Body contact and personal space in the United States

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The personal proximities generally utilized by residents of the United States of America, according to Edward T. Hall.

Body contact and personal space in the United States refers to the personal space expected by residents of the United States of America in various situations, which shows considerable similarities to that in northern and central European regions, such as Germany, the Benelux, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. The main difference is that residents of the United States of America like to keep more open space between themselves and their conversation partners (roughly 4 feet (1.2 m) compared to 2 to 3 feet (0.6–0.9 m) in Europe).[1] Greeting rituals tend to be the same in these regions and in the United States, consisting of minimal body contact which often remains confined to a simple handshake.

In 1966, anthropologist Edward T. Hall identified four zones of personal space that residents of the United States of America like to maintain around them:[1][2][3]

  • Intimate distance: extends roughly 18 inches (46 cm) from the individual and is reserved for family, pets and very close friends. Displays of affection and comforting are commonly conducted within this space. The only strangers an individual typically accepts within his or her intimate space are health care professionals.
  • Personal distance: extends 1.5 to 4 feet (0.46–1.22 m) and is reserved for friends and acquaintances. A handshake will typically place strangers at least 2 to 4 feet (0.61–1.22 m) apart, preserving the personal distance. However, a friendly kiss on the cheek by a woman as a greeting is widely practised.[citation needed]
  • Social distance: extends from about 4 to 12 feet (1.2–3.7 m) and is used for formal, business and other impersonal interactions such as meeting a client.
  • Public Space: extends more than 12 feet (3.7 m) and is not guarded. Secret Service agents will commonly attempt to ensure 12 feet (3.7 m) of open space around dignitaries and high-ranking officials.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b "Edward Hall, the hidden dimension online abstract". Retrieved 2006-12-14. 
  2. ^ Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X. 
  3. ^ Hall, Edward (1966). The Hidden Dimension. New York, NY: Peter Smith Publisher Inc. ISBN 0-385-08476-5.