Blu-ray Disc recordable
Blu-ray Disc Recordable (BD-R) refers to two direct to disc optical disc recording technologies that can be recorded on to an optical disc with an optical disc recorder. BD-R discs can be written to once, whereas Blu-ray Disc Recordable Erasable (BD-RE) can be erased and re-recorded multiple times. Disc capacities are 25 GB for single-layer discs, 50 GB for double-layer discs, 100 GB ("XL") for triple-layer, and 128 GB for quadruple-layer (in BD-R only).
The minimum speed at which a Blu-ray Disc can be written is 36 megabits (4.5 megabytes) per second.
As of April 2018[update], there are five versions of Blu-ray Disc Recordable Erasable (BD-RE) and four versions of Blu-ray Disc Recordable (BD-R). Each version includes three Parts (a.k.a. Books): Basic Format Specifications, File System Specifications, Audio Visual Basic Specifications. Each part has sub-versions (e.g. R2 Format Specification includes Part 3: Audio Visual Basic Specifications Ver.3.02, Part 2: File System Specifications Ver. 1.11, Part 1: Basic Format Specifications Ver. 1.3).
|Date||RE Version||R Version||By Parts[a]||Changes|
|Part 1||Part 2||Part 3|
|2002||1.0||RE V1.0||RE V1.0||RE V1.0|
|September 2006||3.0||2.0||RE V2.1
|RE V3.0 +
ROM V2.4 (BDMV)
|June 2010||4.0||3.0||RE V3.0
|RE V4.0 +
|New BDXL definition:
|December 2017||5.0||4.0||RE V3.1
|RE V5.0||BDXL expansions:
|Drive speed||Data rate||25GB BD-R(E) write time||50GB BD-R(E) DL (25GB/layer) write time||100GB BR-R(E) XL TL (~33GB/layer) write time|
|1×||36 Mbit/s||4.5 MB/s||4.29 MiB/s||~95 min.||~190 min.||~380 min.|
|2×||72 Mbit/s||9 MB/s||8.58 MiB/s||~47 min.||~94 min.||~188 min.|
|4×||144 Mbit/s||18 MB/s||17.17 MiB/s||~24 min.||~48 min.||~96 min.|
|6×||216 Mbit/s||27 MB/s||25.75 MiB/s||~16 min.||~32 min.||~64 min.|
|8x||288 Mbit/s||36 MB/s||~11.25 min.||~22.5 min.|
|10x||360 Mbit/s||45 MB/s||~9 min.||~18 min.|
|12x||432 Mbit/s||54 MB/s||~7.5 min.||~15 min.|
|14x||504 Mbit/s||63 MB/s||~6.5 min.||~13 min.|
|16x||576 Mbit/s||72 MB/s||~5.7 min.||~11.5 min.|
2× speeds are mandatory for all formats, with 4× and 6× being optional for non-XL BD-R media. Since BD-RE 5.0/BD-R 4.0, a read speed of 4× is mandatory for UHD support.
Note: Add extra time for disc verification phase and time for erasing the disc in the case of BD-RE.
As of April 2018[update] (approximate pricing):
- BD-R/RE drive US$50 and above
- 6× single-layer BD-R disc (25 GB) US$0.42 each in quantity;
- 10× single-layer BD-R disc (25 GB) CN¥2.04 each in quantity;
- 6× double-layer BD-R disc (50 GB) US$1.64 in quantity;
- 2× single-layer BD-RE disc (25 GB) US$0.82 in quantity;
- 2× double-layer BD-RE disc (50 GB) US$3.15 in quantity;
- 4× BD-R XL disc (100 GB) US$5 in quantity;
- 4× BD-RE XL disc (100 GB) US$11 in quantity;
HTL (high to low)
"Normal" BD-R discs use a phase-changing alloy or a composite that decreases the reflectivity on recording, i.e. "High To Low". Sony, for example, uses an inorganic composite that splits into two laminar components with low reflectivity. Composites used may include BiN, Ge3N4, and Pd-doped tellurium suboxide. A pair of layers with copper alloy and silicon that combines on recording may alternatively be used. Similar to CD-RW and DVD-RW, a phase transition alloy (often GeTeSb or InAgTeSb) is used for BD-RE discs. Melting the material with a very high power beam turns it into an amorphous state with low reflectivity, while heating at a lower power erases it back to a crystalline state with high reflectivity.
In both cases, the data layers are surrounded by a pair of dielectric layers. An adhesive spacer layer and sometimes a semi-reflective layer is used for multi-layer discs.
BD-R LTH (low to high)
BD-R LTH is a write-once Blu-ray Disc format that features an organic dye recording layer. "Low To High" refers to the reflectivity changing from low to high during the burning process, which is the opposite of normal Blu-rays, whose reflectivity changes from high to low during writing. The advantage of BD-R LTH is it can protect a manufacturer's investment in DVD-R/CD-R manufacturing equipment because it does not require investing in new production lines and manufacturing equipment. Instead, the manufacturer only needs to modify current equipment. This is expected to lower the cost of disc manufacturing.
Old Blu-ray players and recorders cannot utilize BD-R LTH; however, a firmware upgrade can enable devices to access BD-R LTH. Panasonic released such a firmware update in November 2007 for its DMR-BW200, DMR-BR100 and MR-BW900/BW800/BW700 models. Pioneer was expected to ship the first LTH BD drives in Spring 2008. Sony upgraded the PlayStation 3 firmware enabling BD-R LTH reading in March, 2008.
In 2011, France's Ministry of Culture and Communication conducted a study on the suitability of data archival of LTH (low to high) discs compared to HTL (high to low) discs. The data they collected indicated that the overall quality of LTH discs is worse than HTL discs.
- RE and R definitions from the same date have different Part 1 and Part 2 specifications, but share the same Part 3 specifications.
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- Pioneer and Mitsubishi Develop Low cost BD-R Discs Using Organic Recording Layers, CDR info.
- Firmware Adds Support for LTH BD-R Discs to Panasonic Recorders, CDR info.
- Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi and Maxell Release First LTH BD-R Discs, CDR info.
- PS3 firmware update v2.20 available – added support for LTH BD-R, After Dawn.
- French research: Avoid Blu-ray LTH discs for data archival. myce. Retrieved on 2013-06-14.
- Qualite des Disques Blu-Ray Enregistrables pour L’Archivage des Donnees Numeriques. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communica. Retrieved on 2013-06-14.