Banate of Severin

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Banate of Severin
Szörényi bánság
Banatul Severinului
Северинска бановина
banate of Kingdom of Hungary
13th century–16th century Stema Tarii Romanesti II.jpg
 
Coat of arms of Transylvania.svg
Location of Banate of Severin
Banate of Severin, late 13th century
History
 •  Established 13th century
 •  Disestablished 16th century
Today part of Romania
Map of the Banate of Severin

The Banate of Severin or Banate of Szörény (Hungarian: szörényi bánság; Romanian: Banatul Severinului; Latin: Banatus Zewrinensis; Bulgarian: Severinsko banstvo / Северинско банство; Serbian: Severinska banovina / Северинска бановина) was a political, military and administrative unit with a special role in initially anti-Bulgarian, laterly anti-Ottoman defensive system of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. It was founded by Prince Béla in 1228.

Territory[edit]

The Banate of Severin was a march (or a border province) of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary between the Lower Danube and the Olt River (in present-day Oltenia in Romania).[1][2][3] A charter of grant, issued on 2 June 1247 for the Knights Hospitallers, mentioned the Olt as its eastern border.[1] The Knights received the "Land of Severin" (Terra de Zeurino),[4] along with the nearby mountains, from Béla IV of Hungary.[1][5] The king had described the same region as a "deserted and depopulated" land in a letter to Pope Gregory IX on 7 June 1238.[6] Modern scholars assume that either the Hungarian conquest of the territory or confrontations between Bulgaria and Hungary had forced the local population to flee.[6] Historian László Makkai says, the population obviously began to increase by the end of the 1230s, because Béla requested the pope to appoint a bishop to Severin.[7]

The 1247 charter of grant also mentioned that "Cumania" bordered the Land of Severin from the east.[8] The same diploma listed two Vlach (or Romanian) political units—the kenezatus of John and Farcaș—which were subjected to the Hospitallers on this occasion.[9][1][2] A third kenezatus, which was ruled by Voivode Litovoi, was not included in the grant, but it was left to the Vlachs "as they had held it".[8][2][10] However, Béla gave the Hospitallers the half of the royal revenues collected in Litovoi's land, with the exception of the revenues from the "Land of Hátszeg" (now Țara Hațegului in Romania).[11][12] Alexandru Madgearu says, the diploma shows that Litovoi's kenezatus bordered the Land of Severin to the north, thus the banate must have only included southern Oltenia in the middle of the 13th century.[3] The kenezatus of Voivode Seneslau, which was located to the west of the Olt, was fully excluded from the grant.[9]

The bans initially had their seat at the fortress of Szörény (now Drobeta-Turnu Severin in Romania).[13][14] After Szörény was lost in the late 13th century, the fort of Miháld (now Mehadia in Romania) was the center of the province.[14] In addition to Miháld, the banate included Orsova (now Orșova in Romania) and the Romanian districts along the upper course of the Temes (Timiș) river.[13][14]

History[edit]

Kaloyan of Bulgaria occupied the region between the rivers Cerna and the Olt around 1199.[3] The Kingdom of Hungary was also expanding over the Carpathian Mountains in the early 13th century, which gave rise to conflicts between the two countries.[14][15] The Cuman tribes dwelling to the east of the Olt as far as the river Siret agreed to pay a yearly tribute to the kings of Hungary in early 1227.[13] The Hungarians captured the Bulgarian fortress of Severin during a military campaign against Bulgaria in 1231.[16]

After the 1526 Battle of Mohács, the Banate of Severin was divided. South-eastern part (eastwards from Varcsaró - Vârciorova, today part of Bolvașnița) came under the jurisdiction of Wallachian princes and in the north-western parta (westwards from Orsova - present-day Orșova - inclusive) was gradually reorganized into the Banate of Lugos and Karánsebes.

Bans of Severin[edit]

List of bans[edit]

Thirteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
c. 1226–c. 1232 Buzád Hahót Andrew II He styled himself "former ban" in 1233. His close relationship with Andrew II's son, Béla, Duke of Transylvania, suggests that he was the ban of Severin (instead of being the ban of Slavonia). [17]
c. 1233 Luke Andrew II [18]
1235 Pós Csák Béla IV Also Master of the treasury and ispán (or head) of Bács County [18]
c. 1240 Osl Osl Béla IV [18]
c. 1243 Stephen Csák Béla IV [18]
c. 1260 Lawrence, son of Kemény Béla IV First rule. [18]
c. 1262 Stephen Béla IV He is only mentioned in a non-authentic charter. [18]
c. 1263 Lawrence Stephen V (king junior) Also Master of the treasury of Stephen V. [18]
c. 1268 Alexander, son of Drug Stephen V (king junior) [18]
c. 1268 Ugrin Csák Stephen V (king junior) First rule. [18]
c. 1270 Lawrence, son of Kemény Stephen V Second rule. Also ispán of Doboka County. [19]
c. 1270 Panyit Miskolc Stephen V [19]
1271–1272 Lawrence, son of Kemény Stephen V Third rule. Also ispán of Doboka County. [19]
1272 Albert Ákos Stephen V [19]
1272–1274 Paul Ladislaus IV First rule. Also ispán of Valkó and Doboka Counties. [20]
1274–1275 Ugrin Csák Ladislaus IV Second rule. [19]
1275 Paul Ladislaus IV Second rule. [20]
1275–1276 Mikod Kökényesradnót Ladislaus IV [19]
1276 Ugrin Csák Ladislaus IV Third rule. [19]
1277–1278 Paul Ladislaus IV He is only mentioned in non-authentic charters. Third rule. [20]
1279 Lawrence, son of Lawrence Ladislaus IV First rule. [19]
1291 Lawrence, son of Lawrence Andrew III Second rule, but he may have continously held the office from 1279 to 1291 [19]

Fourteenth century[edit]

Term Incumbent Monarch Notes Source
1335–1341 Denis Szécsi Charles I Also master of the stewards. [21]
1342–1349 Stephen Losonci Charles I, Louis I [21]
1350–1355 Nicholas Szécsi Louis I Also ispán of Keve and Krassó Counties. [21]
1355–1359 Denis Lackfi Louis I Also master of the horse, and ispán of Keve and Krassó Counties. [21]
1359–1379 Vacant. [21]
1375–1376 John Treutel Louis I [21]
1376–1387 Vacant. [21]


  1. 1299–1307 András Tárnok
  2. 1308–1313 András Tárnok and Márton Tárnok
  3. 1314–1318 Domokos Csornai
  4. 1319–1323 László Rátholti
  5. 1323–1329 Dénes Szécsi
  6. 1324 Pál
  7. 1330–1341 Dénes Szécsi
  8. 1342–1349 István Losonci
  9. 1350–1355 Miklós Szécsi
  10. 1355–1359 Dénes Lackfi
  11. 1359–1375 vacant
  12. 1376 János Treutel
  13. 1376–1387 vacant
  14. 1387 László Losonci Jr.
  15. 1387–1388 István Losonci
  16. 1388–1390 János Kaplai-Serkei
  17. 1390–1391 Miklós Perényi
  18. 1392 Szemere Gerebenci
  19. 1392–1393 Bebek Detre
  20. 1393 Frank Szécsi
  21. 1393–1397 vacant
  22. 1397 Lukács of Oszkola
  23. 1393–1408 vacant
  24. 1408–1409 Pipo of Ozora
  25. 1409 vacant
  26. 1410 Lőrinc, son of Majos
  27. 1410–1428 vacant
  28. 1428 Imre Marcali
  29. 1430–1435 Miklós Redwitz
  30. 1429–1435 vacant
  31. 1435 László Hagymás of Beregszó and János Dancs of Macedonia
  32. 1436–1439 Frank Tallóczi
  33. 1439–1446 John Hunyadi, Ban of Severin
  34. 1445–1446 Miklós Újlaki
  35. 1447–1454 Mihály Csornai
  36. 1449 Balázs Csornai
  37. 1452–1454 Péter Dancs of Sebes
  38. 1455-57 vacant
  39. 1458 Vlad and Gergely Bethlen
  40. 1459–1460 vacant
  41. 1460 László Dóczi
  42. 1462–1463 Miklós Újlaki
  43. 1464–1466 vacant
  44. 1466 János Pongrácz of Dengeleg
  45. 1467 vacant
  46. 1467 István and Mihály de Muthnoki
  47. 1468–1471 vacant
  48. 1471–1478 Imre Hédervári
  49. 1478 János Erdő and Domokos Bethlen
  50. 1478 vacant
  51. 1479 Ambrus Török and György Szenthelsebethi
  52. 1479 Bertalan Pathócsy
  53. 1480–1483 Bertalan Pathócsy and Ferenc Haraszti
  54. 1483–1489 Ferenc Haraszti and András Szokoly
  55. 1490 Imre Ozorai
  56. 1491 Imre Ozorai and Dánfy András of Doboz
  57. 1491–1492 Ferenc Haraszti and Dánfy András of Doboz
  58. 1492 Móré Fülöp Csulai
  59. 1492–1494 Móré György Csulai and Ferenc Balassa
  60. 1495–1501 Tárnok Péter Macskási and Jakab Gerlisthey
  61. 1501 Jakab Gerlisthey and Bélai Barnabás
  62. 1502 Jakab Gerlisthey and Tárnok Péter Macskási
  63. 1503 Bélai Barnabás
  64. 1503 Jakab Gerlisthey
  65. 1504–1508 Jakab Gerlisthey and Barnabás Bélai
  66. 1508–1513 Mihály Paksi and Barnabás Bélai
  67. 1514 Barnabás Bélai and János_Szapolyai
  68. 1515–1516 Miklós Hagymási of Berekszó
  69. 1517–1518 vacant
  70. 1519 Bélai Barnabás
  71. 1520–1521 Miklós Gerlisthey
  72. 1522–1523 János Vitéz Kállay
  73. 1524–1526 János Vitéz Kállay and János_Szapolyai
  74. 1526–1540 Under the rule of Lugos and Karánsebes Bans
  75. 1526–1860 Under Ottoman occupation

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Papacostea 1998, p. 230.
  2. ^ a b c Curta 2006, p. 407.
  3. ^ a b c Madgearu 2017, p. 207.
  4. ^ Pop 2013, p. 338.
  5. ^ Makkai 1994b, pp. 196–197.
  6. ^ a b Madgearu 2017, p. 208.
  7. ^ Makkai, László (2001–2002), The Cumanian Country and the Province of Severin, Institute of History of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Research Institute of Canada, Atlantic Research and Publications, retrieved 12 April 2017 
  8. ^ a b Vásáry 2005, p. 146.
  9. ^ a b Makkai 1994b, p. 197.
  10. ^ Papacostea 1998, p. 231.
  11. ^ Curta 2006, pp. 407–408.
  12. ^ Pop 2013, p. 337.
  13. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 95.
  14. ^ a b c d Makkai 1994a, p. 657.
  15. ^ Curta 2006, pp. 405–406.
  16. ^ Madgearu 2017, p. 206.
  17. ^ Zsoldos 2011, pp. 49, 291–292.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zsoldos 2011, p. 49.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zsoldos 2011, p. 50.
  20. ^ a b c Zsoldos 2011, pp. 50, 342.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Engel 1996, p. 32.

Sources[edit]

  • Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89452-4. 
  • Engel, Pál (1996). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1301–1457, I. [Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1301–1457, Volume I] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. ISBN 963-8312-44-0. 
  • Madgearu, Alexandru (2017). The Asanids: The Political and Military History of the Second Bulgarian Empire, 1185–1280. BRILL. ISBN 978-9-004-32501-2. 
  • Makkai, László (1994a). "szörényi bánság [Banate of Severin]". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc. Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9–14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 657. ISBN 963-05-6722-9. 
  • Makkai, László (1994b). "The Emergence of the Estates (1172–1526)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit. History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 178–243. ISBN 963-05-6703-2. 
  • Papacostea, Șerban (1998). Between the Crusade and the Mongol Empire. Center for Transylvanian Studies, Romanian Cultural Foundation. ISBN 973-577-186-1. 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2013). "De manibus Valachorum scismaticorum...": Romanians and Power in the Mediaeval Kingdom of Hungary, The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Peter Land Edition. ISBN 978-3-631-64866-7. 
  • Vásáry, István (2005). Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83756-1. 
  • Zsoldos, Attila (2011). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1000–1301 [Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1000–1301] (in Hungarian). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. ISBN 978-963-9627-38-3. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]