Bidar Sultanate

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Bidar Sultanate
Barid Shahi dynasty

1489–1619
Extent of Bidar Sultanate
Extent of Bidar Sultanate
CapitalBidar
Common languagesPersian (official)[1]
Deccani Urdu, Kannada
Religion
Islam
GovernmentMonarchy
Barid Shah 
History 
• Established
1489
• Disestablished
1619
CurrencyMohur
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bahmani Sultanate
Adil Shahi dynasty
Today part ofIndia

Bidar sultanate was one of the Deccan sultanates of late medieval southern India.[2]

History[edit]

Qasim Barid and Amir Barid[edit]

The sultanate was founded in 1492 by Qasim Barid,[3] who was Georgian enslaved by Turks.[4] He joined the service of the Bahmani sultān Muhammad Shah III. He started his career as a sar-naubat but later became the mir-jumla (prime minister) of the Bahmani sultanate. During the reign of Mahmud Shah Bahmani (r.1482 – 1518), he became the de facto ruler.

After his death in 1504, his son Amir Barid became the prime minister and controlled the administration of the Bahmani sultanate.[citation needed] After the death of Mahmud Shah Bahmani in 1518, he was succeeded by four sultans, one after another, but they were mere puppets in the hands of Amir Barid.[5][6]

When the last Bahmani ruler Kalimullah fled to Bidar in 1527, Amir Barid became practically independent.[citation needed] But he never assumed any royal title.[7]

Ali Barid Shah[edit]

In 1542, he was succeeded by his son Ali Barid Shah I, who was the first to assume the royal title of Shah.[8] Ali Barid joined the other Deccan sultans in the battle of Talikota against the Vijaynagar Empire in January, 1565.

Later rulers[edit]

After his death in 1580, Ali Barid was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Barid, who ruled for seven years until his death in 1587.[9] He was succeeded by his younger brother Qasim Barid II.[10] After his death in 1591, he was succeeded by his infant son Ali Barid II, who was soon dethroned by one of his relative, Amir Barid II. In 1601, he was also overthrown by one of his relative, Mirza Ali Barid.

In 1609, he was succeeded by the last ruler, Amir Barid III[10], who fought against the Mughals in 1616 under the leadership of Malik Ambar. In 1619, he was defeated by the Bijapur sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II. Bidar was annexed to Bijapur sultanate. Amir Barid III and his sons were brought to Bijapur and kept "under surveillance"[11]

Culture[edit]

The rulers patronized Persianate culture. Persian poetry is inscribed on their tombs.

Architecture[edit]

The Bidar Sultanate made considerable additions to the Bidar Fort. Their tombs are also located at Bidar.[12][13] The rulers employed Hindu architects and engineers for the construction of these buildings, which resulted in amalgamation of some Hindu features within the architecture of this period.[14]

Rulers[edit]

Name Reign
Qasim Barid I 1489 – 1504
Amir Barid I 1504 – 1542[15]
Ali Barid Shah I 1542 – 1580[16]
Ibrahim Barid Shah 1580 – 1587
Qasim Barid Shah II 1587 – 1591
Ali Barid Shah II 1591
Amir Barid Shah II 1591 – 1601
Mirza Ali Barid Shah III 1601 – 1609
Amir Barid Shah III 1609 – 1619

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Spooner & Hanaway 2012, p. 317.
  2. ^ "Barīd Shāhī dynasty | Muslim dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  3. ^ Sen 2013, p. 118.
  4. ^ Bosworth 1996, p. 324.
  5. ^ "India - Bahmanī consolidation of the Deccan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  6. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 431.
  7. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 25.
  8. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 13.
  9. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 160.
  10. ^ a b Yazdani, 1947, pp. 14.
  11. ^ Majumdar 2007, p. 466-468.
  12. ^ Law, John. Modern Hyderabad (Deccan). pp. 15–17.
  13. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Monuments and Forts of the Deccan Sultanate". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  14. ^ Yazdani, 1947, pp. 26.
  15. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 429.
  16. ^ Haig 1928, pp. 681 & 683.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bosworth, C.E. (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press.
  • Majumdar, R.C. (2007). The Mughul Empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  • Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books.
  • Spooner, Brian; Hanaway, William L. (2012). Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Yazdani, Ghulam (1947). Bidar, It's History and Monuments. Oxford University Press.
  • Haig, Sir Wolseley (1928). The Cambridge History of India Volume III. Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

  • Philon, Helen (2019). "Barīd Shāhīs". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.