Bastien und Bastienne
|Bastien und Bastienne|
|one-act singspiel by W. A. Mozart|
Shepherd and Shepherdess Reposing (1761), by François Boucher
|Based on||Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne by Justine Favart and Harny de Guerville|
Bastien und Bastienne was one of Mozart's earliest operas, written in 1768 when he was only twelve years old. It was allegedly commissioned by Viennese physician and 'magnetist' Dr. Franz Mesmer (who himself would later be parodied in Così fan tutte) as a satire of the 'pastoral' genre then prevalent, and specifically as a parody of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The German libretto is by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern, Johann Heinrich Friedrich Müller and Johann Andreas Schachtner, based on Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne by Justine Favart and Harny de Guerville. After its supposed premiere in Mesmer's garden theater (that is only corroborated by an unverified account of Nissen), it was not revived again until 1890. It is not clear whether this piece was performed in Mozart's lifetime. The first known performance was on 2 October 1890 at Architektenhaus in Berlin.
The opera is written in both French and German manners. Many of the melodies are French in manner, but Bastienne's first aria is true German lied. This melody is also used in Mozart's Trio in G for Piano, Violin and Violoncello, K. 564 (1788). Another purely German lied is Bastienne's aria "I feel certain of his heart". Mozart utilizes the orchestra sparingly, with the exception of the reconciliation scene.
The opening theme of Mozart's overture resembles that of the first movement of Beethoven's Symphony no. 3, Eroica (in a different key). It is unlikely that Beethoven was familiar with Mozart's youthful opera. In any case, opening a movement with an arpeggio of the tonic chord was an extremely common occurrence in the Classical period. The resemblance is likely coincidental.
Although he was very young, Mozart already had excellent vocal writing skills and a knack for parody and whimsy which would reach full flower in his later works. Bastien und Bastienne is possibly the easiest to perform of Mozart's juvenile works.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 2 October 1890|
(Conductor: – )
|Bastienne, a shepherdess||soprano|
|Bastien, her lover||tenor|
|Colas, a quack magician||bass|
- Place: A pastoral village
- Time: Indeterminate
Bastienne, a shepherdess, fears that her "dearest friend", Bastien, has forsaken her for another pretty face, and decides to go into the pasture to be comforted by her flock of lambs.
Before she can leave, however, she runs into Colas, the village soothsayer. Bastienne requests the help of his magical powers to help win back her Bastien. Colas (being a soothsayer) knows all about the problem, and comforts her with the knowledge that Bastien has not abandoned her, rather, he's merely been distracted lately by 'the lady of the manor'. His advice is to act coldly towards Bastien, which will make him come running back.
Bastien is heard approaching, so Bastienne hides herself. Bastien swaggers in, proclaiming how much he loves Bastienne. Colas informs him that Bastienne has a new lover. Bastien is shocked and asks the magician for help.
Colas opens his book of spells and recites a nonsense aria filled with random syllables and Latin quotations. Colas declares the spell a success and that Bastienne is in love with Bastien once more. Bastienne, however, decides to keep up the game a bit longer and spurns Bastien with great vehemence. Bastien threatens suicide, which Bastienne merely shrugs off.
Finally, the two decide that they have gone far enough and agree to reconcile. Colas joins them as they all sing a final trio in praise of the magician.
(Bastien, Bastienne, Colas)
|c. 1940||Paul Derenne
Orchestre du Conservatoire de Paris
|78rpm set: L'Anthologie Sonore|
Cat: FA 801-806
|Sir John Pritchard
Cat: ABL 3010
|CD: Deutsche Grammophon|
Cat: 474 738 2
|1957||Three soloists of Wiener Sängerknaben||Edouard Lindenberg
|CD: Berlin Classics|
Cat: 0091292 BC
Peter van der Bilt
Mozarteum Orchester Salzburg
Cat: C 705061 B
|1976||Claes H. Ahnsjo
Mozarteum Orchester Salzburg
|LP: Deutsche Grammophon|
Cat: 2537 038
|LP: EMI Electrola|
Cat: 1C 065 30231
|1986||Three soloists of Wiener Sängerknaben:
|Uwe Christian Harrer
Cat: 422 527-2
Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra
|CD: Sony Classical|
|CD: Berlin Classics|
Thomas Müller De Vries
Alpe Adria Ensemble
|CD: Nuova Era|
Junge Philharmonie Salzburg
|DVD: Deutsche Grammophon|
Cat: 000440 073 4244 2
- Bastien et Bastienne (Media notes). Paul Derenne, Martha Angelici, André Monde, Gustave Cloëz orchestra. L'Anthologie Sonore. 1940. FA 801-806.
- History of the opera from opera.stanford.edu
- "Bastien und Bastienne discography". www.operadis-opera-discography.org.uk. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- Roberge, Pierre-F. "W. A. Mozart: Bastien et Bastienne". Medieval Music & Arts Foundation. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Settlemier, Tyrone (March 7, 2012). "L'Anthologie sonore 78rpm numerical listing discography". The Online Discographical Project. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Bastien und Bastienne: Score and critical report (in German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe
- Bastien und Bastienne, libretto (in German)
- Bastien und Bastienne: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- on YouTube, Filarmônica University of São Paulo 2012 (sung in German, spoken dialogue in Portuguese)