Nonverbal learning disorder

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Considered to be neurologically based,[1][2][3] nonverbal learning disorder, otherwise known as nonverbal learning disability (NLD or NVLD), is characterized by verbal strengths as well as visual-spatial, motor and social skills difficulties.[4][5] People with this disorder may not at times comprehend nonverbal cues such as facial expression or tone of voice.[6] Challenges with mathematics and handwriting are common.[7]

While "nonverbal" impairments were recognized since early studies in child neurology,[8][9][10][11] there is on-going debate as to whether/or the extent to which existing conceptions of NLD provide a valid diagnostic framework.[12] As originally presented "disorders of nonverbal learning" was a category encompassing primarily non-linguistic learning problems (Johnson and Myklebust, 1967).[13] "Nonverbal learning disabilities" were first discussed by Myklebust in 1975 as representing a distinct subtype of learning disability with a range of presentations involving "mainly visual cognitive processing," social imperception, a gap between higher verbal ability and lower performance IQ, as well as difficult hand writing.[14] Later neuropsychologist Byron Rourke[15] sought to develop consistent criteria with a theory and model of brain functioning that would establish NLD as a recognized syndrome (1989).[16] Questions remain about how best to frame the perceptual, cognitive and motor issues associated with NLD.[3][17][18][19]

The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) and ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) do not include NLD as a diagnosis.[20][21]

Labels for specific associated issues include visual processing disorder, visual-spatial deficit,[22][23][24] dyscalculia,[25][26] dysgraphia,[27][28][29] as well as dyspraxia.[30][31] Assorted diagnoses have been discussed as sharing symptoms with NLD---these conditions include Right hemisphere brain damage and Developmental Right Hemisphere Syndrome,[27][32][33][34] Developmental Coordination Disorder,[35][36] Social-Emotional Processing Disorder,[37][38] Asperger's Syndrome,[39][40][41][42] Gerstmann syndrome[34][43] and others.

In their 1967 book, Johnson and Myklebust describe a wide range of learning impairments and strategies for remediation. In their chapter "Nonverbal Disorders Of Learning" are sections titled "Learning though pictures," "Gesture," "Nonverbal motor learning," "Body Image," "Spatial Orientation," "Right-Left Orientation," "Social Imperception," "Distractibility, Perseveration, and Disinhibition." At the beginning of this chapter the authors characterize how a child with these kinds of disabilities appears in a classroom: "An example is the child who fails to learn the meaning of the actions of others....We categorize this child as having a deficiency in social perception, meaning that he has an inability which precludes acquiring the significance of basic nonverbal aspects of daily living, though his verbal level of intelligence falls within or above the average." (p. 272) [44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rourke, Byron P. (1987). "Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white-matter disease/dysfunction?". Clinical Neuropsychologist. 1 (3): 209–34. doi:10.1080/13854048708520056. 
  2. ^ Semrud-Clikeman, M.; Fine, J. (2011). "Presence of Cysts on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) in Children With Asperger Disorder and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities". Journal of Child Neurology. 26 (4): 471–5. doi:10.1177/0883073810384264. PMID 21398562. 
  3. ^ a b Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Musielak, Kayla A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret (2014). "Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD". Child Neuropsychology. 20 (6): 641–61. doi:10.1080/09297049.2013.854763. PMID 24215424. 
  4. ^ Humphries, Tom (Autumn 1993). "Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: A Distinct Group Within Our Population". Communique. Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Nonverbal Learning Disorders". Stanford School of Medicine. 
  6. ^ Mamen, Maggie (Summer 2000). "Non Verbal Learning Disabilities: Impact on Social Functioning; And Interpersonal Skills". Communique. Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. 29 (5). 
  7. ^ Zieman, Gayle (February 2000). "Nonverbal Learning Disability: The Math and Handwriting Problem". Parenting New Mexico. 
  8. ^ Gardner-Medwin, David (1990). "John Walton". In Ashwal, Stephen. The Founders of Child Neurology. Norman. pp. 862–70. ISBN 978-0-930405-26-7. 
  9. ^ Walton, J. N.; Ellis, E.; Court, S. D. M. (1962). "Clumsy children: developmental apraxia and agnosia". Brain. 85 (3): 603–12. doi:10.1093/brain/85.3.603. PMID 13998739. 
  10. ^ Gerstmann, Josef (1940). "Syndrome of finger agnosia, disorientation for right and left, agraphia and acalculia: local diagnostic value". Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry. 44 (2): 398–408. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1940.02280080158009. 
  11. ^ Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. New York: W W Norton. pp. 99 & 120
  12. ^ "Differentiating NLD". Current Psychiatry. 10 (7). July 2011. 
  13. ^ Johnson, Doris J.; Myklebust, Helmer R. (1967). "Nonverbal Disorders of Learning". Learning disabilities: educational principles and practices. New York: Grune & Stratton. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-8089-0219-5. 
  14. ^ Myklebust, Helmer R. (1975). Myklebust, Helmer R., ed. "Nonverbal learning disabilities: Assessment and intervention". Progress in Learning Disabilities. Grune and Stratton. 3: 85–. ISSN 0079-6387. 
  15. ^ Donders, Jacobus (2011). "Obituary for Dr. Byron Rourke". Child Neuropsychology. 17 (5): 417. doi:10.1080/09297049.2011.617105. 
  16. ^ Rourke, Byron P. (1989). Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The Syndrome and the Model. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-0-89862-378-9. [page needed]
  17. ^ Spreen, Otfried (2011). "Nonverbal learning disabilities: A critical review". Child Neuropsychology. 17 (5): 418–43. doi:10.1080/09297049.2010.546778. PMID 21462003. 
  18. ^ Davis, John M.; Broitman, Jessica (2011). Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in Children: Bridging the Gap Between Science and Practice. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-8213-1. 
  19. ^ Mammarella, Irene C.; Cornoldi, Cesare (2014). "An analysis of the criteria used to diagnose children with Nonverbal Learning Disability (NLD)". Child Neuropsycholog. 20 (3): 255–80. doi:10.1080/09297049.2013.796920. PMID 23705673. 
  20. ^ Tannock, Rosemary (January 2014). "DSM-5 Changes in Diagnostic Criteria for Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD): What are the Implications?". International Dyslexia Association. 
  21. ^ "2015/16 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code F81.9: Developmental disorder of scholastic skills, unspecified". ICD10Data.com. 
  22. ^ Forrest, Bonny J. (2004). "The Utility of Math Difficulties, Internalized Psychopathology, and Visual-Spatial Deficits to Identify Children With the Nonverbal Learning Disability Syndrome: Evidence for a Visual spatial Disability". Child Neuropsychology. 10 (2): 129–46. doi:10.1080/09297040490911131. PMID 15590491. 
  23. ^ Harnadek, M. C. S.; Rourke, B. P. (1994). "Principal Identifying Features of the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in Children". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 27 (3): 144–54. doi:10.1177/002221949402700303. PMID 8040632. 
  24. ^ Wilson, Peter H.; McKenzie, Beryl E. (1998). "Information Processing Deficits Associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Meta-analysis of Research Findings". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 39 (6): 829–40. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00384. PMID 9758192. 
  25. ^ Rourke, B. P.; Conway, J. A. (1997). "Disabilities of Arithmetic and Mathematical Reasoning: Perspectives From Neurology and Neuropsychology". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 30 (1): 34–46. doi:10.1177/002221949703000103. PMID 9009877. 
  26. ^ Geary, David C. (2010). "Mathematical disabilities: Reflections on cognitive, neuropsychological, and genetic components". Learning and Individual Differences. 20 (2): 130–133. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.008. PMC 2821095free to read. PMID 20161681. 
  27. ^ a b Tsur, V. G.; Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Amir, N. (1995). "Developmental Right-Hemisphere Syndrome: Clinical Spectrum of the Nonverbal Learning Disability". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 28 (2): 80–6. doi:10.1177/002221949502800202. PMID 7884301. 
  28. ^ Rourke, Byron P. (1989). "Patterns of Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic". Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The Syndrome and the Model. Guilford Press. pp. 20–9. ISBN 978-0-89862-378-9. 
  29. ^ Szklut, Stacey E.; Philbert, Darby Breath (2013). "Learning Disabilities and Developmental Coordination Disorder". In Umphred, Darcy A.; Lazaro, Rolando T.; Roller, Margaret L.; et al. Neurological Rehabilitation (6th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 379–418. ISBN 978-0-323-26649-9. 
  30. ^ Clayton, MC; Dodd, JL (2005). "Nonverbal neurodevelopmental dysfunctions". Pediatric Annals. 34 (4): 321–7. doi:10.3928/0090-4481-20050401-13. PMID 15871436. 
  31. ^ Solodow, William; Sandy, Sandra V.; Leventhal, Fern; Beszylko, Scott; Shepherd, Margaret Jo; Cohen, Jonathan; Goldman, Shoshana; Perry, Richard; Chang, Jennifer J.; Nass, Ruth (Fall 2006). "Frequency and Diagnostic Criteria for Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in a General Learning Disability School Cohort". Thalamus. 24 (1): 17–33. 
  32. ^ Wilmshurst, Linda (2014). "Sandy Smith: Marching to the TUne of a Different Drummer". Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Casebook. Sage. pp. 89–99. ISBN 978-1-4833-2268-1. 
  33. ^ Riccio, Cynthia A. (2007). "Dyscalculia". In Reynolds, Cecil R.; Fletcher-Janzen, Elaine. Encyclopedia of Special Education. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 769–70. ISBN 978-0-471-67798-7. 
  34. ^ a b Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hynd, George W. (1990). "Right hemisphere dysfunction in nonverbal learning disabilities: Social, academic, and adaptive functioning in adults and children". Psychological Bulletin. 107 (2): 196–209. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.196. PMID 2181523. 
  35. ^ "Recognizing and Referring Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: The Role of the Psychologist". CanChild. 
  36. ^ Jongmans, M. J.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Schoemaker, M. M. (2003). "Consequences of Comorbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorders and Learning Disabilities for Severity and Pattern of Perceptual Motor Dysfunction". Journal of Learning Disabilities. 36 (6): 528–37. doi:10.1177/00222194030360060401. PMID 15493435. 
  37. ^ Tsatsanis, Katherine (2013). "Right-Hemisphere Syndrome". In Volkmar, Fred R. Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer. pp. 2596–600. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_1587. ISBN 978-1-4419-1698-3. 
  38. ^ Manoach, Dara Sue; Sandson, Thomas A.; Weintraub, Sandra (April 1995). "The Developmental Social-Emotional Processing Disorder Is Associated with Right Hemisphere Abnormalities". Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, & Behavioral Neurology. 8 (2): 99–105. INIST:3510330. 
  39. ^ Ellis, Hadyn D.; Gunter, Helen L. (1999). "Asperger syndrome: a simple matter of white matter?". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 3 (5): 192–200. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01315-7. PMID 10322476. 
  40. ^ Volkmar, Fred R.; Klin, Ami (1998). "Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities". In Schopler, Eric; Mesibov, Gary B.; Kunce, Linda J. Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism?. Springer. pp. 107–21. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5369-4. ISBN 978-1-4615-5369-4. 
  41. ^ Dinklage, David. "Aspergers Disorder and Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities: How Are These Two Disorders Related to Each Other?". Asperger/Autism Network. 
  42. ^ Stein, Martin T.; Klin, Ami; Miller, Karen; Goulden, Keith; Coolman, Richard; Coolman, David M. (2004). "When Asperger's Syndrome and a Nonverbal Learning Disability Look Alike". Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 25 (5 Suppl): S59–64. doi:10.1097/00004703-200410001-00012. PMID 15502535. 
  43. ^ Forrest, Bonny J. (2011). "Developmental Gerstmann Syndrome". In Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; DeLuca, John; Caplan, Bruce. Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. Springer. pp. 826–7. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79948-3_1540. ISBN 978-0-387-79948-3. 
  44. ^ Learning disabilities; educational principles and practices by Doris J. Johnson and Helmer R. Myklebust. Published 1967 by Grune & Stratton in New York https://openlibrary.org/works/OL7402255W/Learning_disabilities_educational_principles_and_practices

External links[edit]

Videos[edit]

Books[edit]

Johnson, Doris J., and Helmer R. Myklebust. Learning Disabilities; Educational Principles and Practices. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1967. Print.https://openlibrary.org/works/OL7402255W/Learning_disabilities_educational_principles_and_practices

Rourke, Byron P. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The Syndrome and the Model. New York: Guilford, 1989. Print.https://openlibrary.org/works/OL3451841W/Nonverbal_learning_disabilities

Thompson, Sue. The Source for Nonverbal Learning Disorders. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems, 1997. Print. https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0760601631

Palombo, Joseph. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: A Clinical Perspective. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print. http://www.amazon.com/Nonverbal-Learning-Disabilities-Clinical-Perspective/dp/0393704785/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8

Broitman, Jessica, and John M. Davis. Treating NVLD in Children Professional Collaborations for Positive Outcomes. New York: Springer, 2013. Print.

Davis, John M., and Jessica Broitman. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in Children: Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice. New York, NY: Springer, 2011. Print.

By Authors with NLD[edit]

Murphy, Michael Brian, and Gail R. Shapiro. Nld from the Inside Out: Talking to Parents, Teachers, and Teens about Growing Up with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. N.p.: Booklocker.com, Incorporated, 2008. Print.

Fast, Yvona. "Employment for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or Non-Verbal Learning Disability: Stories and Strategies 1st Edition." Amazon.com: Employment for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or Non-Verbal Learning Disability: Stories and Strategies (9781843107668): Yvona Fast: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.

Flom, Peter. Screwed up Somehow but Not Stupid, Life with a Learning Disability. N.p.: Peter Flom Consulting, 2016. Print.