Bourbons of India
||This article may have too many section headers dividing up its content. (June 2017)|
The Bourbons of Bhopal in India claim to be legitimate descendants of the House of Bourbon, descended from Jean Philippe de Bourbon, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, an exiled French noble who served in Mughal Emperor Akbar's court.
Traveller and photographer Louis Rousselet wrote in Le Fils du Connétable (Rousselet 1882). when he had visited Isabella de Bourbon, known in the Court as Bourbon Sirdar, and got struck by her "European type". This is his account of his surprise to find a Bourbon Princess in Bhopal:
When everyone was seated, the priest said to me, "On hearing of your arrival I should have hastened to come and see you for it is long since I had the pleasure of meeting fellow countryman, but I was compelled to delay my visit for a reason you will easily understand. I reside here in the capacity of chaplain in Madame Isabelle de Bourbon, a Christian princess who holds the first place of the kingdom after the Begum. This lady greatly hoped that you would have gone to see her soon after your arrival, and she waited for you impatiently. Being only her servant, I was myself obliged until she herself, authorize me to seek you. Today I am sent by her to tell you that she will expect you tomorrow at her palace, at whatever hour you may choose to appoint."
I listened to the priest while he spoke, but without being able to believe my ears. My wanderings had doubtless been fruitful of many unexpected events, but to arrive at Bhopal and find a French priest, chaplain to a Christian princess, and to hear that this princess was the most important personage in the kingdom, and bore the name of Bourbon, this seemed to me to verge on the fabulous and I looked on the worthy ecclesiastic, asking myself whether there were not some mystifications under it all. However, at last I agreed to accept the invitation of the mysterious princess, and he left us to carry the news to her.
When he was gone, I questioned the Bhopal’s nobles who were present, and they confirmed the words of the priest. The princess now some sixty-six summers; she was called Bourbon Sirdar, or Princess Bourbon. It was also true she was very rich, possessed important fiefs, and held high rank among the vassals of the crown. My curiosity was greatly excited, and the next morning I mounted the elephant, accompanied by Schaumburg, and proceeded to the residence of the princess.
Kincaid's account of Jean de Bourbon's exile and settlement in India:
In the latter half of the sixteenth century, about the year 1560, Jean Philippe de Bourbon, who was a member of a branch of the Bourbons sailed for India, having, tradition relates, been obliged to leave France because he killed a relative of high position in a duel. He landed at Madras, a priest and two friends accompanying him. The two latter died on the voyage, and the priest remained at Madras, but John Philip Bourbon, sailing on to Bengal went thence to Delhi and sought an interview with the Emperor Akbar. On hearing of the high rank of the exile, the Emperor sent for him, and being interested in his story, treated him with much favour and distinction, eventually appointing him to a post at his Court. Not long afterwards the Emperor being much pleased at his courtly bearing and conduct, and desiring to retain his services, offered him in marriage to the Lady Juliana, sister of the Emperor's Christian wife, who on account of her skill and her knowledge of the European system of medicine, had charge of the health of the imperial ladies. This marriage was duly solemnised, whereupon the Emperor conferred upon his brother-in-law the title of Raja of Shergar and placed the imperial seraglio under his care and the Lady Juliana was included in the select band of the imperial sisters. The honourable office conferred on the Bourbons remained in the possession of the family until the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in the year 1737.
More detailed accounts can be found in Malcolm 1824, pp. 341, Kincaid 1908 and Kincaid 1946 (both written by Charles Augustus, William Kincaid's son), and Diver & Diver 1942, pp. 170 et seq.. The Family held the position of Governor of the Imperial Seraglio until the fall of Delhi after the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1739 when Francis II (1718-1778) moved to their principality of Shergar to be the last Raja of Shergar. He was attacked and died along most of the family by the troops of the Raja of Narwar in 1778 (General Sir John Malcolm 1823). His surviving son Salvadore II and his two sons moved to Gwalior and finally to Bhopal.
All the members of the Bourbons of Bhopal were known at the Bhopal Court by Muslim names. They were the most influential and wealthiest family in Bhopal, only after the Royal family themselves. The most prominent members of the family were Balthazar of Bourbon- Shazad Masih (1772-1829), son of Salvadore II. He became Prime Minister in 1820 until he was poisoned by Afghan nobles in 1829 and married an English lady, Isabella Johnston, the princess that French traveler Rousellet met. Their son, Sebastian of Bourbon- Mehrban Masih (1830-1878) was appointed Prime Minister (1857) to the Begums and built one of the most beautiful palaces in Bhopal, Shaukat Mahal and the Catholic Church of Bhopal, on land given by his mother Princess Isabella (died 1852). Eventually the family fell out of favour in the last two reigns.
After Indian independence, the new Indian state abolished the old jagirs (land entitlements) in 1948, and royal and noble status in 1971. Deprived of any privileges, the family joined the ranks of the working bourgeoisie. The Bourbons of Bhopal are certain that their direct ancestor Jean Phillipe was the secret son of the Constable of France and his wife Duchess Suzanne, according to family oral traditions. Though there are no records of Jean Phillipe of Bourbon in official family genealogy of the House of Bourbon, Prince Michael of Greece in his book, Le Rajah Bourbon (Michel de Grece 2007) gives a very plausible explanation to this and he does believe this branch of the Bourbons to be the eldest branch of the family. There are other different accounts of Jean de Bourbon's possible lineage. One has the Constable survive the sack of Rome and eventually marry a Mughal princess named Alaïque, Jean Philippe’s mother. Another possible candidate is a member of the Bourbon-Busset branch, reported lost at sea in 1580. though the dates do not match.
The current Head of the Bourbon-Bhopal family is Balthazar of Bourbon-Bhopal, a lawyer by profession, born on 29 July 1958. He is married to Elisha Pacheco and has three children: Frederick, Michelle, and Adrian. His mission is to preserve for history the political, cultural and religious contribution of the Bourbons of India in the subcontinent and prevent this important contribution from being relegated to a footnote in history books. On May 22, 2013, the Ambassador of France to India visited Bhopal and met with Balthazar of Bourbon at a function and in a statement declared, "It is extraordinary to have a Bourbon here today!"
Balthazar IV is the son of Salvadore de Bourbon (1917–1978), who claimed the lineage in his memoirs Les Bourbons de l'Inde (de Bourbon 2003) which was edited by Lucien Jailloux and published posthumously with a preface written by historian of India and member of L'École Française d'Extrème-Orient Jean Deloche.
Salvadore de Bourbon's work is based upon 19th century articles by people such as Claude Sosthène Grasset d'Orcet writing in La Revue britannique (d'Orcet 1892), Gabriel Ferrand writing in La Revue de Paris (Ferrand 1905), and Colonel William Kincaid's Historical sketch of the Indian Bourbon family (Kincaid 1883). The story goes that Jean Phillippe (simply "Jean de Bourbon" in some accounts), the secret son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, the so-called "Constable of Bourbon", arrived in the court of Mughal emperor Akbar in 1560, relating a tale of his journey there that included pirates, kidnapping, and an attempt to sell him in a slave market in Cairo. Prince Michael of Greece has incorporated this into a historical novel, Le Rajah Bourbon (Michel de Grèce 2007), whose publication spurred a renewed interest in this claim to the French throne. The story of the Bourbons of India is formidable by all accounts though there is not 100% certainty that they are descended from the Capetian dynasty, as they were during many generations in high positions of power and possessed great wealth. In Bhopal they were the most influential and wealthiest family, only after the Royal family themselves (Sharyar Khan).
- Times 2006a
- The Bourbons[dead link]
- Rousselet & Buckle 1875, pp. 454
- Seth 1937, pp. 94
- Seth 1937, pp. 95
- Tikekar 1992, pp. xvii, 7, and 132
- Sharyah Khan: The Begums of Bhopal
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
- Calle 2007
- Decloitre 2010
- Tharoor 2007
- Telegraph 2007a
- Chrisafis 2007
- Revise 2007
- van Kerrebrouck 2004, pp. 87–88
- DublinReview 1887, pp. 281
- "Indian lays claim to "Duke of France" title". Agence France-Presse. 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
- Calle, Marie-France (14 October 2007). "Un Indien serait en tête des héritiers au trône de France". Le Figaro (in French). France.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (3 March 2007). "Found in India: the last king of France". The Guardian. UK.
- Decloitre, Andre (2010). "Généalogie de la Maison Royale de France – Troisième branche: les Bourbons". Généalogies Royales et Princières (in French).
- "The Dublin review, Part 2". Burns and Oates. 1887.
- Revise, Nicolas (12 April 2007). "Balthazar Napoléon III, le Bourbon "made in India" se rêve en duc de France". Aujourd'hui l'Inde (in French). Agence France-Presse.
- Rousselet, Louis; Buckle, Charles Randolph (1875). India and its native princes: travels in Central India and in the presidencies of Bombay and Bengal (reprinted Asian Educational Services, 2005 ed.). London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 978-81-206-1887-9.
- Begam, Sultan Jahan (1918). Hayat-i-Qudsi: Life of the Nawab Gauhar Begum alias The Nawab Begum Qudsia of Bhopal. W. S. Davis, translator. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd.
- "Lost in France, found in India". The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. 5 March 2007a.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (8 March 2007). "The Bourbon of Bhopal". TIME.
- "France's king without a crown in India". The Taipei Times. Agence France-Presse. 10 January 2006a.
- Seth, Mesrovb Jacob (1937). "Prince John Philip Bourbon at the Court of the Great Mogul". Armenians in India: from the earliest times to the present day (republished Asian Educational Services, 1992 ed.). Calcutta. ISBN 978-81-206-0812-2.
- Tikekar, Aroon (1992). The Kincaids, two generations of a British family in the Indian civil service. Promilla & Co. ISBN 978-81-85002-13-2.
- van Kerrebrouck, Patrick (2004). La maison de Bourbon: 1256–2004. Nouvelle histoire généalogique de l'auguste maison de France (in French). 4 (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-2-9501509-5-0.
- d'Orcet, Claude Sosthène Grasset (July 1892). "Les Bourbons des Indes". La Revue britannique (in French): 5–30.
- de Bourbon, Salvadore (2003). Lucien Jailloux, ed. Les Bourbons de l'Inde: souvenirs de Salvadore de Bourbon. Mickaël Le Guen, translator. Christian. ISBN 978-2-86496-095-9.
- Desai, Bharat (15 March 1996). "House of the Bourbons: A Branch of the former French royal family lives with its glorious past and obscure present". India Today. 21 (1). Thomson Living Media India Ltd. pp. 13 et seq.
- de Warren, Raoul; de Lestrange, Aymon (1990). Les prétendants au trône de France (in French). L'Herne. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-2-85197-281-1.
- Diver, Katherine H.; Diver, Maud (1942). "Bhopal". Royal India: a descriptive and historical study of India's fifteen principal states and their rulers (republished by Ayer Publishing, 1971 ed.). Duell, Sloan, and Pearce. ISBN 978-0-8369-2152-6.
- Ferrand, Gabriel (Septembre 1905–Octobre 1905) . "Les Bourbons de l'Inde". Revue de Paris (in French): 189–202. Check date values in:
- Hamid, Razia; Sultan, Rafat (1986). "Bourbons". Nuqoosh-e-Bhopal. Bhopal: Babul Uloom.
- Khan, Shaharyar M. (2000). "The Bhopal Bourbons". The begums of Bhopal: a dynasty of women rulers in Raj India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 60–66. ISBN 978-1-86064-528-0.
- Kincaid, Charles Augustus (1908). The Tale of the Tulsi Plant and Other Stories. Bombay: The Times of India Office.
- Kincaid, Charles Augustus (1 September 1946). "Bourbons of Bhopal". Illustrated Weekly of India.
- Kincaid, William (1883). Historical Sketch of The Indian Branch of The Bourbon Family : together with a genealogical table from the time that the founder, John Philip Bourbon, landed in India. Sehore.
- Also published as: Kincaid, William (January 1887). "The Indian Bourbons". Asiatic Quarterly Review: 164–177.
- Malcolm, John (1824). A memoir of Central India. II. London: Kingsbury, Parbury & Aleen.
- Maclagan, Edward (1932). "The Indian Bourbons". The Jesuits and the Great Mogul. Burns, Oates & Washbourne.
- Rousselet, Louis (1879). Les royaumes de l'Inde (in French). Paris: Hachette. pp. 139–143.
- Rousselet, Louis (1882). Le Fils du connétable (in French). Paris: Hachette.
- Marek, Miroslav. "Jean Philippe, a courtier of the khan, 1525". Genealogy.EU.