017). "The Republican Party Is Unified in Revulsion". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- Joe Biden For President: America Is An Idea, April 25, 2019, retrieved April 27, 2019
- "In Charlottesville, Can 'The Power of Love' Prevail?". Geneva: Christian Newswire. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- (U.S.A.), Presbyterian Church (August 14, 2017). "News & Announcements – PC(USA) leaders condemn white supremacy, racism". www.pcusa.org. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- Ough, Bruce R. (August 16, 2017). "Bishop Ough Issues Statement on Charlottesville". United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Eaton, Elizabeth A. (August 15, 2017). "ELCA commitment to confronting racism and anti-Semitism". Living Lutheran. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- "Holy Synod of Bishops issues statement on recent tragic events in Charlottesville, VA". Orthodox Church in America. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- "Church Issues Statements on Situation in Charlottesville, Virginia" (Press release). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. August 15, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- Taylor, Scott (August 15, 2017). "LDS Church issues statement condemning 'white supremacist attitudes'". Deseret News. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Gaffey, Conor (August 17, 2017). "How a Charlottesville Speaker Forced the Mormon Church to Condemn 'Sinful" White Supremacists". Newsweek. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Rhina Guidos (August 15, 2017). "Bishops asks for peace after white nationalist rally turns deadly". Catholic News Service.
- "The RCA Condemns Charlottesville Violence and Bigotry" (Press release). Rabbinical Council of America.
- Conservative Movement Statement on Violent Demonstrations in Charlottesville, VA Archived August 21, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Rabbinical Assembly and United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism (August 13, 2017).
- URJ President Rabbi Rick Jacobs On Charlottesville: We Condemn Neo-Nazi Hate Speech and Call For an End to Violence; But Moral Equivalence of Violence and Hate 'On Many Sides' Is Troubling, Union for Reform Judaism (August 12, 2017).
- "In Charlottesville, the Local Jewish Community Presses On". ReformJudaism.org. October 11, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- Shumita Basu (August 16, 2017), The History of Blaming 'Both Sides' and Why Language Matters, WNYC News, archived from the original on August 16, 2017
- Schuessler, Jennifer (August 15, 2017). "Historians Question Trump's Comments on Confederate Monuments". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Phillips, Kristine. "Historians: No, Mr. President, Washington and Jefferson are not the same as Confederate generals" Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, August 16, 2017
- "Noam Chomsky sparks outrage after launching scathing attack on Antifa". The Independent. August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Medieval Scholars Joust With White Nationalists. And One Another, by Jennifer Schuessler, New York Times, May 5, 2019.
- McCausland, Phil. "Military Joint Chiefs Denounce Charlottesville Racism." NBC News. 16 August 2017. 21 January 2020.
- Phillips, Dave. "Inspired by Charlottesville, Military Chiefs Condemn Racism." New York Times. 16 August 2017. 21 January 2020.
- Hennessey, Susan and Benjamin Wittes. "How Trump Busted the Myth of ...." The Atlantic. 21 January 2020. 21 January 2020.
- Cohen, Zachary and Barbara Starr. "US military leaders condemn racism after Charlottesville violence." CNN. 16 August 2017. 21 January 2020.
- Kiely, Eugene (August 16, 2017). "Fact check: President Trump's press conference, in context". USA Today. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "President Trump Condemns Violence Charlottesville VA, Aug 12 2017". C-SPAN. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Jenna Johnson & John Wagner, "Trump condemns Charlottesville violence but doesn't single out white nationalists" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (August 12, 2017).
- Ben Jacobs & Warren Murray, "Charlottesville: Trump under fire after failing to denounce white supremacists" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (August 12, 2017).
- King, Laura. "White House defends Trump's response to deadly violence in Charlottesville as criticism intensifies". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Kimberly Ricci (August 13, 2017). "White House: 'Of Course' Trump Condemned White Supremacists In His Charlottesville Statement". Uproxx. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Jacob Heilbrunn (August 13, 2017). "The alt-right have widened the rift between Trump and the Republican establishment". The Spectator. Press Holdings. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Billy House & Jennifer Epstein, "Trump Panned for 'Many Sides' Condemnation of Virginia Violence" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg News (August 12, 2017).
- Greg Evans (August 12, 2017). "Hollywood, Beltway Slam Trump's Refusal To Call Out White Supremacists". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Glenn Thrush; Maggie Haberman (August 12, 2017). "Trump's Remarks on Charlottesville Violence Are Criticized as Insufficient". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Haberman, Maggie; Thrush, Glenn (August 14, 2017). "Bannon in Limbo as Trump Faces Growing Calls for the Strategist's Ouster". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Trump condemns 'all that hate stands for' after white nationalist rally in Charlotte". CBS News. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Golshan, Tara (August 12, 2017). "GOP senators react to Trump's Charlottesville comments: 'Mr. President – we must call evil by its name.'". Vox. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Reactions to Trump's Statement on Violence in Virginia" Archived August 13, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (August 12, 2017).
- Phillips, Kristine (August 13, 2017). "Trump Didn't Call Out White Supremacists. He Was Rebuked by Members of His Own Party". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "Charlottesville attack: What, where and who?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Nix, Mede (August 12, 2017). "Ted Cruz calls for Justice Department investigation into Charlottesville violence". Dallas News. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Merica, Dan (August 12, 2017). "Trump condemns 'hatred, bigotry and violence on many sides' in Charlottesville". CNN. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "Ex-KKK Leader David Duke Says White Supremacists Will 'Fulfill' Trump's Promises". The Huffington Post. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Abby Jackson (August 12, 2017). "Former KKK leader David Duke strikes out at Trump for condemning a white nationalist rally: 'It was White Americans who put you in the presidency'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
- "Neo-Nazis and White Supremacists applaud Donald Trump's response to deadly violence in Virginia". The Independent. August 13, 2017. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- "NAACP Condemns 'Unite The Right' Hate Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia". NAACP. August 12, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "Black leaders speak on Charlottesville violence". amsterdamnews.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Sabato: Trump should fire Bannon". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Friedmann, Sarah. ""Fire Bannon" Tweets Demand Trump Drops the Supposed Architect of the Alt-Right". Bustle. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017.
- "Fire Steve Bannon". National Review. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Nancy Pelosi calls on Trump to fire Steve Bannon after Charlottesville violence". ABC News. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "Richard Painter Demands Trump Fire Seb Gorka and Steve Bannon Over Charlottesville Violence". mediaite.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Maggie Haberman (August 18, 2017). "Stephen Bannon Out at the White House After Turbulent Run". The New York Times. The New York Times Company.
- "Sebastian Gorka Is Forced Out as White House Adviser, Officials Say". New York Times. August 25, 2017.
- "Pascrell: Trump 'gave voice' to violent extremists in Charlottesville". Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Shelbourne, Mallory (August 15, 2017). "Trump asked to fire 3 WH staffers". Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- Thrush, Glenn (August 14, 2017). "New Outcry as Trump Rebukes Charlottesville Racists 2 Days Later". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Merica, Dan (August 14, 2017). "Trump calls KKK, neo-Nazis, white supremacists 'repugnant'". CNN. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Jonathan Lemire (August 15, 2017). "Bowing to pressure, Trump denounces hate groups by name". Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017.
- "White nationalist Richard Spencer: Trump 'didn't condemn us,' and 'only a dumb person' would take his statement seriously". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Resnick, Gideon (August 14, 2017). "Alt-Right Leader Richard Spencer: Trump's Statement on Rally Was 'Hollow,' 'Nonsense'". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Cillizza, Chris (August 14, 2017). "3 big mistakes Donald Trump made in his 2nd speech on Charlottesville". CNN. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Taylor, Jessica (August 14, 2017). "Trump Calls Out KKK, White Supremacists After Charlottesville: 'Racism Is Evil'". NPR. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Trump's first response to Charlottesville was tepid and mealy mouthed. His second was too late". Los Angeles Times. August 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- "Cornell Brooks: Trump Was Trying to 'Have His Hate Cake and Eat It Too'". grabien.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Madeleine Sheehan Perkins (August 14, 2017). "Trump complains the media 'will never be satisfied' after his 'additional remarks' on Charlottesville". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- "President Donald Trump Full EXPLOSIVE Press Conference". YouTube.com. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Michael D. Shear & Maggie Haberman, A Combative Trump Criticizes 'Alt-Left' Groups in Charlottesville Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times (August 15, 2017)
- Meghan Keneally, Trump lashes out at 'alt-left' in Charlottesville, says 'fine people on both sides' Archived August 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News (August 15, 2017)
- "Read the complete transcript of President Trump's remarks at Trump Tower on Charlottesville". Los Angeles Times. August 15, 2017.
- Trump: Taking down Confederate memorials is 'changing history' Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine CNN, August 16, 2017,
- Angie Drobnic Holan, "In Context: Donald Trump’s ‘very fine people on both sides’ remarks (transcript)", PolitiFact, April 26, 2019.
- What is the 'alt Left' that Donald Trump said was 'very violent' in Charlottesville? Archived August 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Telegraph, August 16, 2017.
- Andrew Rafferty, Trump Says 'Alt-Left' Shares Blame for Charlottesville Rally Violence Archived August 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, NBC News (August 15, 2017).
- Louis Jacobson, Donald Trump wrong that Charlottesville counter-protesters didn't have a permit, PolitiFact (August 17, 2017).
- Wilson, Jason (August 12, 2017). "Charlottesville: far-right crowd with torches encircles counter-protest group" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Trump wrong that counter-protesters had no permit". @politifact.
- "What Steve Bannon thinks about Charlottesville". Axios. August 16, 2017. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Kevin Uhrmacher; Denise Lu; Kevin Schaul; Aaron Steckelberg (August 16, 2017). "Trump again blamed 'both sides' in Charlottesville. Here's how politicians are reacting". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.
- Zachary Cohen (August 16, 2017). "Former Presidents H.W. and W. Bush denounce racism in wake of Charlottesville". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- "Bush presidents wade into Trump furore over Charlottesville". BBC News. August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Cristina Marcos (August 16, 2017). "House Dems push to censure Trump over Charlottesville response". The Hill. Capitol Hill Media Group. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- Meg James (August 17, 2017). "Fox CEO James Murdoch criticizes Trump over response to Charlottesville". Los Angeles Times. Tronc. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Brooke Seipels (August 17, 2017). "Fox CEO rips Trump, donates $1M to Anti-Defamation League". The Hill. Capitol Hill Media Group. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Erik Wemple (August 18, 2017). "Hey, James Murdoch: You have no standing to denounce Trump's Charlottesville reaction". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Jennifer Rubin (August 18, 2017). "To curtail hate, James Murdoch must clean house at Fox News". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Casey Tolan (August 16, 2017). "Jackie Speier calls for Trump's removal from office under 25th Amendment". San Jose Mercury News. Bay Area News Group. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- "Rep. Jackie Speier calls for Trump's removal under 25th Amendment". KTVU. Fox Television Stations. August 17, 2017.
- Amy Graff (August 17, 2017). "Rep. Speier wants to use the 25th Amendment to remove Trump. Here's what that means". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.
- washingtonexaminer.com: "Pence defends Trump over Charlottesville comments: 'I know his heart'", August 22, 2017
- Mike Lillis (August 17, 2017). "Dem to introduce impeachment articles over Charlottesville". The Hill. Capitol Hill Media Group.
- Hayley Miller (August 17, 2017). "Congressman Moves To Impeach Donald Trump, Says No Such Thing As 'Good Nazis'". The Huffington Post. Oath Inc.
- Eryn Taylor (August 17, 2017). "Rep. Steve Cohen calls for Trump's impeachment". WREG.
- Julia Manchester (August 18, 2017). "Mother of Charlottesville victim: 'I will not' speak to Trump". The Hill. Capitol Hill Media Group.
- Colon, David. "WWE Fans Protesting Outside Barclays Demanding Company Superkick Trump Out Of Hall Of Fame". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- Gabbatt, Adam. "Trump could lose honorary law degree after Charlottesville remarks". The Guardian. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- McCannon, Sarah (August 20, 2017). "Some Liberty University Grads Are Returning Their Diplomas To Protest Trump". NPR. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Flood, Brian (August 17, 2017). "'Most Trusted News Source in America' Depicts Trump With KKK Hood as Megaphone". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Wattles, Jackie (August 17, 2017). "Top magazines take on Trump and hate". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Cavna, Michael (August 17, 2017). "Next week's striking New Yorker cover shows Trump traveling with the KKK". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Bowden, John (August 18, 2017). "German magazine cover shows Trump wearing KKK hood". The Hill. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- Jason Hancock (August 17, 2017). "'I hope Trump is assassinated,' Missouri lawmaker writes — and quickly regrets". The Kansas City Star. The McClatchy Company.
- Kevin McDermott (August 17, 2017). "McCaskill, Clay and others call for Mo senator to resign after post hoping for Trump's assassination". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The McClatchy Company. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Danny Wicentowski (August 17, 2017). "'I Hope Trump is Assassinated!': State Senator Maria Chappelle-Nadal Draws Condemnation". The Riverfront Times. Euclid Media Group. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Alexandra Martellaro (August 22, 2017). "Maria Chappelle-Nadal removed from all committee assignments". KSDK. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Katrina Lindquist (August 22, 2017). "State senator removed from committee appointments". KMIZ/KQFX-LD. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Eric Bradner. "Donald Trump defends Charlottesville responses, omits reference to 'many sides'". CNN. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- Krieg, Gregory. "Rally Trump vs. Teleprompter Trump". CNN politics. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
- Galioto, Katie (April 26, 2019). "Trump says he answered Charlottesville questions 'perfectly'". Politico. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Whitten, Sarah (August 14, 2017). "Trump attacks Merck CEO for stepping down from manufacturing council in protest". CNBC. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
- Egan, Matt (August 14, 2017). "Kenneth Frazier quits Trump manufacturing council; Trump lashes out". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- Thrush, Glenn (August 14, 2017). "New Outcry as Trump Rebukes Charlottesville Racists 2 Days Later". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- David Gelles; Katie Thomas (August 14, 2017). "Three C.E.O.s Quitting Business Panel in Rebuke to Trump". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- Robin Eberhardt (August 15, 2017). "Fifth leader resigns from Trump's manufacturing council". The Hill. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Julia Horowitz (August 15, 2017). "AFL-CIO chief leaves Trump's manufacturing council after president's latest remarks". CNN Money. Time Warner. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- David Gelles, Landon Thomas Jr. & Kate Kelly, Trump Dissolves Advisory Councils After C.E.O.s Move to Disband Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times (August 16, 2017).
- Lauren Thomas, Wal-Mart CEO says Trump missed 'critical opportunity' to bring America together Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CNBC (August 15, 2017).
- O'Keefe, Ed (August 18, 2017). "Members of White House presidential arts commission resigning to protest Trump's comments". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Members of the President's Commission on Arts & Humanities resignation letter to President Trump". Scribd. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Kamal, Sameea; Bierman, Noah (August 18, 2017). "16 members of White House arts panel resign to protest Trump's response to Charlottesville". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- "Citing Trump remarks, most of president's arts council quits". Associated Press. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Bat, John (August 19, 2017). "Arts and Humanities Committee members resign in protest of Trump". CBS News. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Baynes, Chris (August 28, 2017). "Donald Trump's cyber-security advisers resign warning of 'insufficient attention to the growing threats'". The Independent. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Sheth, Sonam (August 28, 2017). "Over a quarter of the members on Trump's cybersecurity advisory council have resigned en masse". Business Insider. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Cammeron, Brenna. "Antifa: Left-wing militants on the rise". BBC News.
- Goldberg, Jonah (August 18, 2017). "Alt-Right's Despicability Doesn't Make 'Antifa' the Good Guys". Townhall. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Waldman, Paul (August 16, 2017). "Sorry conservatives. There's no equivalence between the extreme right and the extreme left". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Beinart, Peter (August 16, 2017). "What Trump Gets Wrong About Antifa". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Arsenault, Ray (August 18, 2017). "Donald Trump's Dixie apocalypse". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- Qiu, Linda (August 15, 2017). "Trump Asks, 'What About the Alt-Left?' Here's an Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- Tobin, Jonathan. "Trump's Moral Equivalence Trap". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- Scott Clement & David Nakamura, Poll shows clear disapproval of how Trump responded to Charlottesville violence, Washington Post (August 21, 2017).
- Gary Langer, Only 28% approve of Trump's response to Charlottesville (POLL), ABC News (August 21, 2017).
- Domenico Montanaro, Poll: Majority Believes Trump's Response To Charlottesville Hasn't Been Strong Enough, NPR (August 16, 2017).
- De Pinto, Jennifer; Backus, Fred; Khanna, Khabir; Salvanto, Anthony (August 17, 2017). "Partisan divide over Trump's response to Charlottesville: CBS News poll". CBS News. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- Frankovic, Kathy (August 16, 2017). "Trump's domestic crisis: Charlottesville and white nationalists". YouGov. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
- The Economist/YouGov Poll toplines, YouGov (conducted August 13–15, 2017).
- Siena College Research Institute (September 6, 2017). "Trump Ratings Are Lowest They've Been in His Presidency". Siena College. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
- Chan, Sewell; Cumming-Bruce, Nick (August 23, 2017). "U.N. Panel Condemns Trump's Response to Charlottesville Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Prevention of racial discrimination, including early warning and urgent action procedures (PDF) (Report). Early Warning and Urgent Action Procedures. Geneva. United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. p. 2.
- "UN rights experts criticize US failure to unequivocally reject racist violent events". United Nations. August 23, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Chris Suarez, Ruth Serven & Allison Wrabel, Charlottesville rally costs topped half a million dollars, The Daily Progress (January 2, 2018).
- Jesse J. Holland, Violence adds momentum to removal of Confederate statue, Washington Post (August 15, 2017).
- Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List., New York Times (August 21, 2017).
- Fandos, Nicholas; Goldman, Russell (August 16, 2017). "Baltimore Removes Confederate Statues; Mayor Cites Public Safety". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Colin Campbell, Talia Richman and Luke Broadwater (August 16, 2017). "Confederate monuments taken down in Baltimore overnight". Archived from the original on August 16, 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Amanda Jackson & Ralph Ellis, Four arrested in toppling of Confederate statue in North Carolina Archived August 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, CNN (August 15, 2017).
- Jonah Engel Bromwich, University of Texas at Austin Removes Confederate Statues in Overnight Operation, New York Times (August 21, 2017).
- Suerth, Jessica (August 16, 2017). "Here are the Confederate memorials that will be removed after Charlottesville". CNN. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Holland, Jesse J. (August 15, 2017). "Deadly rally accelerates ongoing removal of Confederate statues across U.S." Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "Confederate plaque on Montreal Hudson's Bay store removed". CBC News.
- "Plaque honouring Confederate leader Jefferson Davis removed from Montreal building". The Star. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Stockman, Farah (July 21, 2018). "Year After White Nationalist Rally, Charlottesville Is in Tug of War Over Its Soul". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Feuer, Alan (February 12, 2018). "Planners of Deadly Charlottesville Rally Are Tested in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
- "Judge Allows Lawsuit Lawsuit Against Jason Kessler, Others to Move Forward". WVIR-TV. July 10, 2018. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
- Allam, Hannah (August 28, 2019) "Charlottesville Victims Use Post-Slavery KKK Law To Go After Hate Groups " NPR
- Tiku, Nitasha (August 27, 2017). "Violent Alt-Right Chats Could Be Key to Charlottesville Lawsuits". Wired. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
- Flynn, Meagan (August 7, 2018). "Subpoena for app called 'Discord' could unmask identities of Charlottesville white supremacists". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
- Hammel, Tyler (April 26, 2019). "Neo-Nazi ordered to comply with evidence requests". The Daily Progress. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
- Duggan, Paul (October 2, 2018) Four alleged members of hate group charged in 2017 ‘Unite the Right’ rally in Charlottesville The Washington Post
- Reilly, Ryan J.; Campbell, Andy; and Mathias, Christopher (October 2, 2018) "4 White Supremacists Hit With Federal Charges Over Charlottesville Unite The Right Weekend" Huffington Post
- Adam Goldman & Ali Winston, The FBI arrests a white-supremacist leader who fled the country for Central America, New York Times, October 24, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
- Coaston, Joan (October 2, 2018) "4 members of an alt-right “fight club” charged with inciting a riot in Charlottesville" Vox
- A.C. Thompson, Once Defiant, All Four White Supremacists Charged in Charlottesville Violence Plead Guilty, ProPublica (May 6, 2019).
- Paul Duggan, Accused 'serial rioters' plead guilty over racist mayhem in Charlottesville, Washington Post (May 3, 2019).
- Aaron Eason Arrested For Allegedly Inciting Violence In California, Charlottesville, Huffington Post, Christopher Weber, October 29, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
- Julia Sclafani, Judge dismisses federal charges against 3 members of H.B.-based white power group, Los Angeles Times (June 4, 2019).
- A.C. Thompson, Member of White Supremacist Group Pleads Guilty to Assaults at 2017 Rally, ProPublica (November 21, 2018).
- Flynn, Meaghan (September 19, 2019) "White supremacist’s threats led black Charlottesville candidate to drop out of race, feds say" The Washington Post
- Reilly, Ryan J. and Mathias, Christopher (September 19, 2019) "White Supremacist Arrested For Threatening Charlottesville Black Lives Matter Co-Founder" HuffPost
- Heim, Joe (December 11, 2017). "Charlottesville denies permit for event marking anniversary of supremacist rally". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- Astor, Maggie (December 12, 2017). "White Nationalists Want to March Again. Charlottesville Says No". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- Stuart, Courteney (July 24, 2018). "White Nationalist Jason Kessler Concedes Fight Over Charlottesville Anniversary Rally". CBS19News (WCAV).
- Heim, Joe (June 20, 2018). "'Unite the Right' organizer gets approval for rally anniversary event in D.C." Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- "Washington DC far-right rally planned". BBC News. June 21, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
- "White Nationalist Jason Kessler Concedes Fight Over Charlottesville Rally". The Daily Beast. July 24, 2018.
- Weill, Kelly (July 12, 2018). "Leftist Activists: We're Going to Shut Down the Charlottesville Sequel in D.C." The Daily Beast.
- Gleicher, Nathaniel et al. (July 31, 2018) "Removing Bad Actors on Facebook / What We've Found So Far" Facebook
- Staff (January 6, 2017)"Background to 'Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections': The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution" Office of the Director of National Intelligence
- Fausset, Richard. "Rally by White Nationalists Was Over Almost Before It Began Video". www.nytimes.com. New York Times.
- Hilton, Robin (August 15, 2017). "Wilco Responds To Charlottesville Violence With New Benefit Song". NPR.
- Gage, Jeff (May 24, 2018). "Hear Jesse Dayton Indict the Alt-Right in New Protest Song 'Charlottesville'". Rolling Stone.
- Bernstein, Jonathan (November 7, 2017). "Hear Drive-By Truckers' Scathing Trump Rebuke 'The Perilous Night'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- "Donald Trump Hates Black People and Is Basically Adolf Hitler Eminem Raps on". Newsweek. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- "Klezmer, funk and hip hop unite against racism and intolerance in Trump's America". Radio France Internationale. November 22, 2019.
- "South Park Season Premiere Takes On Charlottesville and The White Working Class". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- Park, Andrea (May 16, 2018). "Spike Lee slams Trump at Cannes, talks about using Heather Heyer's death scene in new film". CBS News. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- Siegel, Tatiana; Chris, Gardner (May 14, 2018). "Cannes: Spike Lee's 'BlacKkKlansman' Draws 10-Minute Ovation". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- "How Katrina, Charlottesville, and Sean Spicer inspired The First Purge". July 3, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "'Deadpool 2' Villain Was Influenced by Charlottesville Riots". The Hollywood Reporter. May 23, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
- "'NOT MY AMERICA': Video game maker releases powerful ad for Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus". Business Insider. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "The Big Difference with 'Wolfenstein II' Isn't the Game, It's the World". Inverse. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "'We create escapism': 2 new video games tackle Nazis and religious fanaticism in the U.S." CBC News. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Documenting Hate: Charlottesville, Frontline, Raney Aronson-Bath, August 8, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
- "Footage Recalls the Night Madison Square Garden Filled With Nazis". Smithsonian Magazine. October 13, 2017. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
- "LUPICA: Charlottesville's violent clashes reminiscent of American Nazi rallies at MSG". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- "When Nazis Filled Madison Square Garden". Politico Magazine. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- "A Look Back at the 1939 Pro-Nazi Rally at Madison Square Garden and the Protestors Who Organized Against It". Longreads. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unite the Right rally.|
- Final Report of the Independent Review of the 2017 Protest Events in Charlottesville, Virginia by Timothy J. Heaphy of Hunton & Williams LLP, commissioned by the City of Charlottesville
- Charlottesville: Race and Terror, news documentary by Vice News (22 minutes)
- Who are the white nationalists and Antifa: Part 1
- Deleted livestream of the event by one of the protestors
- After Words interview with Gov. Terry McAuliffe on his book Beyond Charlottesville: Taking a Stand Against White Nationalism, August 10, 2019, C-SPAN