Belizean general election, 2008
All 31 seats in the Belize House of Representatives (including two new seats)
Popular vote by constituency. As Belize uses the FPTP electoral system, seat totals are not determined by popular vote, but instead via results by each constituency. Click the map for more details.
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
A legislative election was held in the nation of Belize on February 7, 2008. Beginning with this election, Belizeans elected 31 members to the House of Representatives of Belize instead of 29. In what was considered an upset, the opposition United Democratic Party (UDP) won the election with 25 out of 31 seats; the ruling People's United Party won six.
- 1 October 2003 Cayo South by-election
- 2 Early predictions
- 3 Dissolving the House
- 4 Election campaigning
- 5 Issues in the 2008 elections
- 6 Media coverage
- 7 Final list of candidates by party and constituency
- 8 Final results
- 9 References
October 2003 Cayo South by-election
In August 2003 Cayo South Area Rep. Agripino Cawich of the PUP died, triggering a by-election in the constituency, only the second held in Belize since independence. The by-election was won by the UDP's John Saldivar, who had lost to Cawich in the general election earlier in 2003. Saldivar's win flipped the constituency to the UDP column and increased the party's caucus to eight for the remainder of the term.
The Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR) released the results of an opinion poll conducted in conjunction with SJC's Belizean Studies Centre in October 2005. In an election 49% of voters would consider voting for a third party; between the current parties 34.5% said they would vote for the PUP and the rest for the UDP.
As a followup, SPEAR conducted a second poll released on October 31, 2006 (). When asked who they would vote for, 32% said UDP, 11.8% PUP and 22% a third party. Smaller numbers either said they would not vote at all or declined to say who they would vote for. The nation's largest newspaper, the Amandala, headlined that more than half of Belizeans had rejected the PUP and UDP by either supporting a third party or declining to vote; this notion was soundly rejected by the UDP in particular and resulted in back and forth editorial responses in the Amandala and the UDP's Guardian in November, with the UDP charging that publisher Evan X Hyde was playing into the PUP's hands by supporting third parties openly instead of the UDP, and Amandala reiterating that its policy was of Belizeans First and that neither party had thoroughly considered the welfare of "roots" Belizeans since Independence. In March 2007, the University of Belize and Saint John's College Junior College's Belizean Studies Centre conducted a one-weekend poll of 430 randomly selected persons seeking opinions on the 2008 elections. The poll was supervised by UB Registrar Dr. Roy Young and BSC's Yasmine Andrews. On the question of approval of party leaders, the UDP's Dean Barrow led all contestants with 55.7% approval; sitting Prime Minister Said Musa scored 14.9%, while independent leaders rated below that. Results by party were similar, with the UDP scoring 55.5%, the PUP 16% and independents scores ranging from 2 to 9%.
2007 Village council elections
Beginning in March 2007 and continuing through April 22, Belize's 193 villages held council elections on Sundays of every weekend except for Easter. While the Village Council elections are supposed to be non-partisan, the major parties and independents considered them a litmus test for the general elections. From the very beginning, back and forth charges of inaccurate statistics and party favoritism have stained the elections, with both the blue and the red claiming victory in the majority of contested seats. Press releases from both parties claim victory. The results are detailed below.
Results of Village Council elections 2007
|114 (own estimate)||103 (own estimate)||16 (PUP estimate)|
|74 (PUP estimate)||67 (UDP estimate)||9 (UDP estimate)|
Dissolving the House
Prime Minister Said Musa twice had chances to dissolve the House of Representatives in session, on November 16, 2007 and December 19, 2007; both times he passed. However, Musa committed to calling elections before March 2008, the date when they were last held. With the announcement on Monday, January 7, 2008, the House was dissolved from that date. 93 candidates from six parties were nominated Monday, January 21, 2008 and elections were held on Thursday, February 7, 2008. The date chosen was one day behind Ash Wednesday, February 6; according to local media three elections have been called on an Ash Wednesday during Musa's term, of which he has won two.
People's United Party
Campaigning kicked off in earnest from as early as summer 2007. The ruling PUP have rolled out a number of programs designed to woo the electorate, including the promise of free textbooks for primary school students, improved infrastructure on the deep southside of Belize City and a planned rollout of a health insurance scheme in early 2008. Prime Minister Said Musa spent much of the early summer touring the South and West and continued his tour of the country in September and October. The PUP held a press conference on January 7, 2008 and announced pay increases for soldiers, teachers and public officers to take place after the general election. They released their manifesto "Believe in Belize-The BLUEprint" on January 22.
United Democratic Party
The United Democratic Party, for its part, concentrated on shoring up support in the districts and fighting fires in the various municipal governments they have controlled since March 2006. Party Leader Dean Barrow has likewise toured much of the country since June. Both parties' journalism machinery have dug up various scandals on either side. The Elections and Boundaries Department have noted an increase in the number of voter transfers between divisions, usually done in July and August.
The UDP released its election manifesto, Imagine the Possibilities: 2008-13, to a cheering crowd of supporters at its party headquarters in Belize City on January 16, 2008.
Third party announcements
Several third parties participated. Among them are established parties Vision Inspired by the People out of Belmopan and We the People Reform Movement from the North, Cornelius Dueck's National Reform Party and Wil Maheia's People's National Party
Attempts by third parties to unify have largely proven unsuccessful. The Amandala of March 18, 2007 indicated that the PNP and WTP had formed an alliance (later named the National Belizean Alliance (NBA)) and were expected to announce their combined slate soon. The parties wrote joint letters to the Amandala in pre-election issues.
Each party separately nominated candidates: VIP nominated 11 candidates, as did the NRP, and the NBA nominated four.
In the Amandala of Sunday, March 11, former party the National Reality Truth Creation Party returned to the political scene with a full page ad endorsing one Ebony Babb for Queen's Square; the ad also extolled the Christian virtues of the party, led by musician Jorge Ernesto Babb. The ad appealed to all "natural Creole born Belizeans" to support the NRTCP in 2008. Subsequent announcements by the NRTCP in the Amandala include Babb himself as a candidate in Freetown.
In November 2007, the major parties confronted each other over an inflammatory political sign in Belize City; a number of individuals were either arrested or threatened with arrest, including Mayor Zenaida Moya. The incident drew the ire of third parties such as the NBA and VIP and led to the signing of a "gentleman's agreement between all major political parties at the request of the Police Department. Despite the signing of this agreement, reports of continued vandalism of signs and inflammatory television commercials continue to circulate.
Issues in the 2008 elections
- Municipal governance: The People's United Party, who were defeated in the 2006 municipal elections by the United Democratic Party, point to their spotty performance in governing the towns, particularly Belize City, Orange Walk and San Ignacio; the UDP claim the PUP has been strangling their resources and falsifying the situation.
- Political reform and corruption: The minor parties have all come forward with strategies designed to prevent the large-scale official corruption they say has taken place under the outgoing administration. These include electing the Senate and empowering it with greater oversight over the House, limiting the term of the Prime Minister and the House, electing the Prime Minister directly instead of by appointment, introducing powers of impeachment and recall, and strengthening established institutions and officials to keep them independent of the political hierarchy, among others. Both major parties have adopted bits and pieces of these strategies, but the UDP is not fully convinced of the necessity of an elected Senate.
- Note: On December 19, 2007, the ruling party issued in its last House meeting for the year a bill for a referendum on the introduction of an elected Senate. Despite the Opposition's pleas for the date to be extended in order to consider as many forms of the elected Senate as possible the resolution passed both the Senate and the House.
- Administration performance: The UDP remains convinced that the ruling PUP have largely abandoned the promises that got them elected in 1998 and 2003, while the PUP point to a number of natural disasters and other emergencies that they say have prevented them from doing a better job. The PUP's view seems borne out by the passage of two hurricanes, Dean which caused 200 m in damages and Felix.
Both major television stations and all radio stations and newspapers report increased coverage of political stories in the runup to the upcoming elections.
Orange Walk's Centaur Cable Television's Jorge Aldana was reportedly assaulted by opponents and appeared on 7 News claiming political interference. Both major parties have gone after the self-proclaimed "independent" media houses such as Kremandala Ltd. (owner of Amandala, Krem Radio and Krem Television), The Reporter and the defunct Independent.
Channel 5 and LOVE FM have united for "Decision 2008" beginning at 6 AM Thursday, while Channel 7 and KREM FM have named their umbrella coverage "'08 NOW!"
This list represents the nominations received by the Elections and Boundaries Department on Nomination Day, January 21.Bold indicates incumbent.
|Albert||Mark Espat||Tom Morrison|
|Belize Rural Central||Ralph Fonseca||Michael Hutchinson||Harrisford Myers|
|Belize Rural North||Earl Perez||Edmond Castro|
|Belize Rural South||Merlene Spain||Manuel Heredia Jr.||Ernesto Caliz|
|Belmopan||Rolando Zetina ||John Saldivar||Paul Morgan|
|Caribbean Shores||Jose Coye||Carlos Perdomo|
|Cayo Central||Mario Castellaños||Rene Montero||Gilroy Requeña||George Boiton Jr.|
|Cayo North||Otto Coleman||Salvador Fernandez||Alden McDougal|
|Cayo Northeast||Orlando Habet||Elvin Penner||Cornelius Dueck|
|Cayo South||Charles Galvez||Ramon Witz||Hubert Enriquez||Richard Smith|
|Cayo West||Kendall Mendez||Erwin Contreras||Martha Hendricks|
|Collet||Carolyn Trench-Sandiford||Patrick Faber||Patrick Rogers|
|Corozal Bay||Juan Vildo Marin||Pablo Marin|
|Corozal North||Valdemar Castillo||Nemencio Acosta|
|Corozal Southeast||Florencio Marin Jr.||Servando Samos|
|Corozal Southwest||Gregorio Garcia||Gabriel Martinez|
|Dangriga||Cassian Nunez||Arturo Roches||Quentin Mejia||Denton Castillo|
|Fort George||Said Musa||Dr. George Gough|
|Freetown||Francis Fonseca||Michael Peyrefitte|
|Lake Independence||Cordel Hyde||Vanley Jenkins||"Seagull" Joseph Martinez||Gary Lambey|
|Mesopotamia||Austin Waight||Michael Finnegan|
|Orange Walk Central||Johnny Briceño||Rosendo Urbina||Alvaro Espejo|
|Orange Walk East||Marco Tulio Mendez||Marcel Cardona||Pabel Torres|
|Orange Walk North||Servulo Baeza||Gaspar Vega||Hilberto Nah|
|Orange Walk South||Jose Mai||Mark Pech||Edwardo Melendez||Salustiano Lizama|
|Pickstock||Godfrey Smith||Wilfred Elrington|
|Port Loyola||Oscar Rosado||Anthony Martinez||Erwin X (Jones)|
|Queen's Square||Anthony Sylvester||Dean Barrow|
|Stann Creek West||Rodwell Ferguson||Melvin Hulse||Mateo Polanco|
|Toledo East||Mike Espat||Eden Martinez||Wil Maheia|
|Toledo West||Marcial Mes||Juan Coy||Max Cho||Fermin Choc||Dionisio Chuc|
- National Reality Truth Creation Party:
- Jorge E. Babb, Freetown
- Ebony Babb, Queen's Square
- Herman Lewis, Toledo East
- Queen Miller, Belize Rural Central
- Nazim Juan, Cayo Central
Max Samuels in Belize Rural North, Florencio Marin Senior in Corozal South East, Dave Burgos in Orange Walk East, Ismael Cal in Orange Walk South, Ainslie Leslie in Cayo North and Sylvia Flores in Dangriga are not seeking reelection. All represented the People's United Party in their constituencies.
|United Democratic Party||66,203||56.61||25|
|People's United Party||47,624||40.72||6|
|National Reform Party||887||0.76||—|
|Vision Inspired by the People||874||0.75||—|
|National Belizean Alliance (including People's National Party)||506||0.43||—|
|National Reality Truth Creation Party||29||0.02||—|
|Total valid votes||116,194||100.00||31|
|Total votes cast (turnout 74.49%)||116,943|
- UDP causes major upset in Belize elections Archived February 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (February 8, 2008), Caribbean360.com.
- Result of By-election 2003, Belize Elections and Boundaries Commission. (accessed 3 December 2014)
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/10170505.html[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-06-20. News 5 report
- http://www.amandala.com.bz/index.php?id=60 51% of Belizeans reject PUP, UDP! (Amandala)
- Belize News - Belize's Leading Newspaper | Belize's Breaking News - Amandala Online
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/03200704.html[permanent dead link] 7 News story by Alfonso Noble
- Channel5Belize.COM Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Channel 5 News, July 9, 2007: Government plan for free textbooks
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-02. Channel 5 News, July 10, 2007: Southside project under fire from area rep
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/08010709.html[permanent dead link] 7 News, August 2, 2007: Barrow on UDP's readiness
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/08010708.html[permanent dead link] 7 News, August 2, 2007: Finnegan and voter transfers
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/08010707.html[permanent dead link] 7 News, August 2, 2007: 1 more month to transfer
- http://www.amandala.com.bz/index.php?id=6279 PUP, UDP eyeball to eyeball over sign
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2007-11-17. News 5 story on incident
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2007-11-17. Follow-up report
- Amandala, November 18, 2007.
- http://www.7newsbelize.com/archive/12210701.html7News, Dec. 21, 2007.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2007-12-24. No election date but referendum on elected Senate proposed, Channel 5, Dec. 19, 2007.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-01-25. Channel 5 News, January 23, 2008.
- Endorsed June 24.http://www.channel5belize.com/archive_detail_story.php?story_id=18712 Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Endorsed June 26.http://www.channel5belize.com/archive_detail_story.php?story_id=18698 Archived August 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Currently representing Cayo South.
- son of current area rep