Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others. The behavior is often repeated and habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Behaviors used to assert such domination can include verbal harassment or threat, physical assault or coercion, and such acts may be directed repeatedly towards particular targets. Rationalizations for such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body language, personality, reputation, lineage, strength, size or ability. If bullying is done by a group, it is called mobbing.
Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has no legal definition of bullying, while some states in the United States have laws against it. Bullying is divided into four basic types of abuse – emotional (sometimes called relational), verbal, physical, and cyber. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion, such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbing, in which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.
A bullying culture can develop in any context in which humans interact with each other. This includes school, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. In a 2012 study of male adolescent American football players, "the strongest predictor [of bullying] was the perception of whether the most influential male in a player's life would approve of the bullying behavior".
- 1 Definition
- 2 Types
- 3 Etymology
- 4 Characteristics
- 5 Effects
- 6 Dark triad
- 7 Projection
- 8 Emotional intelligence
- 9 In different contexts
- 9.1 Cyberbullying
- 9.2 Disability bullying
- 9.3 Gay bullying
- 9.4 Legal bullying
- 9.5 Military bullying
- 9.6 Parental bullying of children
- 9.7 Prison bullying
- 9.8 School bullying (bullying of students in schools)
- 9.9 Sexual bullying
- 9.10 Trans bullying
- 9.11 Workplace bullying
- 9.12 In other areas
- 10 Prevention
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
There is no universal definition of bullying, however, it is widely agreed upon that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: (1) hostile intent, (2) imbalance of power, and (3) repetition over a period of time. Bullying may thus be defined as the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another individual, physically, mentally or emotionally.
The Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus says bullying occurs when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons". He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways." Individual bullying is usually characterized by a person behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person.
Individual bullying can be classified into four types. Collective bullying is known as mobbing, and can include any of the individual types of bullying.
Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier. Cyber-bullying is more common in secondary school than in primary school.
Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against a target or targets.
This is any bullying that hurts someone’s body or damages their possessions. Stealing, shoving, hitting, fighting, and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is rarely the first form of bullying that a target will experience. Often bullying will begin in a different form and progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body.
This is any bullying that is done by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice.
This is any bullying that is done with the intent to hurt somebody’s reputation or social standing.
This is any bullying that happens over any technological device. This includes email, instant messaging, social networking sites (such as Facebook), text messages, and cell phones.
Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against a target or targets.
Mobbing is "ganging up" to alter someone's actions forcefully, through rumor, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation. It involves more than one aggressor, often orchestrated by a leader who is a skilled manipulator. East German Stasi (secret police) used mobbing extensively, in the officially-named Zersetzung, which roughly translates to "decomposition". The Stasi considered the "measures of Zersetzung" as an instrument that was used when judiciary procedures were not convenient, or for political reasons such as the international image of the East German Government (GDR).
The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning "sweetheart", applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother", probably diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother", of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle "lover"). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow", "blusterer", to "harasser of the weak". This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute", which was one sense of "bully" (though not specifically attested until 1706). The verb "to bully" is first attested in 1710.
||This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (May 2014)|
Of bullies and accomplices
Studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Research on the self-esteem of bullies has produced equivocal results. While some bullies are arrogant and narcissistic, they can also use bullying as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self-esteem: by demeaning others, the abuser feels empowered. Bullies may bully out of jealousy or because they themselves are bullied. Psychologist Roy Baumeister asserts that people who are prone to abusive behavior tend to have inflated but fragile egos. Because they think too highly of themselves, are frequently offended by the criticisms and lack of deference of other people, and react to this disrespect with violence and insults.[full citation needed]
Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depression and personality disorders, as well as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self-image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. A combination of these factors may also be causes of this behavior. In one study of youth, a combination of antisocial traits and depression was found to be the best predictor of youth violence, whereas video game violence and television violence exposure were not predictive of these behaviors.
Bullying may also result from a genetic predisposition or a brain abnormality in the bully. While parents can help a toddler develop emotional regulation and control to restrict aggressive behavior, some children fail to develop these skills due to insecure attachment with their families, ineffective discipline, and environmental factors such as a stressful home life and hostile siblings. Moreover, according to some researchers, bullies may be inclined toward negativity and perform poorly academically. Dr. Cook says that "a typical bully has trouble resolving problems with others and also has trouble academically. He or she usually has negative attitudes and beliefs about others, feels negatively toward himself/herself, comes from a family environment characterized by conflict and poor parenting, perceives school as negative and is negatively influenced by peers".
Contrarily, some researchers have suggested that some bullies are psychologically strongest and have high social standing among their peers, while their targets are emotionally distressed and socially marginalized. Peer groups often promote the bully's actions, and members of these peer groups also engage in behaviors, such as mocking, excluding, punching, and insulting one another as a source of entertainment. Other researchers also argued that a minority of the bullies, those who are not in-turn bullied, enjoy going to school, and are least likely to take days off sick.
Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarian personalities, combined with a strong need to control or dominate. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view of subordinates can be a particularly strong risk factor.
Of typical bystanders
Often, bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support of the majority present that instills the fear of "speaking out" in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group. Unless the "bully mentality" is effectively challenged in any given group in its early stages, it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm within the group.
Bystanders who have been able to establish their own "friendship group" or "support group" have been found to be far more likely to opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those who have not.
In addition to communication of clear expectations that bystanders should intervene and increasing individual self-efficacy, there is growing research that suggests interventions should build on the foundation that bullying is morally wrong.
Among adults, being a bystander to workplace bullying was linked to depression, particularly in women.
Children who bully typically show signs of an aggressive behavior, a need to dominate others, and have a positive attitude towards violence.
Dr. Cook says that "A typical victim is likely to be aggressive, lack social skills, think negative thoughts, experience difficulties in solving social problems, come from a negative family, school and community environments and be noticeably rejected and isolated by peers". Victims often have characteristics such as being physically weak, as well as being easily distraught emotionally. They may also have physical characteristics that make them easier targets for bullies such as being overweight or having some type of physical deformity. Boys are more likely to be victims of physical bullying while girls are more likely to be bullied indirectly.
The results of a meta-analysis conducted by Cook and published by the American Psychological Association in 2010 concluded the main risk factors for children and adolescents being bullied, and also for becoming bullies, are the lack of social problem-solving skills.
Children who are bullied often show physical or emotional signs, such as: being afraid to attend school, complaining of headaches or a loss of appetite, a lack of interest in school activities and spending time with friends or family, and having an overall sense of sadness.
||This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (May 2014)|
Mona O'Moore of the Anti-Bullying Centre at Trinity College in Dublin, has written, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide". Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. Bullying has also been shown to cause maladjustment in young children, and targets of bullying who were also bullies themselves exhibit even greater social difficulties.
Even though there is evidence that bullying increases the risk of suicide, bullying alone does not cause suicide. Depression is one of the main reasons why kids who are bullied commit suicide. It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide every year in the UK alone because they are being bullied. Certain attributes of a person are correlated to a higher risk for suicide than others such as: American Indian, Alaskan Native, Asian American, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. When someone is unsupported by his or her family or friends, it can make the situation much worse for the victim.
While some people find it very easy to ignore a bully, others may find it very difficult and reach a breaking point. There have been cases of apparent bullying suicides that have been reported closely by the media. These include the deaths of Ryan Halligen, Phoebe Prince, Dawn-Marie Wesley, Kelly Yeomans, Jessica Haffer, Hamed Nastoh, April Himes, Cherice Moralez and Rebecca Ann Sedwick.
Serial killers were frequently bullied through direct and indirect methods as children or adolescents. Henry Lee Lucas, a serial killer and diagnosed psychopath, said the ridicule and rejection he suffered as a child caused him to hate everyone. Kenneth Bianchi, a serial killer and member of the Hillside Stranglers, was teased as a child because he urinated in his pants and suffered twitching, and as a teenager was ignored by his peers.
Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons and instill strength. Helene Guldberg, a child development academic, sparked controversy when she argued that being a target of bullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boost their ability to interact with others", and that teachers should not intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullying themselves.
A few studies have pointed up some potentially positive outcomes from bullying behavior. These studies have found that with some individuals, as a result of their having been targeted with bullying behavior, this certain minority of former bullying "targets" have actually experienced being "enabled" through their experiences with bullying to develop various coping strategies, which included "standing up for themselves" in ways which acted to "re-balance" former imbalances of power. Such former bullying targets have reported such things as "becoming a better person" as a result of their former bullying ordeals. The teaching of such anti-bullying coping skills to "would-be-targets" and to others has been found to be an effective long term means of reducing bullying incidence rates and a valuable skill-set for individuals.
A bully may project his/her own feelings of vulnerability onto the target(s) of the bullying activity. Despite the fact that a bully's typically denigrating activities are aimed at the bully's targets, the true source of such negativity is ultimately almost always found in the bully's own sense of personal insecurity and/or vulnerability. Such aggressive projections of displaced negative emotions can occur anywhere from the micro-level of interpersonal relationships, all the way up through to the macro-level of international politics, or even international armed conflict.
Bullying is abusive social interaction between peers which can include aggression, harassment, and violence. Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim. A growing body of research illustrates a significant relationship between bullying and emotional intelligence (EI). Mayer et al., (2008) defines the dimensions of overall EI as: "accurately perceiving emotion, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotion, and managing emotion". The concept combines emotional and intellectual processes. Lower emotional intelligence appears to be related to involvement in bullying, as the bully and/or the victim of bullying. EI seems to play an important role in both bullying behavior and victimization in bullying; given that EI is illustrated to be malleable, EI education could greatly improve bullying prevention and intervention initiatives.
In different contexts
Cyberbullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. Cyberbullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using email, instant messaging, text messaging, websites, social networking sites, etc. With the creation of social networks like Facebook, Myspace, Instagram, and Twitter, cyberbullying has increased. Particular watchdog organizations have been designed to contain the spread of cyberbullying.
It has been noted that disabled people are disproportionately affected by bullying and abuse, and such activity has been cited as a hate crime. The bullying is not limited to those who are visibly disabled, such as wheelchair-users or physically deformed such as those with a cleft lip, but also those with learning disabilities, such as autism and developmental coordination disorder.
There is an additional problem that those with learning disabilities are often not as able to explain things to other people, so are more likely to be disbelieved or ignored if they do complain.
Gay bullying and gay bashing designate direct or indirect verbal or physical actions by a person or group against someone who is gay or lesbian, or perceived to be so due to rumors or because they are considered to fit gay stereotypes. Gay and lesbian youth are more likely than straight youth to report bullying.
Legal bullying is the bringing of a vexatious legal action to control and punish a person. Legal bullying can often take the form of frivolous, repetitive, or burdensome lawsuits brought to intimidate the defendant into submitting to the litigant's request, not because of the legal merit of the litigant's position, but principally due to the defendant's inability to maintain the legal battle. This can also take the form of SLAPPs. It was partially concern about the potential for this kind of abuse that helped to fuel the protests against SOPA and PIPA in the United States in 2011 and 2012.
Some argue that this behaviour should be allowed, due to ways in which "soldiering" is different from other occupations. Soldiers expected to risk their lives should, according to them, develop strength of body and spirit to accept bullying.
Parental bullying of children
Parents who may displace their anger, insecurity, or a persistent need to dominate and control upon their children in excessive ways have been proven to increase the likelihood that their own children will in turn become overly aggressive or controlling towards their peers. The American Psychological Association advises on its website that parents who may suspect that their own children may be engaging in bullying activities among their peers should carefully consider the examples which they themselves may be setting for their own children regarding how they typically interact with their own peers, colleagues, and children.
An environment known[by whom?] for bullying is a country's prison service. An additional complication is the staff and their relationships with the inmates. Thus the following possible bullying scenarios are possible:
- Inmate bullies inmate (echoing school bullying)
- Staff bullies inmate
- Staff bullies staff (a manifestation of workplace bullying)
- Inmate bullies staff
School bullying (bullying of students in schools)
Bullying can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building. Though it may occur more frequently during physical education classes and activities such as recess. Bullying also takes place in school hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and while waiting for buses, and in classes that require group work and/or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next target. In the 2011 documentary Bully, we see first hand the torture that kids go through both in school and while on the school bus. As the movie follows around a few kids we see how bullying affects them both at school as well as in their homes. While bullying has no age limit, these bullies may taunt and tease their target before finally physically bullying them. Bystanders typically choose to either participate or watch, sometimes out of fear of becoming the next target.
Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself; there is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse (relational aggression or passive aggression), humiliation, or exclusion — even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.
Sexual bullying is "any bullying behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person's sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by males or females towards others - although it is more commonly directed at females. It can be carried out to a person's face, behind their back or through the use of technology."
Trans bashing is the act of victimizing a person physically, sexually, or verbally because they are transgender or transsexual. Unlike gay bashing, it is committed because of the target's actual or perceived gender identity, not sexual orientation.
Workplace bullying occurs when an employee experiences a persistent pattern of mistreatment from others in the workplace that causes harm. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation. This type of workplace aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target. However, bullies can also be peers, and occasionally can be subordinates. Research has also investigated the impact of the larger organizational context on bullying as well as the group-level processes that impact on the incidence, and maintenance of bullying behaviour. Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization. Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in organizational culture.
Bullying in academia is workplace bullying of scholars and staff in academia, especially places of higher education such as colleges and universities. It is believed[by whom?] to be common, although has not received as much attention from researchers as bullying in some other contexts.
In blue collar jobs
Bullying has been identified[by whom?] as prominent in blue collar jobs, including on oil rigs and in mechanic shops and machine shops. It is thought that intimidation and fear of retribution cause decreased incident reports. In industry sectors dominated by males, typically of little education, where disclosure of incidents are seen as effeminate, reporting in the socioeconomic and cultural milieu of such industries would likely lead to a vicious circle. This is often used[by whom?] in combination with manipulation and coercion of facts to gain favour among higher-ranking administrators.
In information technology
A culture of bullying is common in information technology (IT), leading to high sickness rates, low morale, poor productivity, and high staff-turnover. Deadline-driven project work and stressed-out managers take their toll on IT workers.
In the legal profession
Bullying in the legal profession is believed to be more common than in some other professions. It is believed that its adversarial, hierarchical tradition contributes towards this. Women, trainees and solicitors who have been qualified for five years or less are more impacted, as are ethnic minority lawyers and lesbian, gay and bisexual lawyers.
Bullying in the medical profession is common, particularly of student or trainee doctors and of nurses. It is thought[by whom?] that this is at least in part an outcome of conservative traditional hierarchical structures and teaching methods in the medical profession, which may result in a bullying cycle.
Even though The American Nurses Association believes that all nursing personnel have the right to work in safe, non-abusive environments, bullying has been identified as being particularly prevalent[quantify] in the nursing profession although the reasons are not clear. It is thought[by whom?] that relational aggression (psychological aspects of bullying such as gossipping and intimidation) are relevant. Relational aggression has been studied among girls but not so much among adult women.
In other areas
As the verb to bully is defined as simply "forcing one's way aggressively or by intimidation", the term may generally apply to any life experience where one is motivated primarily by intimidation instead of by more positive goals, such as mutually shared interests and benefits. As such, any figure of authority or power who may use intimidation as a primary means of motivating others, such as a neighborhood "protection racket don", a national dictator, a childhood ring-leader, a terrorist, a terrorist organization, or even a ruthless business CEO, could rightfully be referred to as a bully. According to psychologist Pauline Rennie-Peyton, we each face the possibility of being bullied in any phase of our lives.
Bullying prevention is the collective effort to prevent, reduce, and stop bullying. Many campaigns and events are designated to bullying prevention throughout the world. Bullying prevention campaign and events include: Anti-Bullying Day, Anti-Bullying Week, International Day of Pink, International STAND UP to Bullying Day, and National Bullying Prevention Month. Anti-Bullying laws have also been enacted in 23 of the 50 states, making bullying in schools illegal 
- Bashing (pejorative)
- Bully (2011 film)
- The Bully: A Discussion and Activity Story (book)
- Bullying and suicide
- Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
- Hate crime
- Passive-aggressive behavior
- Police brutality
- Psychological manipulation
- Psychological trauma
- Relational aggression
- Social exclusion
- Social isolation
- Social undermining
- Victim blaming
- Victim playing
- Juvonen, J., Graham, S. (2014). "Bullying in Schools: The Power of Bullies and the Plight of Victims". Annual Review of Psychology (Annual Reviews) 65: 159–85. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115030.
- "Children who are bullying or being bullied". Cambridgeshire County Council: Children and families. Cambridgeshire County Council. 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Ericson, Nels (June 2001). "Addressing the Problem of Juvenile Bullying" (PDF). OJJDP Fact Sheet #FS-200127 (U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) 27. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Noa Davenport; Ruth Distler Schwartz; Gail Pursell Elliott (1999-07-01). Mobbing: Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace. Civil Society Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9671803-0-4. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- "The University of Manchester Dignity at Work and Study Policy". The University of Manchester. January 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- "State Laws Related to Bullying Among Children and Youth" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Health Resources and Services Administration - Maternal and Child Health Bureau. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Brank, Eve M.; Hoetger, Lori A.; Hazen, Katherine P. (December 2012). "Bullying". Annual Review of Law and Social Science (Annual Reviews) 8 (1): 213–230. doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102811-173820. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Elizabeth Bennett (1 January 2006). Peer Abuse Know More!: Bullying from a Psychological Perspective. Infinity. ISBN 978-0-7414-3265-0. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; LaFollette, Julie R.; Steinfeldt, Matthew C. (October 2012). "Bullying among adolescent football players: Role of masculinity and moral atmosphere". Psychology of Men and Masculinity (American Psychological Association) 13 (4): 340–353. doi:10.1037/a0026645. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Burger, Christoph; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spröber, Nina; Bauman, Sheri; Rigby, Ken (2015). "How teachers respond to school bullying: An examination of self-reported intervention strategy use, moderator effects, and concurrent use of multiple strategies.". Teaching and Teacher Education volume = 51: 191–202. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2015.07.004.
- "History". OLWEUS Bullying Prevention Program. OLWEUS Bullying Prevention Program. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Valerie E. Besag (1989). Bullies and victims in schools: a guide to understanding and management. Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-09542-1. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2014). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Worth Publishers. ISBN 1464172056.
- Richtlinie 1/76 zur Entwicklung und Bearbeitung Operativer Vorgänge vom 1. Januar 1976. Dokumentiert in: David Gill, Ulrich Schröter: Das Ministerium für Staatssicherheit. Anatomie des Mielke-Imperiums. S. 390
- Lehrmaterial der Hochschule des MfS: Anforderungen und Wege für eine konzentrierte, rationelle und gesellschaftlich wirksame Vorgangsbearbeitung. Kapitel 11: Die Anwendung von Maßnahmen der Zersetzung in der Bearbeitung Operativer Vorgänge vom Dezember 1977, BStU, ZA, JHS 24 503, S. 11.
- "bully". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Ståle Einarsen (2003). Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-25359-8. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Cardemil, Alisha R.; Cardemil, Esteban V.; O'Donnell, Ellen H. (August 2010). "Self-Esteem in Pure Bullies and Bully/Victims: A Longitudinal Analysis". Journal of Interpersonal Violence (Sage Publications) 25 (8): 1489–1502. doi:10.1177/0886260509354579. PMID 20040706. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Batsche, George M.; Knoff, Howard M. (1994). "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools". School Psychology Review 23 (2): 165–175.
- "Those who can, do. Those who can't, bully.". Bully OnLine. Tim Field. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Syiasha. "Presentation Bullying". Scribd. Scribd Inc. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Levinson, Edward M.; Levinson, Edward M. (2004). "Assessment of Bullying: A Review of Methods and Instruments". Journal of Counselling & Development (American Counselling Association) 82 (4): 496–503. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00338.x. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Roy Baumeister. Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty
- Patterson G (December 2005). "The bully as victim?". Paediatric Nursing 17 (10): 27–30. doi:10.7748/paed2005.12.17.10.27.c981. PMID 16372706.
- Kumpulainen, K. (2008). "Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying". International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health (National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine) 20 (2): 121–132. doi:10.1515/ijamh.2008.20.2.121. PMID 18714551. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Hazlerr, R. J.; Carney, J. V.; Green, S.; Powell, R.; Jolly, L. S. (1997). "Areas of Expert Agreement on Identification of School Bullies and Victims". School Psychology International 18 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1177/0143034397181001.
- Craig, W.M. (1998). "The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children". Personality and Individual Differences 24 (1): 123–130. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00145-1.
- Ferguson, Christopher J. (2011). "Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents" (PDF). Journal of Youth and Adolescence 40 (4): 377–91. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9610-x. PMID 21161351.
- Ball, H.A. (Jan 2008). "Genetic and environmental influences on victims, bullies and bully-victims in childhood". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 49 (1): 104–12. doi:10.110.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01821.x. PMID 18181884.
- Cook, Clayton R.; Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Kim, Tia E.; Sadek, Shelly (2010). "Predictors of Bullying and Victimization in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-analytic Investigation" (PDF). School Psychology Quarterly (American Psychological Association) 25 (2): 65–83. doi:10.1037/a0020149. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Juvonen (2003) Bullying Among Young Adolescents: The Strong, the Weak and the Troubled in Pediatrics, December 2003, "The benefits of bullying". 2004. Retrieved 2011-09-03.
- "'Bullies are the healthiest pupils'". Education. BBC News (BBC). 1999-12-14. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Carroll M. Brodsky (1976). The Harassed Worker. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-669-01041-1. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Ashforth, Blake (1994). "Petty Tyranny in Organizations". Human Relations (The Tavistock Institute) 47 (7): 755–778. doi:10.1177/001872679404700701. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Bullies, Victims, and Bystanders". athealth.com: Consumer: Issues. Athealth.com. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "New Tactics To Tackle Bystander's Role In Bullying". Science News. Science Daily (Science Daily, LLC). 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "419: Petty Tyrant". This American Life: Radio Archive. Chicago Public Media & Ira Glass. 2010-11-12. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Pasco students get 'hero' training to stop bullying". Pasco County. The Tampa Tribune (Tampa Media Group, LLC). 2010-10-12. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Program Helps Students Combat Bullying - Students participate with enthusiasm". Winning Harmony Counselling (Clearwater, Florida, U.S.A.: Jim Porter). 2010-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-29
- Thornberg, Robert; Tenenbaum, Laura; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Jungert, Tomas; Vanegas, Gina (August 2012). "Bystander Motivation in Bullying Incidents: To Intervene or Not to Intervene?". Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine) 13 (3): 247–252. doi:10.5811/westjem.2012.3.11792. PMC 3415829. PMID 22900122.
- Jensen, I. B.; Alipour, A.; Hagberg, J.; Jensen, I. B. (August 2013). "The impact of bystanding to workplace bullying on symptoms of depression among women and men in industry in Sweden: an empirical and theoretical longitudinal study". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (Springer Berlin Heidelberg) 86 (6): 709–716. doi:10.1007/s00420-012-0813-1. ISSN 1432-1246. PMC 3722445. PMID 22940902. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Vanderbilt, Douglas; Augustyn, Marilyn (2010). "The effects of bullying". Paediatrics and Child Health 20 (7): 315–320. doi:10.1016/j.paed.2010.03.008.
- "Anti-Bullying Centre". Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Kipling D. Williams; Joseph P. Forgas; William Von Hippel (13 May 2013). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Psychology Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-1-135-42338-4. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Arsenault, Louise PhD; Walsh, Elizabeth MD; Trzesniewski, Kali PhD; et al. (July 2006). "Bullying Victimization Uniquely Contributes to Adjustment Problems in Young Children: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 118 (1): 130–138. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2388. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 16818558. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Kim YS, Leventhal B; Leventhal (2008). "Bullying and suicide. A review". International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 20 (2): 133–54. doi:10.1515/IJAMH.2008.20.2.133. PMID 18714552.
- Statistics on bullying Archived February 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
- Effects of Bullying | StopBullying.gov
- "Jessica Kassandra Haffer". Keith & Jeralyn Haffer. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- "Hamed Nastoh". Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Caruso, Kevin. "April Himes Memorial". Suicide.org. Suicide.org. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- McLaughlin, Elliot C. (2013-08-30). "Montana teen loved pit bulls, poetry before rape and suicide". U.S. CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Pearce, Matt (2013-09-12). "Florida girl, 12, found dead after bullies said 'kill yourself'". U.S.: Nation Now. Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles Times). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "What Makes Serial Killers Tick?". Crime library. Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. A Time Warner Company. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Tanya (2009-02-02). "Child Development Academician Says Bullying Is Beneficial To Kids". News. Med India (Medindia). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Study describing how "learning to fight back" can help students to mature.
- Positive Anti-Bullying Strategies by Melissa Graham
- Chabrol H., Van Leeuwen N., Rodgers R., Séjourné S.; Van Leeuwen; Rodgers; Séjourné (2009). "Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency". Personality and Individual Differences 47 (7): 734–39. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020.
- Paul Gilbert, Overcoming Depression (1999) p. 185–6
- Carl G. Jung ed., Man and his Symbols (London 1978) p. 181–2
- Mayer, J.D.; Roberts, R.D; Barasade, S.G. (2008). "Human abilities: Emotional intelligence". Annual Review of Psychology 59 (1): 507–536. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646.
- Tolegenova, A.A., Jakupov, S.M., Man Cheung Chung, Saduova, S. & Jakupov, M.S (2012) A theoretical formation of emotional intelligence and childhood trauma among adolescents. "Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences", 69, 1891-1894. International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2012). doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.142
- Mckenna, J.; Webb, J. (2013). "Emotional intelligence". British Journal of Occupational Therapy 76 (12): 560.
- Jose Bolton; Stan Graeve (2005). No Room for Bullies: From the Classroom to Cyberspace. Boys Town Press. ISBN 978-1-889322-67-4. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Katherine Quarmby (2011). Scapegoat: Why We Are Failing Disabled People. Portobello Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-84627-321-6. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Clare Sainsbury (30 September 2009). Martian in the Playground: Understanding the Schoolchild with Asperger's Syndrome. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4462-4398-5. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Tony Attwood (2006). The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-1-84310-495-7. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Amanda Kirby (1 October 2002). Dyspraxia: The Hidden Handicap. Souvenir Press. pp. 106–113. ISBN 978-0-285-63512-8. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Geoff Brookes (January 2005). Dyspraxia. Continuum. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-0-8264-7581-7. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Berlan, Elise D.; Corliss, Heather L.; Field, Alison E.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Austin, S. Bryn (2010-01-28). "Sexual Orientation and Bullying Among Adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study". Journal of Adolescent Health (Elsevier) 46 (4): 366–371. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.015. PMC 2844864. PMID 20307826. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Dannatt, Sir Richard (2008). "Lawful: Paragraph 20". Values and Standards of the British Army (PDF). the British Army. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Jean M. Callaghan; Franz Kernic (2003). "Chapter 2: "Social Psychology" of the Individual Soldier". Armed Forces and International Security: Global Trends and Issues. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-3-8258-7227-4. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Priesnitz, Wendy. "Parental Bullying Creates Bullies". Natural Child Magazine. Wendy Priesnitz. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- "Bullying: How parents, teachers, and kids can take action to prevent bullying". American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- James Garbarino; Ellen deLara (2 September 2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-2899-2. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Witted, Kathryn Suzanne (2005), "Student Reports of Physical and Psychological Maltreatment in Schools: An Under Explored Aspect of Student Victimization in Schools", PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee, retrieved 2013-10-29
- Whitted, K. S.; Dupper, D. R. (2007). "Do Teachers Bully Students?: Findings From a Survey of Students in an Alternative Education Setting". Education and Urban Society 40 (3): 329–341. doi:10.1177/0013124507304487.
- "The NSPCC working definition of Sexual Bullying" (PDF). NSPCC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- Guilty plea over transsexual bashing By Mariza O'Keefe in Herald Sun
- Rayner, C. & Keashley, L. (2005). Bullying at work: A perspective from Britain and North America. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (eds.) Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 271-296). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
- Rayner, C., & Cooper, C. L. (2006). Workplace Bullying. In Kelloway, E., Barling, J. & Hurrell Jr., J. (eds.), Handbook of workplace violence (pp. 47-90). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Ramsay, S., Troth, A & Branch, S . (2010). Work-place bullying: A group processes framework Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(4), 799-816.
- Keashly, Loraleigh; Neuman, Joel H. (2010). "Faculty Experiences with Bullying in Higher Education - Causes, Consequences, and Management" (PDF). Administrative Theory & Praxis (Public Administration Theory Network) 32 (1): 48–70. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806320103. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Notelaers, Guy; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Baillien, Elfi; Einarsen, Ståle; De Witte, Hans (2011). "Exploring Risk Groups Workplace Bullying with Categorical Data". Industrial Health (Industrial Health) 49 (1): 73–88. doi:10.2486/indhealth.ms1155. PMID 20823631. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Thomson, Rebecca. "IT profession blighted by bullying". ComputerWeekly.com: Feature. TechTarget. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Ann Richards; Sharon L. Edwards (2008). A Nurse's Survival Guide to the Ward. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-06897-3. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Le Mire, Suzanne; Owens, Rosemary A propitious moment?: Workplace bullying and regulation of the legal profession University of New South Wales Law Journal, The Volume 37 Issue 3 (Dec 2014)
- Society publishes guidance on tackling bullying in solicitor profession The Journal Of The Law Society of Scotland 27 June 2011
- http://www.nursingworld.org/Bullying-Workplace-Violence Workplace Violence Statistics Dellasega, Cheryl A. (2009). "Bullying Among Nurses". American Journal of Nursing (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 109 (1): 52–58. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000344039.11651.08. PMID 19112267. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Karim, Nadiya (2010-01-15). "Bullying in Universities: It exists". News: Education: Higher. The Independent (The Independent). Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Ben Shapiro, Bullies: How the Left's Culture of Fear and Intimidation Silences America (ISBN 1476710015). Threshold Editions: 2013
- "Bully prevention in positive behavior support.". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 42 (4): 747–59. 2009. doi:10.1901/jaba.2009.42-747. PMC 2791686. PMID 20514181.
- Kohut MR The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping Bullies & Bullying: A Complete Guide for Teachers & Parents (2007)
- Bullies and Victims in Schools: a guide to understanding and management by Valerie E. Besag (1989)
- The Fight That Never Ends by Tim Brown
- Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls" by Rachel Simmons ISBN 0-15-602734-8
- Bullycide, Death at Playtime by Neil Marr and Tim Field ISBN 0-9529121-2-0
- Bullycide in America: Moms Speak Out about the Bullying/Suicide Connection – by Brenda High, Bullycide.org
- A Journey Out of Bullying: From Despair to Hope by Patricia L. Scott
- "Peer Abuse Know More! Bullying From A Psychological Perspective" By Elizabeth Bennett
- New Perspectives on Bullying by Ken Rigby
- Garbarino, J. & de Lara, E. (2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. The Free Press: New York NY.
- Joanne Scaglione, Arrica Rose Scaglione Bully-proofing children: a practical, hands-on guide to stop bullying 2006
- Why Is Everybody Always Picking on Me: A Guide to Handling Bullies for Young People. by Terrence Webster-Doyle. Book and Teaching curriculum.
- "Why Nerds are Unpopular", by Paul Graham. This essay is an example of how even medium differences, in a hierarchical, zero-sum, or negative environments, can lead to ostracism or persecution.
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding (1954). A famous work describing how a group of schoolboys trapped on an island descends into savagery.
|Library resources about
|Look up bullying in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Bullying. No Way! (Australian Education Authorities)
- Bullying in schools (UK – schools)
- PBSKids.org "Great Books About Bullies"
- Be Brave Against Bullying, a UFT project
- U.S. Department of Education's Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)