Nonverbal learning disorder

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Considered to be neurologically based,[1][2][3] Nonverbal learning disorder (NLD or NVLD) is characterized by verbal strengths as well as visual-spatial, motor and social skills deficits. [4] [5] People with this disorder may not perceive nonverbal cues such as facial expression or tone of voice. [6] Challenges with mathematics and handwriting are typical. [7]

While "nonverbal" (perceptual/cognitive and motor) impairments were recognized since the earliest studies on learning disabilities,[8][9][10] [11]debate exists as to whether/or the extent to which the NLD model developed by Bryon Rourke[12] is a valid diagnostic framework. As originally presented by Johnson and Myklebust "Disorders of Nonverbal Learning" was a general category[13] and then "nonverbal learning disabilities" was proposed as a type of learning disability with various sub-types (Myklebust).[14] Later Rourke sought to define a clinically discrete syndrome employing a specific theory of neuropsychological functioning. [15] Questions remain about Rourke's model and how best to frame the perceptual, cognitive and motor issues associated with NLD, particularly in light of emerging neuroscientific research.[16][17][18]

  1. ^ Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white-matter disease/dysfunction? Byron P. Rourke pages 209-234 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13854048708520056
  2. ^ Presence of Cysts on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) in Children With Asperger Disorder and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Jodene Fine, Journal of Child Neurology. http://jcn.sagepub.com/content/26/4/471.short
  3. ^ Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence Jodene Goldenring Finea, Kayla A. Musielaka & Margaret Semrud-Clikeman http://www.educ.msu.edu/cepse/fine/Documents/Smaller%20Splenium%20CNY%202013%20online.pdf
  4. ^ Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: A Distinct Group Within Our Population by Tom Humphries, PhD, CPsych http://www.nldontheweb.org/nldentrylevelreading/nldadistinctgroup.html
  5. ^ Stanford School of Medicine. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The Diagnoses. http://whatmeds.stanford.edu/diagnoses/nonverbal_learning.html
  6. ^ Non Verbal Learning Disabilities:Impact on Social Functioning; And Interpersonal Skills Maggie Mamen, Ph.D., C.Psych NLDline.com http://www.nldline.com/new_page_52.htm
  7. ^ Nonverbal Learning Disability:The Math and Handwriting Problem by Gayle Zieman, Ph.D. http://www.ziemang.com/pnm_articles/0002ld.htm
  8. ^ Reading, writing and speech problems in children. Orton, S. T. New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co. (1937). 215 pp. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1937-02851-000
  9. ^ The Founders of Child Neurology edited by Stephen Ashwal https://books.google.com/booksid=eDvHZWRo9_0C&pg=PT828&lpg=PT828&dq=clumsy+children+Newcastle+Walton+1962+Gubbay+1965&source=bl&ots=woudBNmnSj&sig=8C_bsl0ORosUCnGbIYqFIXOMdrw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAGoVChMI9Z2Q9_-JxgIV1X-SCh0I9AD4#v=onepage&q=clumsy%20children%20Newcastle%20Walton%201962%20Gubbay%201965&f=false
  10. ^ CLUMSY CHILDREN: DEVELOPMENTAL APRAXIA AND AGNOSIA J. N. WALTON , E. ELLIS , S. D. M. COURT Brain: A Journal of Neurology. http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/85/3/603
  11. ^ Clumsy children. John Walton.British Medical Journal Vol. 296 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2545269/pdf/bmj00274-0062b.pdf
  12. ^ Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence Volume 17, Issue 5, 2011 Obituary for Dr. Byron Rourke http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09297049.2011.617105?journalCode=ncny20#.VZajJ_lViko
  13. ^ Learning disabilities; educational principles and practices by Doris J. Johnson and Helmer R. Myklebust. Published 1967 by Grune & Stratton in New York https://openlibrary.org/works/OL7402255W/Learning_disabilities_educational_principles_and_practices "Chapter VIII" "Nonverbal Disorders of Learning"
  14. ^ Learning disorders: Psychoneurological disturbances in children. Myklebust, Helmer R. Rehabilitation Literature, Vol 25(12), 1965, 354-360 http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1965-10564-001Donvduyse (talk) 14:40, 7 June 2015 (UTC)
  15. ^ Nonverbal learning disabilities: the syndrome and the model Nonverbal learning disabilities: the syndrome and the model. Byron P. Rourke.Published 1989 by Guilford Press in New York. https://openlibrary.org/works/OL3451841W/Nonverbal_learning_disabilities
  16. ^ Nonverbal learning disabilities: a critical review. Spreen O1.Child Neuropsychol. 2011;17(5):418-43. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2010.546778. Epub 2011 Jun 24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462003
  17. ^ Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence Jodene Goldenring Finea, Kayla A. Musielaka & Margaret Semrud-Clikeman http://www.educ.msu.edu/cepse/fine/Documents/Smaller%20Splenium%20CNY%202013%20online.pdf
  18. ^ Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in Children: Bridging the Gap Between ... By John M. Davis, Jessica Broitman https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=e5H7WjcJeckC&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=Overview+of+NVLD+Jessica+Broitman+and+John+M.+Davis&ots=U1W0TYNblu&sig=ZUUkw1Cu-yIaEOt9F23hU_Tn5R0#v=onepage&q=Overview%20of%20NVLD%20Jessica%20Broitman%20and%20John%20M.%20Davis&f=false