Blechnum

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Blechnum
Blechnum chilense 1.jpg
Blechnum chilense
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida /
 Pteridopsida (disputed)
Order: Polypodiales
(unranked): Eupolypods II
Family: Blechnaceae
Genus: Blechnum
L. 1753
Type species
Blechnum occidentale
L. 1753
Species

See text

Synonyms

Lomaria Willd.

Blechnum (hard fern) is a genus of between 150–220 species of ferns with a cosmopolitan distribution, in the family Blechnaceae in the eupolypods II clade of the order Polypodiales.[1] By far the greatest species diversity is in tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere, with only a few species reaching cool temperate latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (notably B. penna-marina, south to Cape Horn, Chile, the southernmost fern in the world) and Northern Hemisphere (notably B. spicant, north to Iceland and northern Norway).

Most are herbaceous plants, but a few species (e.g. B. buchtienii and B. schomburgkii in Ecuador) are tree ferns with stems up to 3 m tall. Blechnum varies from most ferns in having a separation of sterile (photosynthetic) and fertile (reproductive) fronds in the same plant.

Species[edit]

Selected species

Circumscription[edit]

The circumscription of the genus has varied since it was established by Linnaeus in 1753. Some authors have put many of its species in a segregate genus Lomaria. DNA taxonomy indicates that the genus Doodia is embedded in Blechnum.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Several species are grown as ornamental plants in gardens.

Blechnum is also a host plant for the butterfly, Anartia fatima, or the banded peacock, which is common in Central America.[2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carl J. Rothfels; Anders Larsson; Li-Yaung Kuo; Petra Korall; Wen- Liang Chiou; Kathleen M. Pryer (2012). "Overcoming Deep Roots, Fast Rates, and Short Internodes to Resolve the Ancient Rapid Radiation of Eupolypod II Ferns". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 70. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys001. PMID 22223449. 
  2. ^ Silberglied, Robert E.; Aiello, Annette; Lamas, Gerardo. "Neotropical Butterflies of the Genus Anartia: Systematics, Life Histories and General Biology (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology. 86 (2–3): 219–260. doi:10.1155/1979/50172. ISSN 0033-2615. 
  3. ^ Feldman, Tracy S.; Haber, William A. (1998). "Oviposition Behavior, Host Plant Use, and Diet Breadth of Anthanassa Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Using Plants in the Acanthaceae in a Costa Rican Community". The Florida Entomologist. 81 (3): 396–406. doi:10.2307/3495929. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan
  • Moore, D. M. (1983). Flora of Tierra del Fuego

External links[edit]