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Detailed map depicting Romance populations in Central and Southeastern Europe at the round of the 21st century
Total population
c. 30 million
Regions with significant populations
Romania 16,792,868-18,029,678 (2011 Romanian census)[1][2]
Moldova 2,245,693[3] (additional 177,635 Moldovans in Transnistria)[4]
Primarily Eastern Romance languages (including Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, as well as Istro-Romanian)
Primarily Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism (both Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic)
Related ethnic groups
Other Latin peoples

Vlachs (English: /ˈvlɑːk/ or /ˈvlæk/) is a historical term used for the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples in East-central Europe (including the Balkan peninsula); it is also an exonym used to refer to several modern peoples from the population in present-day Romania and Moldova, the southern end of the Balkans as well as south and west of the Danube.[5] Vlachs were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos.

According to one origin theory, the Vlachs originated from Dacians.[6] According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period[7] and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" also have had Romanized Illyrian origins.[8]

Nearly all Central and Southeastern European countries have (or had in the passing of time) consistent native Vlach (or Romanian) minorities, as it is currently the case in Hungary, in Ukraine (including the Romanians of Chernivtsi Oblast and the Moldovans in other oblasts), in Serbia (including Eastern Serbia), in Croatia (including the Dalmatian Hinterland and Lika region), or in Bulgaria. In other countries (such as in Bosnia and Herzegovina), the Vlachs have assimilated in the local Slavic population. The term "Vlach" was also commonly used for shepherds, like in mountains of Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26-30 million people worldwide (including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora).[9]


The word "Vlach" is of Germanic origin, an early loanword into Proto-Slavic from Germanic *Walhaz ("foreigner" or "stranger") and used by ancient Germanic peoples for their Romance-speaking and (Romanized) Celtic neighbours. *Walhaz was evidently borrowed from the name of a Celtic tribe, known to the Romans as Volcae in the writings of Julius Caesar and to the Greeks as Ouólkai in texts by Strabo and Ptolemy.[10] Vlach is thus of the same origin as European ethnic names including the Welsh and Walloons.[11]

Detailed map depicting Varangian trade routes in Europe during the Viking Age. According to several sagas, the Norsemen firstly entered in contact with the Vlachs (Blökumenn) at the round of the 11th century in the Lower Danube region.

The word passed to the Slavs and from them to other peoples, such as the Hungarians (oláh referring to the Romanians and olasz referring to the Italians) and Byzantines (Βλάχοι, Vláhi"), and was used for all Latin people from the Balkans.[12][13] The Polish word for "Italian" (Włoch, plural Włosi) has the same origin, as does the Slovenian, vaguely-derogatory lah.

The Italian-speaking region south of the South Tyrol, now Trentino in Italy, was known as Welschtirol in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In Western Balkans Vlah, and plural Vlasi, was used exclusively to population of Orthodox adherence, namely Serbs: in Croatia ("Vlaj", plural "Vlaji") when referring to inhabitants of Dalmatian Hinterland, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Vlah", plural "Vlasi") when referring to highlanders and shepherds (often, in earlier times, regardless of religious adherence even) of Dinarides area; later, depending on context, it also became a derogatory term used to label ethnic Serbs.

Nonetheless, some scholars consider that the term "Vlach" appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and then Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen (possibly by Varangians), who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages (see also Blakumen).[14][15]


Map of southeastern Europe, delineating Roman and Greek influence
The Jireček Line between Latin- and Greek-language Roman inscriptions
Map of Central/Southern Europe during the Late Middle Ages/Early Modern period by Johannes Honterus

The first record of a medieval Romance language in the Balkans dates to the early Byzantine period, with Procopius (500–554) mentioning forts with names such as Skeptekasas (Seven Houses), Burgulatu (Broad City), Loupofantana (Wolf's Well) and Gemellomountes (Twin Mountains).[16][17] A 586 Byzantine chronicle of an incursion against the Avars in the eastern Balkans may have one of the earliest references to Vlachs. In the account, when baggage carried by a mule slipped the muleteer shouted: "Torna, torna, fratre!" ("Return, return, brother!").[18][19][20] Byzantine historians used the Germanic Vlachs for Latin speakers, particularly Romanians.[21][22][23]

The name "Blökumenn" is mentioned in a Nordic saga with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs.[24][25] According to 10th century Arab chronicler Mutahhar al-Maqdisi, "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, Waladj, Alans, Greeks and many other peoples."[26] Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 Roman (Vlach) revolt in northern Greece.[27] Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173) of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.[28]

During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Pannonian basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited—according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary—by the "Slavs [Sclavi], Bulgarians [Bulgarii] and Vlachs [Blachii], and the shepherds of the Romans [pastores Romanorum]" (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum in the original).[29] Between the 12th and 14th centuries they were ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary, the Byzantine Empire, and the Golden Horde.[30]

In chapter XIV of the Alexiad, Anna Komnene identifies Vlachs from the Balkans with the Dacians, describing their region around Haemus Mons: "On either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians". Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166.[31][32] In the 13th century, the Asen royal family (who was of Vlach origin) were the founders and rulers of the Vlach-Bulgarian kingdom.

In 1213 an army of Romans (Vlachs), Transylvanian Saxons, and Pechenegs, led by Ioachim of Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin[citation needed]. After this, all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance-speaking soldiers from Transylvania.[33] At the end of the 13th century, during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman, Simon de Kéza wrote about the Blacki people and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns.[34][35] Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars, and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between the Olt River and the Carpathians.[36][37]

Shortly after the fall of the Olt region, a church was built at the Cârța Monastery and Catholic German-speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley (known as Transylvanian Saxons) began to settle in the Orthodox region.[38] In the Diploma Andreanum issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was given to the settlers.[39] The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland, Slovakia, and Moravia and were granted autonomy under Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian law).[40]

In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans, arriving with his troops at the Moldova River. A town, Baia (near the said river), was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons (see also Foundation of Moldavia).[41][42] In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated; the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians, where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Câmpulung (see also Foundation of Wallachia).[43]

Eastern Romance peoples[edit]

Map of southeastern Europe, with coloured arrows indicating the Vlach dispersion
Vlach (Romanian) branches and their territories

The Eastern Romance peoples refers to the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples, primarily the nations of Romanians and Moldovans, who are both Daco-Romanian-speaking (descending from Vulgar Latin, adopted in Dacia by a process of Romanization during early centuries AD[44]). These two peoples had before Soviet rule been regarded part of one and the same, Romanian people.[45]

During the Migration Period, the etymon "romanus" (romăn, rumăn) crystallized as the Eastern Romance peoples were surrounded by foreign, pagan, peoples, the term having long meant "Christians".[46] Soviet historiography maintains that the Moldovans received an ethnic individuality in the late Middle Ages through contacts with Slavs.[47] Other Eastern Romance-speaking communities, which are not Daco-Romance-speaking, traditionally exist in Greece, Albania and Macedonia (the Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians), and Croatia (the Istro-Romanians).


Speakers of these languages are, by country:

  • Daco-Romanians (or Romanians) – According to Ethnologue, 24,150,840[48] speak the Romanian language or one of its dialects in:
    • Romania – 16,869,816-18,029,678 (2011 census)
    • Moldova – 2,423,328 (2014 census)[49]
    • Ukraine – 409,600 in southern Bessarabia, northern Bukovina and between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers (2001 census)
    • Serbia – 29,332 (counted as Romanians)/35,330 (counted as Vlachs) (2011 census)[50]
    • Hungary – 35,641 (2011 census)[51]
    • Bulgaria – 3,584 persons were counted as Vlachs (may include Aromanians) and 891 as Romanians in 2011.[52]
  • Aromanians – Up to 500,000 (about 250,000 speakers of Aromanian)[9] live in:
  • Megleno-Romanians, speaking the Megleno-Romanian language in Greece and Macedonia – 5,000[58]
  • Istro-Romanians, speaking the Istro-Romanian language in Croatia – 1,200, with fewer than 200 native speakers[59]


The territories of the Bolohoveni
Bolohoveni territory, according to V. A. Boldur

In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians which emerged during the Migration Period, other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland, as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia.[60] In search of better pasture, they were called Vlasi or Valaši by the Slavs.

States mentioned in medieval chronicles were:

  • Wallachia – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube (Ţara Românească in Romanian); Bassarab-Wallachia (Bassarab's Wallachia and Ungro-Wallachia or Wallachia Transalpina in administrative sources; Istro-Vlachia (Danubian Wallachia in Byzantine sources), and Velacia secunda on Spanish maps
  • Moldavia – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river (Bogdano-Wallachia; Bogdan's Wallachia, Moldo-Wallachia or Maurovlachia; Black Wallachia, Moldovlachia or Rousso-Vlachia in Byzantine sources); Bogdan Iflak or Wallachia in Polish sources; L'otra Wallachia (the other Wallachia) in Genovese sources and Velacia tertia on Spanish maps
  • Transylvania – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain; Wallachia interior in administrative sources and Velacia prima on Spanish maps
  • Second Bulgarian Empire, between the Carpathians and the Balkan MountainsRegnum Blachorum et Bulgarorum in documents by Pope Innocent III
  • Terra Prodnicorum (or Terra Brodnici), mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222. Vlachs led by Ploskanea supported the Tatars in the 1223 Battle of Kalka. Vlach lands near Galicia in the west, Volhynia in the north, Moldova in the south and the Bolohoveni lands in the east were conquered by Galicia.[61]
  • Bolokhoveni was Vlach land between Kiev and the Dniester in Ukraine. Place names were Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi and Vlodava, mentioned in 11th-to-13th-century Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by Galicia.[62]

Regions and places are:

Shepherd culture[edit]

During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds reached as far north as southern Poland (Podhale) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.[67] Vlachs have been called "the perfect Balkan citizens" because they are "able to preserve their culture without resorting to war or politics, violence or dishonesty."[68]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Rezultate definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi al Locuinţelor – 2011 (caracteristici demografice ale populaţiei)" [Final results of Population and Housing Census – 2011 (demographic characteristics of the population)] (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Institution of Statistics. 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  2. ^ The first number is a lower estimate, as 1,236,810 people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011.
  3. ^ 2014 Moldovan census
  4. ^ 2004 census in Transnistria
  5. ^ "Vlach". 
  6. ^ Fine 1991, p. ?: "Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs."
  7. ^ According to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu: "România: Atlas Istorico-geografic", Academia Română 1996, ISBN 973-27-0500-0, chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (English text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact: Thraco-Romans haven't vanished in the soil & Vlachs haven't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation.
  8. ^ Badlands-Borderland: A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus [ILLUSTRATED] (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, ISBN 0-7156-3201-9, 2003, page 44: "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs".
  9. ^ a b "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997)". Assembly.coe.int. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  10. ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009.
  11. ^ "The name 'Vlach' or 'Wallach' applied to them by their neighbours is identical with the English Wealh or Welsh and means "stranger", but the Vlachs call themselves Aromani, or "Romans" (H.C. Darby, "The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries', in The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 1, 1957:34).
  12. ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 2008-01-13. Note: The Vlach Connection  External link in |journal= (help)
  13. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5. 
  14. ^ Ilie Gherghel, Câteva considerațiuni la cuprinsul noțiunii cuvântului "Vlach", București: Convorbiri Literare, 1920, p. 4-8.
  15. ^ G. Popa Lisseanu, Continuitatea românilor în Dacia, Editura Vestala, Bucuresti, 2014, p.78
  16. ^ http://www.fact-index.com/h/hi/history_of_vlachs.html
  17. ^ http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rbph_0035-0818_1924_num_3_1_6272
  18. ^ M. Manea, A. Pascu, B. Teodorescu, Istoria românilor din cele mai vechi timpuri până la revoluția din 1821, Ed. Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1997
  19. ^ Gheorghe I. Brătianu, Marea Neagră de la origini până la cucerirea otomană, ediția a II-a rev., Ed. Polirom, Iași, 1999, p. 182, 193
  20. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081003021421/http://www.ear.ro/3brevist/rv8/art14.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.farsarotul.org/nl26_1.htm
  23. ^ http://www.friesian.com/decdenc2.htm
  24. ^ Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29
  25. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106, ISBN 9789047428800
  26. ^ A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54
  27. ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112
  28. ^ http://users.clas.ufl.edu/fcurta/tudela.html
  29. ^ *Gesta Hungarorum (a translation by Martyn Rady)
  30. ^ Mircea Muşat, Ion Ardeleanu-From ancient Dacia to modern Romania, p. 114
  31. ^ A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25.
  32. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p.132, ISBN 9789004175365
  33. ^ Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27
  34. ^ Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV,
  35. ^ G. Popa-Lisseanu, Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32
  36. ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq.
  38. ^ A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4.
  39. ^ J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138
  40. ^ Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57
  41. ^ Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei [=Who was "Laslău, Hungarian king" of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia]. In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 ISSN 1857-4076
  42. ^ O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232
  43. ^ D. CĂPRĂROIU, ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64
  44. ^ Giurescu, Constantin C. (1972). The Making of the Romanian People and Language. Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing House. pp. 43, 98–101, 141.
  45. ^ Charles King (1 September 2013). The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture. Hoover Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8179-9793-9. 
  46. ^ Ilie Ceaușescu (1989). Transylvania: an ancient Romanian land. Military Publishing House. p. 41. ISBN 978-973-32-0046-8. 
  47. ^ The Current Digest of the Soviet Press. 34. American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. 1982. pp. 101–102. 
  48. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: ron". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  49. ^ Includes additional 177,635 Moldovans in Transnistria; as per the 2004 census in Transnistria
  50. ^ http://media.popis2011.stat.rs/2011/prvi_rezultati.pdf Serbian Preliminary 2011 Census Results
  51. ^ http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/teruleti_adatok
  52. ^ WebDesign Ltd. www.webdesign-bg.eu. "2011 Census Results". nsi.bg. Retrieved 2014-09-14. 
  53. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: rup". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  54. ^ According to INTEREG - quoted by Eurominority: Aromanians in Albania, Albania's Aromanians; Reemerging into History
  55. ^ Arno Tanner. The forgotten minorities of Eastern Europe: the history and today of selected ethnic groups in five countries. East-West Books, 2004 ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8, p. 218: "In Albania, Vlachs are estimated to number as many as 200,000"
  56. ^ "Aromânii vor statut minoritar", in Cotidianul, 9 December 2006
  57. ^ Macedonian census 2002
  58. ^ "Ethnologue Estimate in Greece and all countries". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  59. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/language/ruo
  60. ^ Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter. "The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population". University of California. 
  61. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106
  62. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992
  63. ^ a b c Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : Istoria Românilor, Petre Ș. Năsturel Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie, vol. XVI, 1998
  64. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps & old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  65. ^ Mircea Mușat; Ion Ardeleanu (1985). From Ancient Dacia to Modern Romania. Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică. that in 1550 a foreign writer, the Italian Gromo, called the Banat "Valachia citeriore" (the Wallachia which stands on this side). 
  66. ^ Z. Konecny, F. Mainus, Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silesia, Brno:Blok,1979
  67. ^ Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172;
  68. ^ Winnifrith, Tom. "Vlachs". Retrieved 2014-01-13. 


  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Ilie Gherghel, Câteva consideraţiuni la cuprinsul noţiunii cuvântului "Vlach". Bucuresti: Convorbiri Literare,(1920).
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, Bucureşti 2005

Further reading[edit]

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010.
  • John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974
  • The Watchmen, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece

External links[edit]