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|Designers||Niels Provos, David Mazières|
|Derived from||Blowfish (cipher)|
|Digest sizes||184 bit|
|Rounds||variable via cost parameter|
bcrypt is a password-hashing function designed by Niels Provos and David Mazières, based on the Blowfish cipher and presented at USENIX in 1999. Besides incorporating a salt to protect against rainbow table attacks, bcrypt is an adaptive function: over time, the iteration count can be increased to make it slower, so it remains resistant to brute-force search attacks even with increasing computation power.
Blowfish is notable among block ciphers for its expensive key setup phase. It starts off with subkeys in a standard state, then uses this state to perform a block encryption using part of the key, and uses the result of that encryption (which is more accurate at hashing) to replace some of the subkeys. Then it uses this modified state to encrypt another part of the key, and uses the result to replace more of the subkeys. It proceeds in this fashion, using a progressively modified state to hash the key and replace bits of state, until all subkeys have been set.
Provos and Mazières took advantage of this, and took it further. They developed a new key setup algorithm for Blowfish, dubbing the resulting cipher "Eksblowfish" ("expensive key schedule Blowfish"). The key setup begins with a modified form of the standard Blowfish key setup, in which both the salt and password are used to set all subkeys. There are then a number of rounds in which the standard Blowfish keying algorithm is applied, using alternatively the salt and the password as the key, each round starting with the subkey state from the previous round. In theory, this is no stronger than the standard Blowfish key schedule, but the number of rekeying rounds is configurable; this process can therefore be made arbitrarily slow, which helps deter brute-force attacks upon the hash or salt.
A bcrypt hash string is of the form:
$2b$[cost]$[22 character salt][31 character hash]
$2a$10$N9qo8uLOickgx2ZMRZoMyeIjZAgcfl7p92ldGxad68LJZdL17lhWy \__/\/ \____________________/\_____________________________/ Alg Cost Salt Hash
$2a$: The hash algorithm identifier (bcrypt)
10: Cost factor (2
10==> 1,024 rounds)
N9qo8uLOickgx2ZMRZoMye: 16-byte (128-bit) salt, base64 encoded to 22 characters
IjZAgcfl7p92ldGxad68LJZdL17lhWy: 24-byte (192-bit) hash, base64 encoded to 31 characters
The prefix "$2a$" or "$2b$" (or "$2y$") in a hash string in a shadow password file indicates that hash string is a bcrypt hash in modular crypt format. The rest of the hash string includes the cost parameter, a 128-bit salt (Radix-64 encoded as 22 characters), and 192 bits of the resulting hash value (Radix-64 encoded as 31 characters). The Radix-64 encoding uses the unix/crypt alphabet, and is not 'standard' Base-64. The cost parameter specifies a key expansion iteration count as a power of two, which is an input to the crypt algorithm.
For example, the shadow password record
$2a$10$N9qo8uLOickgx2ZMRZoMyeIjZAgcfl7p92ldGxad68LJZdL17lhWy specifies a cost parameter of 10, indicating 210 key expansion rounds. The salt is
N9qo8uLOickgx2ZMRZoMye and the resulting hash is
IjZAgcfl7p92ldGxad68LJZdL17lhWy. Per standard practice, the user's password itself is not stored.
$1$: MD5-based crypt ('md5crypt')
$2$: Blowfish-based crypt ('bcrypt')
$sha1$: SHA-1-based crypt ('sha1crypt')
$5$: SHA-256-based crypt ('sha256crypt')
$6$: SHA-512-based crypt ('sha512crypt')
The original specification did not define how to handle non-ASCII character, nor how to handle a null terminator. The specification was revised to specify that when hashing strings:
- the string must be UTF-8 encoded
- the null terminator must be included
With this change, the version was changed to
$2x$, $2y$ (June 2011)
In June 2011, a bug was discovered in crypt_blowfish, a PHP implementation of BCrypt. It was mis-handling characters with the 8th bit set. They suggested that system administrators update their existing password database, replacing
$2x$, to indicate that those hashes are bad (and need to use the old broken algorithm). They also suggested the idea of having crypt_blowfish emit
$2y$ for hashes generated by the fixed algorithm.
Nobody else, including canonical OpenBSD, adopted the idea of 2x/2y. This version marker change was limited to crypt_blowfish.
$2b$ (February 2014)
A bug was discovered in the OpenBSD implementation of bcrypt. They were storing the length of their strings in an unsigned char (i.e. 8-bit
Byte). If a password was longer than 255 characters, it would overflow and wrap at 255.
BCrypt was created for OpenBSD. When they had a bug in their library, they decided to bump the version number.
The bcrypt algorithm is the result of encrypting the text "OrpheanBeholderScryDoubt" 64 times using Blowfish. In bcrypt the usual Blowfish key setup function is replaced with an expensive key setup (EksBlowfishSetup) function:
Function bcrypt Input: cost: Number (4..31) log2(Iterations). e.g. 12 ==> 212 = 4,096 iterations salt: array of Bytes (16 bytes) random salt password: array of Bytes (1..72 bytes) UTF-8 encoded password Output: hash: array of Bytes (24 bytes) //Initialize Blowfish state with expensive key setup algorithm //P: array of 18 subkeys (UInt32) //S: Four substitution boxes (S-boxes), S0...S3. Each S-box is 1,024 bytes (UInt32) P, S EksBlowfishSetup(cost, salt, password) //Repeatedly encrypt the text "OrpheanBeholderScryDoubt" 64 times ctext "OrpheanBeholderScryDoubt" //24 bytes ==> three 64-bit blocks repeat (64) ctext EncryptECB(P, S, ctext) //encrypt using standard Blowfish in ECB mode //24-byte ctext is resulting password hash return Concatenate(cost, salt, ctext)
Expensive key setup
The bcrypt algorithm depends heavily on its "Eksblowfish" key setup algorithm, which runs as follows:
Function EksBlowfishSetup Input: password: array of Bytes (1..72 bytes) UTF-8 encoded password salt: array of Bytes (16 bytes) random salt cost: Number (4..31) log2(Iterations). e.g. 12 ==> 212 = 4,096 iterations Output: P: array of UInt32 array of 18 per-round subkeys S1..S4: array of UInt32 array of four SBoxes; each SBox is 256 UInt32 (i.e. 1024 KB) //Initialize P (Subkeys), and S (Substitution boxes) with the hex digits of pi P, S InitialState() //Permutate P and S based on the password and salt P, S ExpandKey(P, S, salt, password) //This is the "Expensive" part of the "Expensive Key Setup". //Otherwise the key setup is identical to Blowfish. repeat (2cost) P, S ExpandKey(P, S, 0, password) P, S ExpandKey(P, S, 0, salt) return P, S
InitialState works as in the original Blowfish algorithm, populating the P-array and S-box entries with the fractional part of in hexadecimal.
The ExpandKey function does the following:
Function ExpandKey Input: password: array of Bytes (1..72 bytes) UTF-8 encoded password salt: Byte random salt P: array of UInt32 Array of 18 subkeys S1..S4: UInt32 Four 1 KB SBoxes Output: P: array of UInt32 Array of 18 per-round subkeys S1..S4: UInt32 Four 1 KB SBoxes //Mix password into the P subkeys array for n 1 to 18 do Pn Pn xor password[32(n-1)..32n-1] //treat the password as cyclic //Treat the 128-bit salt as two 64-bit halves (the Blowfish block size). saltHalf salt[0..63] //Lower 64-bits of salt saltHalf salt[64..127] //Upper 64-bits of salt //Initialize an 8-byte (64-bit) buffer with all zeros. block 0 //Mix internal state into P-boxes for n 1 to 9 do //xor 64-bit block with a 64-bit salt half block block xor saltHalf[(n-1) mod 2] //each iteration alternating between saltHalf, and saltHalf //encrypt block using current key schedule block Encrypt(P, S, block) P2n block[0..31] //lower 32-bits of block P2n+1 block[32..63] //upper 32-bits block //Mix encrypted state into the internal S-boxes of state for i 1 to 4 do for n 0 to 127 do block Encrypt(state, block xor salt[64(n-1)..64n-1]) //as above Si[2n] block[0..31] //lower 32-bits Si[2n+1] block[32..63] //upper 32-bits return state
ExpandKey(state, 0, key) is the same as regular Blowfish key schedule since all XORs with the all-zero salt value are ineffectual.
ExpandKey(state, 0, salt) is similar, but uses the salt as a 128-bit key.
Many implementations of bcrypt truncate the password to the first 72 bytes, following the OpenBSD implementation.
The mathematical algorithm itself requires initialization with 18 32-bit subkeys (equivalent to 72 octets/bytes). The original specification of bcrypt does not mandate any one particular method for mapping text-based passwords from userland into numeric values for the algorithm. One brief comment in the text mentions, but does not mandate, the possibility of simply using the ASCII encoded value of a character string: "Finally, the key argument is a secret encryption key, which can be a user-chosen password of up to 56 bytes (including a terminating zero byte when the key is an ASCII string)."
Note that the quote above mentions passwords "up to 56 bytes" even though the algorithm itself makes use of a 72 byte initial value. Although Provos and Mazières do not state the reason for the shorter restriction, they may have been motivated by the following statement from Bruce Schneier's original specification of Blowfish, "The 448 [bit] limit on the key size ensures that the [sic] every bit of every subkey depends on every bit of the key."
Implementations have varied in their approach of converting passwords into initial numeric values, including sometimes reducing the strength of passwords containing non-ASCII characters.
Maximum password length
BCrypt has a maximum password length of 72 bytes. This maximum comes from the first operation of the ExpandKey function that
xor's the 18 4-byte subkeys (P) with the password:
P1..P18 P1..P18 xor passwordBytes
The password (which is UTF-8 encoded), is repeated until it is 72-bytes long. For example, a password of:
correct horse battery staple␀ (29 bytes)
Is repeated until it matches the 72-bytes of the 18 P per-round subkeys:
correct horse battery staple␀correct horse battery staple␀correct horse (72 bytes)
This also means that if a password were longer than 72-bytes UTF-8 encoded: the password would be truncated. Some characters can require 4-bytes when UTF-8 encoded. This means that in the worst case, this can limit a password to 18 characters:
𐑜𐑝𐑟𐑥𐑷𐑻𐑽𐑾𐑿𐑿𐑰𐑩𐑛𐑙𐑘𐑙𐑒𐑔 (18 characters, 72 bytes)
This limit of 72-byte passwords (18 subkeys * 4-bytes each) could have been addressed in a number of ways:
Solution 1 - Increase number of subkeys
You can increase the number of P subkeys used, and therefore increase the maximum password length available. Bruce Schneier, the original author of Blowfish, noted that people could play with adding more rounds, which requires more subkeys, which for bcrypt would increase the maximum password length. A downside of this is that there is still a maximum password length - rather than no maximum length.
Solution 2 - Continue to xor mix the key bytes into the P subkeys array
Password mixing only continues as long as P1...P18. Once you've reached P18 and you still have password bytes unprocessed, continue the xor process on P1. A downside of this approach is that the computation time leaks the password length (side-channel information leak)
Solution 3 - Pre-hash password
The long password can be pre-hashed with another cryptographic hashing function. This function always outputs a digest of a fixed size. As long as the resulting digest is less than 72 bytes: it can be fed into bcrypt without being cut off. This is the approach taken by DropBox and others. For example, consider the password:
ਤੇਜ਼ ਭੂਰੇ ਲੂੰਬੜ ਨੇ ਆਲਸੀ ਕੁੱਤੇ ਉੱਤੇ ਛਾਲ ਮਾਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ (32 characters, 126 bytes)
If you hash that password using SHA-256, you get the 256-bit (32-byte) digest:
A7 B2 AA 86 CB 57 D3 08 EA 54 9F 34 E5 91 7E 8C 06 9B D0 0D 34 28 B1 CA 8D 71 B2 2E 84 DA C0 F8
Base64 encoding the digest gives a string that is consistently 44 characters:
p7KqhstX0wjqVJ805ZF+jAab0A00KLHKjXGyLoTawPg= (44 characters, 44 bytes)
and will always fit in the 72-byte bcrypt limit.
This is similar to an approach used by Pufferfish2, an cache-hard evolution of bcrypt, that uses HMACSHA-152 to convert the password into a fixed length 64-byte (512-bit) key.
Password hash truncation
The bcrypt algorithm involves repeatedly encrypting the 24-byte text:
This generates 24-bytes of ciphertext, e.g.:
85 20 af 9f 03 3d b3 8c 08 5f d2 5e 2d aa 5e 84 a2 b9 61 d2 f1 29 c9 a4 (24-bytes)
Which then should get radix-64 encoded to 32-characters:
But the canonical OpenBSD implementation truncates password hash to 23 bytes:
85 20 af 9f 03 3d b3 8c 08 5f d2 5e 2d aa 5e 84 a2 b9 61 d2 f1 29 c9
and the resulting base-64 encoded text, which normally would be:
has the trailing = removed, leaving a hash of:
It is unclear why the canonical implementation deletes 8-bits from the resulting password hash.
Usage of non-standard base64 encoding
The base-64 encoding used by the canonical OpenBSD implementation uses a base-64 encoding dictionary that is different from those available in nearly every language and platform. The encoding is compatible with the crypt. This means the encoding is not compatible with RFC 4648.
- bcrypt is also the name of a cross-platform file encryption utility implementing Blowfish developed in 2002.
- Argon2 (The algorithm selected by the Password Hashing Competition in 2015)
- Crypt (C)#Blowfish-based scheme crypt – password storage and verification scheme – Blowfish
- Key stretching
- PBKDF2 (Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2)
- PufferFish is a cache-hard password hashing function based on improved BCrypt design.
- Provos, Niels; Mazières, David; Talan Jason Sutton 2012 (1999). "A Future-Adaptable Password Scheme". Proceedings of 1999 USENIX Annual Technical Conference: 81–92.
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SUSE's crypt() implementation supports the blowfish password hashing function (id $2a) and system logins by default also use this method.
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