The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2020)
An at-risk student is a term used in the United States to describe a student who requires temporary or ongoing intervention in order to succeed academically. At risk students, sometimes referred to as at-risk youth or at-promise youth, are also adolescents who are less likely to transition successfully into adulthood and achieve economic self-sufficiency. Characteristics of at-risk students include emotional or behavioral problems, truancy, low academic performance, showing a lack of interest for academics, and expressing a disconnection from the school environment.
In January 2020, Governor Newsom of California changed all references to "at-risk" to "at-promise" in the California Penal Codes.
The term "at-risk" came into use after the 1983 article "A Nation at Risk," published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. The article described United States society as being economically and socially endangered. At-risk students are those students who have been labeled, either officially or unofficially, as being in danger of academic failure. In the U.S., different states define "at-risk" differently, so it is difficult to compare the varying state policies on the subject.
Students who are labeled as "at-risk" face a number of challenges that other students do not. According to Becky Smerdon's research for the American Institutes for Research, students, especially boys, with low socioeconomic status (and therefore more likely to be labeled "at-risk") show feelings of isolation and estrangement in their schools. Educational philosopher Gloria Ladson-Billings claimed in a 2006 speech that the label itself actually contributes to the challenges. Her view is that, "We cannot saddle these babies at kindergarten with this label and expect them to proudly wear it for the next 13 years, and think, 'Well, gee, I don't know why they aren't doing good.'"
Contributing factors documented in the United States
Youth that come from low socio-economic status are more likely to be labeled “at-risk.” Impoverished environments can create several risk factors for youth, making them increasingly vulnerable to risk-behaviors and impacted life outcomes as they grow. Growing up in poverty is associated with several risk factors, including those social-behavioral (for example substance abuse), environmental (violent neighborhoods), ecological, and familial (exposure to psychological imbalance). These risk factors are shown to have negative correlations with academic achievement, and positive correlations with problem behaviors. Youth living in households with income under 50% of the federal poverty level are those most vulnerable.
Family instability and dysfunction
Growing up in a stable two-parent household is associated with better health, academic achievement, and social skills like healthy interaction with peers. Studies have shown changes in structure, such as parental divorce, co-habitation, and remarriage, have strong negative relationships between multiple transitions and academic success. Children who are exposed to domestic violence, criminal activity, or substance abuse have a much higher chance of long-term behavioral problems, such as alcoholism and drug abuse and mental health problems.
School environment and community resources
Schools can place students “at-risk” by leaving them without academic skills and preparedness. School environments can often be places of struggle for many adolescent youth. Bullying in particular is likely to lead to student disengagement putting students at risk for behavioral problems and school dropout.
High poverty neighborhoods are often characterized by high crime rates, limited resources, and underperforming schools. Schools with fewer resources are more likely to be associated with poor academic outcomes. Fewer resources means higher student to teacher ratios, lower spending per student, and lower overall academic performance. These neighborhoods often lack the resources needed to help youth overcome risk factors.
Minority youth, particularly African-Americans and Latino youth, face many barriers to self-sufficiency that white and Asian students are less likely to face. Racial discrimination often leads to violence, bullying, and also hinders youth employment opportunity. African-Americans and Latinos are more likely to live in high poverty environments characterized by underperforming schools with limited resources and therefore have a higher chance of academic failure. Immigrant youth also face several challenges with adapting to the culture and experience intensified problems such as language barriers and legal battles.
In addition to children "traditionally considered to be at risk", "preteens and teens from affluent, well-educated families" are also at risk. Despite their advantages in other areas, affluent youth have among "the highest rates of depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, somatic complaints, and unhappiness" Madeline Levine writes that this "should in no way minimize concern" for other at risk groups.
There are several different forms of interventions for at-risk youth. Interventions are generally considered effective if they have positive impacts on individuals' risk behavior, academic achievement, pro-social behavior, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment. Effective interventions can also serve as a preventative measure for future risk behavior.
The sooner at-risk students are identified, the more likely that preventative "remediation" measures will be effective. Examples of remediation include:
- remediation programs
- child care services
- medical care
- substance abuse awareness programs
- bilingual instruction
- employment training
- close follow up procedures on truancy and absenteeism.
- academic advising
- career and technical education
Psychologists have recognized that many youth adjust properly despite being raised in high risk circumstances. This capacity to cope with adversity, even being strengthened by it, is crucial to developing resilience; or the human capacity to face, overcome, and ultimately be strengthened by life's adversities and challenges.
Psychological resilience is an important character trait for youth trying to mitigate risk factors. Resilience is used to describe the qualities that aid in the successful adaptation, life-transition, and social competence of youth despite risk and adversity. Resilience is manifested by having a strong sense of purpose and a belief in success; including goal direction, education aspirations, motivation, persistence, and optimism. Getting youth involved in extracurricular activities is important in building resilience and remediation. Particularly, those involving cooperative approaches such as peer helping, cross age mentoring, and community service. Data examined from a nationally funded study has shown that teachers can promote academic resilience in students at risk for failure in mathematics through creating safe school environments which emphasize support and the development of strong teacher-student relationships. These factors were associated with the academic resilience and achievement of low-income Latino, White, and African-American elementary school students. Teachers can further contribute to a strong classroom environment for students who face risk factors by holding all students accountable to expectations that are both high and realistic for the given student.
Childhood trauma is detrimental and can be damaging during emotional development. Overcoming trauma contributes significantly to resilience. Many youth that have experienced trauma have an inability to cope with and adjust to new surroundings. Trauma overwhelms one's ability to cope and may lead them to isolate against the fears of modern life, often viewing the world as a threatening or dangerous place. These students distrust others, including adults, and because of traumatic experiences rely on themselves to keep safe. New or unexpected stimuli can often trigger traumatic flash-backs. Slamming doors, loud announcements, students and teachers shouting can trigger instant terror within a child who has suffered from trauma. Teachers are critical in nurturing and building resilience in at-risk students exposed to trauma. Although, being empowered to participate in their own healing, gives young people a sense of self-control, safety, and purpose.
At-risk students globally
Juvenile delinquency and school dropout are a significant problem in Canada. In 2010 37% of youth self-reported engaging in one or more delinquent behaviors such as acts of violence, acts against property, and the sale of drugs. Canadian boys are twice as likely as girls to engage in violent behavior but about equal in crimes against property. In 2010 the rate of those accused of a crime peaked at 18 years of age and generally decreased with age. School dropout rates between 2009 and 2010 were around 10% of young males and 7% of young women. Only 44% of children in foster care graduate from high school compared to 81% of their peers.
A large percentage of youth in Mexico are considered at-risk and many engage in negative behaviors. 30% of Mexican youth ages 12–24 drop out of school and remain unemployed and inactive after age 18. Another 30% of Mexican youths have never participated in any extra-curricular activities outside of a school setting. Many risk factors for Mexican youth are the same as those identified in the United States, however; poverty is a more prevalent influencing factor.
Launched by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the International Youth Foundation (YIF) the Youth:Work Mexico program focuses on putting youth to work and creating a safe space for disadvantaged youth. By the end of 2014 7,500 Mexican youth will have participated in youth camps and after school programs. Nearly 2,000 at-risk youth will have been prepared by job training programs.
At-risk programs in the United States
Title I is one of the largest United States federal programs in K-12 education. Title I provides financial resources to schools, particularly those in low socio-economic communities, to ensure that low-income students meet challenging state academic standards.
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
Big Brothers Big Sisters of America is a program that establishes meaningful monitored mentoring between volunteers and at risk youth ages 6–18. Big Brothers Big Sisters is the largest donor and volunteer supported mentoring network in the United States. The organizations mission is to provide children facing adversity with strong, enduring, and professional one-to-one connections that forever change their lives for the better.
Reading Rockets is a United States government funded project that supports the needs of at-risk youth by offering research based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help children learn to read and read better. The program aims to help struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.
YMCA, sometimes regionally known as The Y, is an organization in the US that promotes youth development, healthy living, and social responsibility. Over the years, YMCA has provided various programming, some directed towards at-risk youth. YMCA has engaged with social issues such as racial solidarity, job training, and classes for people with disabilities.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2014-11-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Richardson, Val, comp. "At-Risk Student Intervention Implementation Guide." The Education and Economic Development Coordinating Council At Risk Student Committee (2008)
- Whiting, Gilman W. (August 2006). "From At Risk to At Promise: Developing Scholar Identities Among Black Males". Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. 17 (4): 222–229. doi:10.4219/jsge-2006-407. S2CID 54226355.
- Koball, Heather, et al. (2011). Synthesis of Research and Resources to Support At- Risk Youth, OPRE Report # OPRE 2011–22, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- "Term 'At-Risk Youth' Replaced with 'At-Promise Youth' in California Penal Codes". 13 February 2020.
- Placier, Margaret L. (December 1993). "The Semantics of State Policy Making: The Case of 'At Risk'". Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 15 (4): 380–395. doi:10.3102/01623737015004380. JSTOR 1164536. S2CID 145260544.
- Smerdon, B (2002). "Students' Perceptions of Membership in Their High Schools". Sociology of Education. 75 (4): 290. doi:10.2307/3090280. JSTOR 3090280.
- Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools.
- Knight, Alice; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Havard, Alys; Maple, Myfanwy; Foley, Catherine; Shakeshaft, Bernie (February 2017). "The quality and effectiveness of interventions that target multiple risk factors among young people: a systematic review". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 41 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12573. PMC 5298033. PMID 27624886.
- Ridings, Kelley R. (2010). The Place of At-Risk Factors among Students Graduating or Dropping out of High School: A Study of Path Analyses (Thesis). ISBN 978-1-1242-5380-0. OCLC 911605736. ProQuest 757679098.
- Blakely, Tony; Hales, Simon; Kieft, Charlotte; Wilson, Nick; Woodward, Alistair (2005). "The global distribution of risk factors by poverty level". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 83 (2): 118–126. PMC 2623808. PMID 15744404.
- Obsuth, Ingrid; Watson, Gillian; Moretti, Marlene (1 January 2010). "Substance Dependence Disorders and Patterns of Psychiatric Comorbidity among At-Risk Teens: Implications for Social Policy and Intervention". Court Review.
- Levine, Madeline. The Price of Privilege: How Parental Pressure and Material Advantage Are Creating a Generation of Disconnected and Unhappy Kids. HarperCollins New York, NY, 2006.
- Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C. (2004). "The high price of affluence". Advances in Child Development and Behavior Volume 32. Advances in Child Development and Behavior. 32. pp. 125–162. doi:10.1016/S0065-2407(04)80006-5. ISBN 978-0-12-009732-6. PMC 4358932. PMID 15641462.
- Ciocanel, Oana; Power, Kevin; Eriksen, Ann; Gillings, Kirsty (1 March 2017). "Effectiveness of Positive Youth Development Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 46 (3): 483–504. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0555-6. PMID 27518860. S2CID 3711204.
- de Vries, Sanne L. A.; Hoeve, Machteld; Assink, Mark; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Asscher, Jessica J. (February 2015). "Practitioner Review: Effective ingredients of prevention programs for youth at risk of persistent juvenile delinquency - recommendations for clinical practice" (PDF). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 56 (2): 108–121. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12320. PMID 25143121.
- Donnelly, Margarita (1987). "At-Risk Students. ERIC Digest Series Number 21". ERIC ED292172. Cite journal requires
- Weinrath, Michael; Donatelli, Gavin; Murchison, Melanie J. (July 2016). "Mentorship: A Missing Piece to Manage Juvenile Intensive Supervision Programs and Youth Gangs?". Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 58 (3): 291–321. doi:10.3138/cjccj.2015.E19. S2CID 148085659.
- Zhang, Yi; Fei, Qiang; Quddus, Munir; Davis, Carolyn (October 2014). "An Examination of the Impact of Early Intervention on Learning Outcomes of At-Risk Students". Research in Higher Education Journal. 26. ERIC EJ1055303.
- "Young Minds In School: Supporting the Emotional Wellbeing of Children and Young People in School" 2014 Web. Young Minds retrieved 3 November 2014
- Benard, Bonnie (August 1995). "Fostering Resilience in Children. ERIC Digest". ERIC ED386327. Cite journal requires
- Borman, Geoffrey D.; Overman, Laura T. (January 2004). "Academic Resilience in Mathematics among Poor and Minority Students". The Elementary School Journal. 104 (3): 177–195. doi:10.1086/499748. S2CID 55693934.
- Downey, Jayne A. (September 2008). "Recommendations for Fostering Educational Resilience in the Classroom". Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth. 53 (1): 56–64. doi:10.3200/psfl.53.1.56-64. S2CID 143550411.
- Wright, Travis (October 2013). "'I Keep Me Safe.' Risk and Resilience in Children with Messy Lives". Phi Delta Kappan. 95 (2): 39–43. doi:10.1177/003172171309500209. S2CID 141915220.
- Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan (2014). "Healing Trauma, Building Resilience: SITCAP in Action". Reclaiming Children and Youth. 22 (4): 18–20. ERIC EJ1038557.
- A Statistical Snapshot of Youth at Risk and Youth Offending in Canada. National Crime Prevention Centre. 2012. ISBN 978-1-100-19989-4.[page needed]
- Cunningham, Wendy; Bagby, Emilie (1 June 2010). "Factors that Predispose Youth to Risk in Mexico and Chile". hdl:10986/3819. Cite journal requires
- "Youth Work Mexico" International youth Foundation. Retrieved November.2014
-  U.S. Department of Education Retrieved November.2014.
-  Changing Perspectives, Changing Lives." Big Brothers Big Sisters. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, n.d. Web. Retrieved 03 Nov. 2014.
- "Reading Rockets." Reading Rockets. WETA Public Broadcasting, 2014. Web. Retrieved 02 Nov. 2014.
-  The YMCA. Web. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- "Young Men's Christian Association." Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 2017, p. 1p.
- O'Donnell, Julie; Kirkner, Sandra L. (2016). "Helping Low-Income Urban Youth Make the Transition to Early Adulthood: A Retrospective Study of the YMCA Youth Institute". Afterschool Matters. ERIC EJ1095926.
- Mjagkij, Nina (2014). Light In The Darkness: African Americans and the YMCA, 1852-1946. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-5816-7.[page needed]
-  The YMCA History. Web.
- Sagor, Richard; Cox, Jonas (2004). At-risk Students: Reaching and Teaching Them. Eye On Education. ISBN 978-1-930556-71-3.
- K. Miller, D. Snow, & P. Lauer(2004) Out-of-School Time Programs for At-Risk Students. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from
- Democratic Staff, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives (2007) FY "2008 Bush Budget:Drastic Education Program Cuts, Funding Reductions and Broken Promises".
- At-risk students at Curlie
- Advising at-risk students in college and university settings
- Resources to Aid in Advising At-Risk Students
- Hot Topic: At-Risk Youth – Service-learning-related information on at-risk youth at Learn and Serve America's National Service-Learning Clearinghouse
- Princeton City Schools site about the Title I program