Balaban 11-cage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Balaban 11-cage
Balaban 11-cage.svg
The Balaban 11-cage
Named after A. T. Balaban
Vertices 112
Edges 168
Radius 6
Diameter 8
Girth 11
Automorphisms 64
Chromatic number 3
Chromatic index 3
Properties Cubic

In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Balaban 11-cage or Balaban (3-11)-cage is a 3-regular graph with 112 vertices and 168 edges named after A. T. Balaban.[1]

The Balaban 11-cage is the unique (3-11)-cage. It was discovered by Balaban in 1973.[2] The uniqueness was proved by McKay and Myrvold in 2003.[3]

The Balaban 11-cage is a Hamiltonian graph and can be constructed by excision from the Tutte 12-cage by removing a small subtree and suppressing the resulting vertices of degree two.[4]

It has independence number 52,[5] chromatic number 3, chromatic index 3, radius 6, diameter 8 and girth 11. It is also a 3-vertex-connected graph and a 3-edge-connected graph.

Algebraic properties[edit]

The characteristic polynomial of the Balaban 11-cage is : .

The automorphism group of the Balaban 11-cage is of order 64.[4]



  1. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Balaban 11-Cage". MathWorld. 
  2. ^ Balaban, A. T. "Trivalent Graphs of Girth Nine and Eleven and Relationships Among the Cages." Rev. Roumaine Math. 18, 1033-1043, 1973.
  3. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Cage Graph". MathWorld. 
  4. ^ a b Geoffrey Exoo & Robert Jajcay, Dynamic cage survey, Electr. J. Combin. 15 (2008)
  5. ^ Maher Heal (2016)
  6. ^ P. Eades, J. Marks, P. Mutzel, S. North. "Graph-Drawing Contest Report", TR98-16, December 1998, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories.


  • Heal, Maher (2016), "A Quadratic Programming Formulation to Find the Maximum Independent Set of Any Graph", The 2016 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, Las Vegas: IEEE Computer Society