A bachelor is a man who is neither married nor cohabitating and who lives independently outside of his parents' home or other institutional setting.[n 1]
||It has been suggested that Eligible bachelor be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since April 2013.|
The word is first attested as the 12th-century bacheler, a knight bachelor, a knight too young or poor to gather vassals under his own banner. The Old French bacheler presumably derives from Provençal bacalar and Italian baccalare, but the ultimate source of the word is uncertain. The proposed Medieval Latin *baccalaris ("vassal", "field hand") is only attested late enough that it may have derived from the vernacular languages, rather than from the southern French and northern Spanish Latin baccalaria ("cattle ranch", from bacca, "cow"). Alternatively, it has been derived from Latin baculum ("a stick"), in reference to the wooden sticks used by knights in training.[n 2]
From the 14th century, the term was also used for a junior member of a guild (otherwise known as "yeomen") or university and then for low-level ecclesiastics, as young monks and recently-appointed canons. As an inferior grade of scholarship, it came to refer to one holding a "bachelor's degree". This sense of baccalarius or baccalaureus is first attested at the University of Paris in the 13th century in the system of degrees established under the auspices of Pope Gregory IX as applied to scholars still in statu pupillari. There were two classes of baccalarii: the baccalarii cursores, theological candidates passed for admission to the divinity course, and the baccalarii dispositi, who had completed the course and were entitled to proceed to the higher degrees.
In the Victorian era, the term eligible bachelor was used in the context of upper class matchmaking, denoting a young man who was not only unmarried and eligible for marriage, but also considered "eligible" in financial and societal terms for the prospective bride under discussion. Also in the Victorian era, the term "confirmed bachelor" connoted a man who was resolute to remain unmarried.
By the later 19th century, the term "bachelor" had acquired the general sense of "unmarried man". The expression bachelor party is recorded 1882. In 1895, a feminine equivalent "bachelor-girl" was coined, replaced in US English by the somewhat humorous "bachelorette" by the mid-1930s. After World War II, this terminology came to be seen as antiquated and has been mostly replaced by the gender-neutral term "single" (first recorded 1964). In England and Wales, the term "bachelor" remained the official term used for the purpose of marriage registration until 2005, when it was abolished in favor of "single."
In certain Gulf Arab countries, "bachelor" can refer to men who are single as well as immigrant men married to a spouse residing in their country of origin (due to the high added cost of sponsoring a spouse onsite), and a colloquial term "executive bachelor" is also used in rental and sharing accommodation advertisements to indicate availability to white-collar bachelors in particular.
Bachelors have been subject to penal laws in many countries, most notably in Sparta and Rome. At Sparta, men unmarried after a certain age were subject to various penalties (Greek: ἀτιμία, atimía): they were forbidden to watch women's gymnastics; during the winter, they were made to march naked through the agora singing a song about their dishonor; and they were not provided with the traditional respect due to the elderly. Some Athenian laws were similar. Bachelors in Rome fell under the Lex Julia of 18 BC and the Lex Papia et Poppaea of AD 9: these lay heavy fines on unmarried or childless people while providing certain privileges to those with several children. In Britain, taxes occasionally fell heavier on bachelors than other persons: examples include 6 & 7 Will. III, the 1785 Tax on Servants, and the 1798 Income Tax. Over time, some punishments developed into no more than a teasing game. In some parts of Germany, for instance, men who were still unmarried by their 30th birthday were made to sweep the stairs of the town hall until kissed by a "virgin".
Listed chronologically by date of birth, some prominent bachelors include:
|Ancient Period||Medieval Period, Renaissance, and Early Enlightenment||Late Enlightenment, Modern, and Post-modern|
- Pitt, Richard; et al. (2008), "Bachelorhood and Men's Attitudes about Gender Roles", The Journal of Men's Studies, Vol. 16, pp. 140–158.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "[www.oed.com/view/Entry/14313 bachelor, n.]" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1885.
- EB (1878).
- Cange, Charles du Fresne, sieur du (1733), ?, pp. 906–912.
- Schmidt, Uwe Friedrich, "Praeromanica Der Italoromania Auf Der Grundlage Des LEI (A und B)", Europäische Hochschulschriften, Vol. 49, No. 9. (German)
- Schmidt, Uwe Friedrich (2009), "Praeromanica Der Italoromania Auf Der Grundlage Des LEI (A und B)", Italienische Sprache und Literatur, Peter Lang, pp. 117–120. (German)
- Severtius, De Episcopis Lugdunensibus, p. 377
- Severtius, cited in Du Cange.
- "R.I.P Bachelors and Spinsters". BBC. 14 September 2005. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Plutarch, Lyc., 15.
- Schomann, Gr. Alterth., Vol. I, 548.
- Willis, Timothy M. Jeremiah – Lamentations (The College Press NIV Commentary) (College Press Publishing Co., 2002), 122.
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- Becker, Thomas W. Eight Against the World: Warriors of the Scientific Revolution (Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2007), 17.
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- Lucian, Demoxan, c. 55, torn, ii., Hemsterh (Editor), p. 393, as quoted in A Selection from the Discourses of Epictetus With the Encheiridion (2009), p. 6.
- Allan-Olney, Mary. The Private Life of Galileo (Boston: Nichols and Noyes, 1870), 75.
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- Rudall, H.A. Beethoven (London: Sampson, Low, Marston and Company, 1903), 28.
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- Sterling, Keir B. Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian Naturalists and Environmentalists (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997), 465.
- Bos, Henk J. M. Lectures in the History of Mathematics (American Mathematical Society, 1993), 63.
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- Lasater, A. Brian. The Dream of the West, Part II: The Ancient Heritage and the European Achievement in Map-Making, Navigation and Science, 1487-1727 (Morrisville, NC: Lulu Enterprises, Inc., 2007), 509.
- Szulc, Tad. Chopin in Paris: The Life and Times of the Romantic Composer (Da Capo Press, 2000), 61.
- Thomas, Joseph, M.D. Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, Vol. II (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1908), 1814.
- Tibbetts, John C. Schumann – A Chorus of Voices (Amadeus Press, 2010), 146.
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- Buber, Martin. "The Question to the Single One," from Søren Kierkegaard: Critical Assessments of Leading Philosophers, edited by Daniel W. Conway (London: Routledge, 2002), 45.
- Sandberg, Karl C. At the Crossroads of Faith and Reason: An Essay on Pierre Bayle (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1966), vii.
- Hudson, William Henry. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Herbert Spencer (London: Watts & Co., 1904), 23.
- Mabie, Hamilton Wright. Noble Living and Grand Achievement: Giants of the Republic (Philadelphia: John C. Winston & Co., 1896), 665.
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- Crumbley, Paul. Student's Encyclopedia of Great American Writers, Vol. II, 1830–1900 (New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2010), 305.
- Heinich, Nathalie. The Glory of Van Gogh: An Anthropology of Admiration, trans. by Paul Leduc Brown (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), 85.
- Salter, William Mackintire. Nietzsche the Thinker: A Study (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1917), 7.
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- Crouch, Tom D. The Bishop's Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright (W. W. Norton & Company, 2003)
- Burt, Daniel S. The Literary 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Novelists, Playwrights, and Poets of All Time, Revised Edition (New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2009), 116.
- Danto, Arthur Coleman. Jean-Paul Sartre (Minneapolis: Viking Press, 1975), 166.
- "Bachelor", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. III, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 196–197.
- "Bachelor", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. III, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911, p. 132.
|Look up bachelor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Cole, David. "Note on Analyticity and the Definability of 'Bachelor'." Philosophy Department of the University of Minnesota Duluth. 1 February 1999.