Bhopal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation).
Bhopal
भोपाल
Metropolis
Nickname(s): City of Lakes
Bhopal is located in Madhya Pradesh
Bhopal
Bhopal
Location of Bhopal in the Central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh
Coordinates: 23°15′N 77°25′E / 23.250°N 77.417°E / 23.250; 77.417Coordinates: 23°15′N 77°25′E / 23.250°N 77.417°E / 23.250; 77.417
Country  India
State Madhya Pradesh
Region Malwa
District Bhopal
Ward 85 Wards
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Bhopal Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Alok Sharma (BJP)
 • Member of Parliament Alok Sanjar (2014 - till date)
Area[1]
 • Metropolis 463 km2 (179 sq mi)
Elevation 527 m (1,729 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Metropolis 1,798,218
 • Rank 17th
 • Density 3,887/km2 (10,070/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,886,100
 • Metro rank 20th
Demonym(s) Bhopali
Language
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode 462001 to 462XXX
Telephone 0755
Vehicle registration MP-04-XXXX
Literacy Rate 85.29%
Precipitation 1,123.1 millimetres (44.22 in)
Avg. high temperature 31.7 °C (89.1 °F)
Avg. low temperature 18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
Website www.bhopal.nic.in

Bhopal (/bˈpɑːl/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bʱoːpaːl]) is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division. The city was the capital of the former Bhopal State. Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes[3] for its various natural as well as artificial lakes and is also one of the greenest cities in India.[4] It is the 17th largest city in the country and 131st[5] in the world.

A Y-class city,[6] Bhopal houses various institutions and installations of national importance, including ISRO's Master Control Facility[7] and BHEL. Bhopal is home to the largest number of Institutes of National Importance in India, namely IISER, MANIT, SPA, AIIMS and NLIU.

The city attracted international attention in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant (now owned by Dow Chemical Company) leaked a mixture of deadly gases composed mainly of methyl isocyanate, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history. The Bhopal disaster continues to be a part of the socio-political debate and a logistical challenge for the people of Bhopal.[8]

Bhopal has been selected as one of the first twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission [9] and will be the first smart city of India in coming years.[10]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

According to folklore, Bhopal was founded in 11th century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled from his capital at Dhar. This theory states that Bhopal was originally known as Bhojpal after a dam (pal) constructed by the king's minister.[1] No archaeological evidence, inscriptions or historical texts support the claim about an earlier settlement founded by Bhoja at the same place, although the Bhojeshwar Temple ascribed to him exists at Bhojpur, which is 28 km from Bhopal. An alternative theory says that the city is named after another king called Bhupala (or Bhupal).[11][12][13]

In the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village in the Gond kingdom. The modern Bhopal city was established by Dost Mohammad Khan (1672–1728), an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army.[14] After the death of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan started providing mercenary services to local chieftains in the politically unstable Malwa region. In 1709, he took on the lease of Berasia estate and later annexed several territories in the region to establish the Bhopal State.[15] Khan received the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Kamlapati in lieu of payment for mercenary services and usurped her kingdom after her death.[16] In the 1720s, he built the Fatehgarh fort in the village, which developed into the city of Bhopal over the next few decades.

Begum era (1819-1926)[edit]

Bhopal became a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818.[17] Between 1819 and 1926, the state was ruled by four women, Begums — unique in the royalty of those days — under British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, who was succeeded by her only daughter Sikandar Begum, who in turn was succeeded by her only daughter, Shahjehan Begum. Sultan Jahan Begum was the last woman ruler who, after 25 years of rule, abdicated in favour of her son, Hamidullah Khan. The rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system, and a municipality constituted in 1907.[18]

Post independence[edit]

Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state: the first being Hyderabad. After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arrest of prominent leaders including Shankar Dayal Sharma. Later, the political detainees were released, and the Nawab signed the agreement for Bhopal's merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949.[19] The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Government of India on 1 June 1949. Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan were accommodated in Bairagarh, a western suburb of Bhopal (now renamed to Sant Hirdaram Nagar). According to the States Reorganization Act of 1956, Bhopal state was integrated into the state of Madhya Pradesh, and Bhopal was declared as its capital. The population of the city rose rapidly thereafter.[citation needed]

Bhopal disaster[edit]

Main article: Bhopal disaster

On 3 December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date. The official death toll was initially recorded around 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh government report stated 3,787 deaths, while other estimates state the fatalities were significantly higher (16,000) from the accident and the medical complications caused by the accident in the weeks and years that followed. The higher estimates have been challenged.[20][21] The impact of the disaster continues to this day in terms of psychological and neurological disabilities, blindness, skin, vision, breathing, and birth disorders.[22][23][24] The soil and ground water near the factory site have been contaminated by the toxic wastes.[24][25] The Bhopal disaster continues to be the part of the socio-political debate; the clean-up of environmental contamination and rehabilitation of those affected continues to challenge the people of Bhopal.[8] December 3 is annually observed as the official day of mourning, and every year, all government offices in Bhopal remain closed on this day. For a detailed report by Dr. Varadarajan and CSIR scientists on Bhopal disaster, see also [26]

Geography[edit]

A view of upper lake, part of the city and the hilly Vindhya terrain.

Bhopal has an average elevation of 500 metres (1401 ft). Bhopal is located in the central part of India, and is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. The city has uneven elevation and has small hills within its boundaries. The prominent hills in Bhopal are Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region, Katara hills in southern region. City's geography has in it two lakes namely upper lake and lower lake.

Bhopal
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
13
 
 
24
9
 
 
7.8
 
 
28
11
 
 
7.2
 
 
34
17
 
 
4.5
 
 
38
22
 
 
8
 
 
41
26
 
 
114
 
 
37
25
 
 
356
 
 
31
23
 
 
388
 
 
29
22
 
 
196
 
 
31
21
 
 
26
 
 
32
18
 
 
14
 
 
29
12
 
 
12
 
 
25
10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

It has two big lakes, collectively known as the Bhoj Wetland. These lakes are the Upper Lake (now renamed to Bhojtal) and the Lower Lake. Locally these are known as the Bada Talab (literally, big lake) and Chota Talab (literally, small lake) respectively. The Upper Lake drains into the Kolar River. The Van Vihar National Park is a national park situated besides the Upper Lake.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with cool, dry winters, a hot summer and a humid monsoon season. Summers start in late March and go on till mid-June, the average temperature being around 30 °C (86 °F), with the peak of summer in May, when the highs regularly exceed 40 °C (104 °F). The monsoon starts in late June and ends in late September. These months see about 40 inches (1020 mm) of precipitation, frequent thunderstorms and flooding. The average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is quite high. Temperatures rise again up to late October when winter starts, which lasts up to early March. Winters in Bhopal are cool, sunny and comfortable, with average daily temperatures around 16 °C (61 °F) and little or no rain. The winter peaks in January when temperatures may drop close to freezing on some nights. Lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.3C. Total annual rainfall is about 1146 mm (46 inches).

Climate data for Bhopal
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.0
(91.4)
37.6
(99.7)
40.7
(105.3)
44.4
(111.9)
46.0
(114.8)
45.6
(114.1)
41.2
(106.2)
35.6
(96.1)
37.4
(99.3)
39.6
(103.3)
35.3
(95.5)
32.8
(91)
46
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
28.3
(82.9)
33.5
(92.3)
38.3
(100.9)
40.7
(105.3)
37.2
(99)
30.7
(87.3)
28.9
(84)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
28.9
(84)
26.0
(78.8)
31.7
(89.1)
Average low °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
12.4
(54.3)
17.1
(62.8)
21.8
(71.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
21.6
(70.9)
18.5
(65.3)
14.2
(57.6)
10.9
(51.6)
18.6
(65.5)
Record low °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
1.7
(35.1)
6.1
(43)
12.2
(54)
16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
16.8
(62.2)
13.8
(56.8)
11.7
(53.1)
6.1
(43)
1.0
(33.8)
0.6
(33.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.2
(0.52)
8.7
(0.343)
8.4
(0.331)
4.3
(0.169)
11.7
(0.461)
120.2
(4.732)
354.1
(13.941)
363.3
(14.303)
185.1
(7.287)
31.0
(1.22)
12.1
(0.476)
11.0
(0.433)
1,123.1
(44.216)
Source: [27][28]

Demographics[edit]

Religion in Bhopal[29]
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
71%
Muslims
  
27%
Jains
  
1.2%
Christians
  
1.1%
Buddhists
  
1.1%
Others†
  
0.6%
Population % by religion; †Includes Sikhs

According to the 2011 census, the population of the Bhopal city (the area under Bhopal Municipal Corporation) is 1,798,218, with 936,168 males and 862,050 females. The population of the Bhopal metropolitan area (the urban agglomeration that extends beyond Bhopal city) was 1,886,100 in 2011.[30] The total effective literacy rate (for population aged 7+ years) was 85.24%, with male and female literacy respectively at 89.2% and 80.1%.[1]

Out of Bhopal's total population, 1.25 million were Hindus (71%), 0.5 million or 500,000 were Muslims (27%), and rest were Jains, Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs and others.[29]

Almost all the people of Bhopal speak Hindi. But, on the other hand, pure Hindi is not spoken always; instead, the language spoken by common people is rather mingled with massive Urdu vocabulary. Therefore, Hindustani is more common than pure Hindi. However, amongst 0.5m Muslims, bilingualism is often found, the actual native language of Muslims is solely Urdu, but they regard themselves as native Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani speakers

Most of the Christians in Bhopal are from Kerala and tribals of Madhya Pradesh .But there are some remaining descendants of French nobility, who settled in India to escape wrath of commoner during the French revolution

Cityscape[edit]

Nature[edit]

Lower Lake in Bhopal - a city of lakes

Lower Lake - The lake was created in 1794 to beautify the city situated between massive upper lake and the majestic hills, the Lower Lake also called as Chota Talaab. The upper and lower lakes are separated by means of an over bridge. Surrounded by Kamala Garden and filled with a multitude of adventure activities like sailing, boat rides and paddle boating. It is due to these two lakes that Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes.

Bhojtal - formerly known as Upper Lake, is a large lake which lies on the western side of the city with a small island called Shah Ali Shah Island. The lake was created after the Lower Lake since the population of the city increased. It is a major source of drinking water for the residents of the city. Along with the nearby Chhota Talaab, meaning small lake in Hindi, Bhojtal constitutes the so-called Bhoj Wetland. The lake was created by constructing an earthen dam across the Kolans River. An eleven gate dam called the Bhadbhada dam was constructed at Bhadbhada in 1965 at the southeast corner of the Lake, and now controls the outflow to the river Kaliasote. The lake was called Upper Lake or Bada Talab ("Big Pond") until March 2011, and thereafter it was officially renamed as Bhojtaal. A statue of Raja Bhoj was also installed on a pillar on one corner of the lake.[citation needed]

About 10 kilometres from the city is Hathaikheda, a place for water and fishing sports.

Bhimbetka pre-historic rock cave painting near Bhopal include 500 sandstone caves and shelters. These are dated to range from 12,000 years ago to chalcolithic era of human history. They are a UNESCO World Heritage site.[31]

History[edit]

Bhimbetka Caves are about 35 kilometres from Bhopal city. They have evidence of dwellings of pre-historic man during the Paleolithic era. Rock paintings in the caves are specimens of pre-historic settlements in India. There are about 600 caves, but only 12 are open for visitors. The caves are located in the midst of sal and teak forests. They were discovered by Wakankar in 1957. UNESCO declared Bhimbetka Caves as a World Heritage Site in 2003.[32]

Monuments[edit]

Taj-ul-Masajid, which literally means "The Crown of Mosques", is the largest mosque in Bhopal.[citation needed] The mosque is also used as a madrasah (Islamic school) during the day time."Taj-ul-Masajid". The mosque features Mughal architecture. The Jama Masjid of Bhopal, built in 1837, has an inner sanctum built out of marble. The Moti Masjid or the Mosque of Pearls is situated in the centre of Bhopal. The Moti Masjid was built in 1860 by Sikandar Begum, and became an important landmark of Bhopal. Sikandar Begum's practice of dressing like a man and public appearances without a veil, led Bhopal to be known for its relatively liberated, progressive women.[citation needed] A palace known as Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan Begum, is located beside the mosque.[33]

Taj-ul-Masajid

Shaukat Mahal and Sadar Manzil are located in the walled city. Designed by a Frenchman, Shaukat Mahal reflects a fusion of post-Renaissance and Gothic styles to Islamic architecture. Gohar Mahal, is situated behind Shaukat Mahal on the banks of the Upper Lake. It was built in 1820. The Mahal is an expression of the fusion of Hindu and Mughal architecture.[citation needed]

Lakshmi Narayan Temple is situated to the south of the Lower Lake, is a temple devoted to Vishnu and his consort Laxmi. It is also called Birla Mandir. Bud Wale Mahadev or Bad Wale Mahadev is a historic temple located in the centre of the city. It is located in Old Kabadkhana adjacent to Peergate. In this temple the shivling is emerged on a 'Bud Tree' (Banyan Tree) that is why it is called Bud Wale Mahadev. Every year on the occasion of Mahashivratri a huge procession is arranged in which is called as 'Shiv Baarat'. In this procession Lord Shiva is remarried to Maa Parvati at Peergate. Gufa Mandir is a temple is located near Lalghati. A Sanskrit college is also located in the campus. Khatlapura Mandir is a Shri Ram temple is situated near lower lake. It was built in the 19th century. It features many Hindu deities and a fare is held every year on Dol-Gyaras.[citation needed]

Stupa at Sanchi, another UNESCO world heritage site near Bhopal

Sanchi Stupa Bhopal is about 50 kilometres from city centre and it displays Bhopal's place in history from the times of Emperor Ashoka. The place is one of the oldest stone structures of India and it edifies Buddhism in India over 2000 years.[34] Other attractions such as Islamnagar, Kerwa, Raisen are points of interest are also located within 50 kilometre drive from Bhopal.[citation needed]

Activity centres[edit]

A leopard in Van Vihar, Bhopal

Regional Science Center is a science museum located on the picturesque Shyamala Hills. This centre houses about 300 science exhibits in ‘Invention’ and ‘Fun Science’ galleries. ‘Taramandal’ and Planetarium at the centre helps the students and enthusiasts study the astral and mysterious world of stars, galaxies and the universe. Stargazing sessions are organised at the planetarium for those who want to have a real close view of these luminous bodies.

Fish Aquarium is situated near Raj-Bhavan and old assembly hall. Covering one hectare area, the fish house is built in fish like structure. Van Vihar is the city's zoo, and is located on a hill near to upper lake in natural surroundings. Spread over an area of 445 hectares, it features birds and wildlife.

The Museum of Mankind in Bhopal exhibits tribal and folk houses from all corners of India.[35]

Parks[edit]

  • Chinar park - This park counts among the most famous park in Bhopal. Well known as lovers park, Chinar park has animals figurines made from scrap parts of automobiles or machines. Well planned and spacious it has well carved out lawns and flower beds.
  • Kamla Nehru park - The Kamala Nehru Park is one of the Land marks of BHEL, Maharatna Company, township. It has a PLay zone for kids and even teens. Besides comfortable sitouts for veterans with an inhouse restaurant serving snacks. The prototype Lakshman Jhoola , statues of yesteryears Political leaders responsible in making INDIA independent Nation, toy train , play ground and lots more are worth adventuring.
Crocodile spotted at Van Vihar National park
  • Sair Sapata - Sair Sapata is a tourism and entertainment complex situated on the banks of the Upper Lake in Bhopal. Developed by the Madhya Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation, it is spread over an area of 24.56 acres, and was inaugurated on 29 September 2011 by State Chief Minister. Sair-Sapata, has attractions like suspension bridge on Prempura Ghat, musical fountain, children’s toy train, glass viewpoint, food zone and restaurant, boat club & children’s play area, natural trail and pathway, lighting, landscaping, ticket plaza, entry gate and neon signage etc.
  • Van Vihar National Park - Declared a national park in 1983, it covers an area of about 4.45 km2. Although it has the status of a national park, Van Vihar is developed and managed as a modern zoological park, following the guidelines of the Central Zoo Authority. The animals are kept in their near natural habitat. Most of the animals are either orphaned brought from various parts of the state or those, which are exchanged from other zoos. No animal is deliberately captured from the forest. Van Vihar is unique because it allows easy access to the visitors through a road passing through the park, security of animals assured from poachers by building trenches and walls, chain-link fence and by providing natural habitat to the animals.

Malls[edit]

  • DB City Mall:- DB City Mall DB mall is a part of Bhaskar group and its ventures. It has three basements and three on-floor parking lots managed by Central Parking Services. It spans over 125,000 square metres (1,350,000 sq ft) in area. It is largest shopping mall in Central India.

It has many clothing outlets including iNSPiRE Apple Premium Reseller, Fun Cinemas, Shoppers Stop, HyperCity, McDonald's, Domino's Pizza, Pantaloons, Amer Bakery Hut, Big Life, Nike, PUMA, Adidas, Reebok, Max, The Chocolate Room, Westside, Amoeba, John Players, Spykar, World Of Titan, Levi Strauss, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway Restaurant and many more. It also has three-floor Courtyard-Marriott hotel and Audi showroom in its ground floor. DB city has been an important place for several promotional events in the recent years. Many Bollywood stars namely Shahrukh Khan who visited Bhopal have been here.

  • Century 21 Mall:- Century 21 (C21 Mall), is located about 4 km from the Aashima Mall at Hoshangabad Road in NH-12. It spans over 750,000 sq ft in area, the second largest mall in Bhopal. The mall houses various showrooms, INOX Cinema, Food Zones, Retail Zone, and other accessories. It also houses the first and the only Snow Park (Mastiii Zone Snow Play) in central India till date.[36]
  • Aashima Mall:- Aashima Mall, is located at Hoshangabad Road in NH-12, about 10 km from the city centre. It is part of the prominent ARK group, the leading real estate developers of central India. This world class mall offers a superb amalgamation of entertainment and shopping facilities to the shoppers and commuters. It spans over 600,000 sq ft in area. The mall houses about 110 showrooms, 5,000 sq ft atrium, 7-screen Multiplex with approx. 1,500 seats (biggest in M.P.), 4 anchors, hypermarket (fruits, vegetables, cereals, various household items, gadgets, apparel etc.), Entertainment Zone (games, Gym, Spa and Club), Food Zones, Retail Zone, Wedding Arcade (Wedding Dress material for brides and grooms, golden jewellery, diamond jewellery, artificial jewellery, and other accessories), etc.

Culture[edit]

Bharat Bhavan is the main cultural centre of the city. It has an art gallery, an open-air amphitheatre facing the Upper Lake, two other theatres and a tribal museum.

Bharat Bhavan Bhopal

Diwali and Eid are major festivals in Bhopal. Gifts and sweets are exchanged and donation are made to the poor. Diwali is celebrated by worshiping the wealth goddess Lakshmi. Eid is special to the city as all the Hindus take time out to visit their Muslim friends and greet them and get treated with delicacies, the speciality of the day being sweet sewaiya. Bhopali culture is such that both Hindus and Muslims visit each other on their respective festivals to greet and exchange sweets. During Ganesh puja and Durga Puja (Navratras), idols of Ganesh and Durga are established in jhankis throughout the city. People throng to offer prayers to their deities. At the end of Navratras, on the day of Vijayadashami (or Dussehra), huge effigies of Ravan are burnt in different parts of the city. Some of them are organised by the local administration and stand as tall as 60 feet (18 m).

Bhopal Ijtema is an annual Muslim world preachers congregation, is held at Ghasipura 11 km from Bhopal. The congregation is said to be one of the largest Islamic gathering other than Hajj at Mecca in Saudi Arabia and "Bishwa Ijtima" at Tongi in Bangladesh. The annual congregation near Bhopal draws between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Muslims from all over the globe.[37]

Rabari house is one of the cultural displays at IGRMS under Indian government's Ministry of Culture.

The Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS), an autonomous organisation of Govt. of India, Ministry of Culture is dedicated to the depiction of story of mankind in time and space. The Sangrahalaya is involved in generating a new museum movement in India, with open, freewheeling, flexible plan, to demonstrate the simultaneous validity of human cultures and the plurality of alternatives for human articulation. The innovative aspects of the Organisation are its open air and indoor exhibitions, built with active involvement of traditional artisans and experts drawn from different community groups, and the Education, Outreach and Salvage activities for revitalisatin of vanishing but valuable cultural traditions. The headquarters of the IGRMS is located in Bhopal (M.P.) while a regional centre is functioning from Heritage building Wellington House, Mysore (Karnataka). It showcases the tribal culture of various regions and various examples of tribal art and architecture. Every year in January/February, it hosts potters' workshops, folk music and dance events and open-air plays. Tribals also demonstrate their skills in painting, weaving, and the fashioning of bell metal into works of art.

Many notable and eminent personalities from Bhopal include Javed Akthar, Jaya Pradha,Jaya Bacchhan, Saif Ali khan and Soha Ali Khan

The main protagonist of online novel series Kurnehims, Yohan is also from Bhopal

Cuisine[edit]

Bhopali dishes and food in Bhopal are comparatively mild, less spicy and unique in taste. Food offered here in Bhopal is a real delight for those who call themselves foodie. Due to a large number of Muslims and Hindus living here, the cuisine of Bhopal is greatly influenced by both Muslim and Hindu culture. The cuisine of Bhopal includes some of the very delicious vegetarian dishes along with exotic and rich non-vegetarian dishes too. Local and individual variations of various popular snacks and foods can be found selling around the city. Bhopali food has a large variety of non-vegetarian dishes, including Bhopali Murgh Rezala, Paneer Rezala, Bhopali Gosht Korma, Murgh Hara Masala Rice and Murgh Nizami.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

The major industries in the old city are electrical goods, medicinal, cotton, chemicals and jewellery. Other industries include cotton and flour milling, cloth weaving and painting, as well as making matches, sealing wax, and sporting equipment.[38] The residents of Bhopal also engage in large retail businesses. Handicrafts, like zardozi and batua (a small string purse, usually used with Indian traditional dresses) are some of the products of the Old City.[39] In addition, there are also a large number of garages in the Old City which specialise in automobile conversion. These garages produce custom-modified and tuned cars, SUVs and motorbikes.[citation needed]

Bhopal is also home to the DB Corp, informally called the Bhaskar Group (after its major publication Dainik Bhaskar), a Rs. 1700 crore (Rs. 17 billion) business conglomerate with strong presence in media. Its head office is located in Maharana Pratap Nagar. Manjul Publishing House, located in the old city, is a major publishing house made famous by the translation of the Harry Potter series of novels into Hindi.[40]

Industries[edit]

  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal. It occupies a large area in the Eastern Part of the city and maintains a suburb named after it. A majority of the residents of the BHEL Suburb are employed by the unit.
  • Mandideep is an industrial suburb of Bhopal. It is located to the south of the city on the NH 12.[41] Mandideep's total exports are worth some 2,300 crore rupees ($500m; £300m) per year, making it the largest industrial area in Madhya Pradesh. The town is home to Hindustan Electo Graphite (HEG), owning the largest graphite electrode plant in the world and is the largest industrial company in the entire state. Hindustan Electro Graphite (HEG) and Lupin Laboratories ltd. are the dominant companies in the suburb, each exports worth around 900 crore rupees.[42] Apart from that, Mandideep also houses the manufacturing plant of Makson group of company, Eicher Tractors for the oldest tractor manufacturers in India.
  • The Govindpura industrial area has 1044 small- and medium-scale industries involved in various kinds of production activities.

Information technology[edit]

The Madhya Pradesh government is setting up IT Park and Electronic Manufacturing Clusters (EMC) at Bhopal in a move aimed at generating direct and indirect employment for almost 60,000 people. The IT Park and EMC in Bhopal will come up at Badwai on 212 acres of land.

Education[edit]

Basic education[edit]

National Law Institute University

Bhopal has more than 550 state-sponsored schools, which are affiliated to the Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education (MPBSE). In addition, there are five Kendriya Vidyalayas in the city, affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The city is also served by numerous other private schools affiliated to either CBSE or MPBSE.

Some schools are also affiliated to National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and ICSE Board, Institution Of Secondary Distance Education (ISDE) or Private Non-Governmental Board of School Education.

Higher education[edit]

IIFM arc

The Bhopal is the home of many universities. The universities headquartered in the city include

No. Institute Founded
1 Barkatullah University 1970
2 Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University 1991
3 National Law Institute University 1997
4 Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya 1998
5 Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and Communication 2015

Government and national institutes[edit]

  • Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), established in 1960, is the oldest institute for technology education in the city. University Institute of Technology (formerly Government Engineering College), established in 1986, is the second oldest engineering college in the city. There are several other public and private engineering schools (numbering almost 200) located in and around the city.
  • Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, established in 1955, is among the oldest medical college in Madhya Pradesh and was established in 1955. Autonomous body(since 1997), Controlled by Gandhi Medical College Society, Department of Medical Education, Government of Madhya Pradesh. Hospitals affiliated to it are Hamidia Hospital, Kamla Nehru Hospital, Sultania Zanana Hospital.
RGPV Main Building

IISER, MANIT, SPA and AIIMS are categorised by the Government of India as Institutes of National Importance.

Civic Administration[edit]

Bhopal Municipal Corporation is the urban civic body which oversees the needs of Bhopal city. The municipal corporation is spread over an area of 285.88 km2 (110.38 sq mi).[1] The city is divided into 85 wards. Each ward elects a corporator. The winning party elects a council of members, who are responsible for various departments. The council members chose the Mayor among themselves. At present, there are ten members in the council. The Commissioner of Bhopal is the highest officer of municipal corporation, responsible for the departments of public works, revenue and tax, water supply, planning and development, fire brigade, health and sanitation, finance and accounts etc.

Bhopal Municipal Corporation was ranked 3rd out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014.[44] It scored 3.7 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[45] The present mayor of the city is Alok Sharma.[46] Chhavi Bhardwaj is the municipal commissioner of the city.[47]

Government and politics[edit]

It houses the State Legislative Assembly, or the Vidhan Sabha, which seats 230 members of Legislative Assembly. The thirteenth (and current) Vidhan Sabha was elected in May 2013.[48] As of February 2016, the party in the majority in Vidhan Sabha is Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) with 166 seats[49] which is led by Shivraj Singh Chauhan. Bhopal district elects seven seats to the Assembly.

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

Main article: Bhopal Airport

The Raja Bhoj International Airport is located near the satellite suburb Bairagarh is the primary airport serving Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.[50]

There are three routes or ways to reach the airport: (1) Via Bairagarh, (2) Via Panchvati, (3) Via Gandhi nagar road (N.H 12). From within the city, VIP road, a four lane road connects with the airport. Bhopal Airport is the international airport of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and lies 15 km to the north of the city. International flights began operations in 2010. Domestic direct flight services operate from Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Air India. As of July 2016, Bhopal has non-stop flights to New Delhi, Mumbai, Jabalpur and Raipur and direct flights to Pune and Hyderabad.[51]

In 2013, the airport become the first airport in the state to use solar power for running its utility grid system. 100-kilowatt solar power plant was made operational in June 2013, with plans to install a 2 megawatt solar power plant at the airport in the future. The airport has night landing facilities, an Instrument Landing System (ILS) and CAT VII fire services.

Rail[edit]

Bhopal lies in the West Central Railway Zone. Considering both North-South and East-West train routes, it is one of the most rail connected cities in India which halts more than 200 daily trains, with a total of more than 380 trains within a week. The main stations of Bhopal are the Bhopal Junction station located in old Bhopal as well as Bhopal Habibganj station located in new Bhopal. Both of the stations are equipped with WiFi, has enough waiting halls, refreshment center, passenger ticket counter and ticket vending machines, vehicle parking, communication facility, sanitary facility and dedicated Government Railway Police force to ensure security. Altogether the city has six railway stations within its city limits.

The Bhopal Junction station as well as Bhopal Habibganj station are selected along with 47 other railway stations to emerge as The World Class Railway Station. While the work has already started on development of Bhopal Habibganj as the first world class railway station of India.[52] The Bhopal Junction and Bhopal Habibganj have already received ISO 9001:2000 CERTIFICATE.

Bhopal railway stations with their station code and details:

Station name Station code Railway zone Total platforms
Bhopal Junction BPL West Central Railway 6
Bhopal Habibganj HBJ West Central Railway 5
Bhopal Bairagarh BIH Western Railway 2
Bhopal Misrod MSD West Central Railway 2
Bhopal Sukhisewania BSSN West Central Railway 3
Bhopal Mandideep MDP West Central Railway 2

The Bhopal Junction station houses the Divisional Railway Managers (DRM) head office under Central railways.

Roads and Highways[edit]

Bhopal VIP road

National Highway No.12 passes through Bhopal which connects it to Jabalpur in the East and Jaipur in the West. National Highway 86 connects Bhopal to Sagar in the East to Dewas in the West. State Highway 17 connects the city with Indore. Apart from the long distance services, there are many services to nearby places within the state. There are number of daily buses to Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Khajuraho, Sanchi, Pachmarhi, Vidisha and Berasia in Madhya Pradesh. There are also daily buses to Ahmedabad, Jodhpur, Kota, Nagpur, Jaipur, Shirdi, Pune, Akola, Amravati, Jalgaon, Vadodara, Surat and Nashik. Recently private bus services started to Mumbai as well. An interstate bus terminus is located near the Habibganj railway station,[53] called the Kushabhau Thakre Inter State Bus Terminal which was inaugurated in 2011.[54]

Public transport[edit]

Bhopal has been a railroad and highway transportation hub for a long time. Metro or Radio Taxi and auto-rickshaws are another major means of transport. In some parts in the old as well as new city, the new Tata Magic Vans are running successfully and have replaced the older and bigger diesel rickshaws — known as "Bhat" in year 2010. In addition, around 600 mini-buses are run by private operators.

Bhopal BRTS[edit]

Bhopal has Bus Rapid Transit System, which became functional from the year 2013. Bhopal City Link Limited (BCLL) is responsible to connect the whole City by a well planned bus network. The company has identified 4 trunk and 8 standard routes in the city on which 225 buses would be operated daily (365 a day in a year), from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. 82 Bus Stops are built along the 24 km long corridor. These Bus-Stops have Display-Boards with the information of incoming Buses and siting arrangements has been made for the passengers. A 2-door system will help safe ride for the passengers, where one door will open only when the Bus arrives and another door will open only if the person carries a valid ticket.[55]

Metro Rail[edit]

A metro rail project is under implementation for the city and expected date is 2020.[56]

Media[edit]

Electronic[edit]

DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, BHOPAL (TECHNICAL BRIEF) Latitude Co-ordinates 23 14’25” (North) Longitude Co-ordinates 77 23’20” (East) Main Sea Level 550 m. Antenna height 110 m. Effective height of the antenna above sea level 660 m. Peak power (Both DD-I & DD-II) 10 KW each. Black power 06 KW each. Antenna gain Art Direction 12.3 Db wide band, Jampro Antenna.

Bhopal has its own Radio and Television stations (All India Radio and Doordarshan respectively). It has 6 Radio stations i.e Radio Popcorn (90.4), BIG FM (92.7), Red FM (93.5), My FM (94.3), Radio Mirchi (98.3), and Vividh Bharti (FM 103.5). Government-run FM channels are AIR Vividh Bharati, Gyan Vani. Local Television and internet media networks include Digi Networks, ITDC India and BTV (Bhaskar TV). Besides, three regional satellite channels operate from Bhopal, namely ETV Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh, Sahara Madhya Pradesh and Sadhana News.

Print[edit]

Various Hindi and English newspapers are published from Bhopal. Bhopal This Week, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Pioneer (Indian newspaper), Youth Engine, The Hitavada, etc. are the main English dailies and weekly published from the city while Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Raj Express, nazare hind, Nava Bharat, Nai Dunia, Dainik Jagran,BPN Times, Peoples Samachar, rastra ka hawhan, sandhya prakash etc. are the main Hindi dailies published from here.

Sports and recreation[edit]

Bhopal has got very significant value in the field of sports and personality development of youth through various sports games. Apart from cricket, hockey and football are significantly in the city.

Directorate Sports and Youth Welfare is established by state government of Madhya Pradesh entitled for the development in the field of sports and youth welfare located in Bhopal.

Teams[edit]

Bhopal Badshahs is hockey team based in Bhopal that plays in World Series Hockey. The team is captained by Indian hockey player Sameer Dad and coached by Vasudevan Bhaskaran who was the captain of India's Olympic victory in 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Badshahs defeated Chandigarh Comets in the inaugural match of 2012 World Series Hockey 4-3. Aishbagh Stadium in Bhopal is the home ground of Bhopal Badshahs. Dainik Bhaskar is the global partner for Bhopal Badshahs.

Stadiums[edit]

  • Aishbagh Stadium is a field hockey stadium in Bhopal. It has a seating capacity of more than 10,000 people. In 2009, a newly laid poly grass and flood light system was unveiled at the stadium. It is the home venue for the World Series Hockey team, Bhopal Badshahs. The Obaidullah Gold Cup hockey tournament is the major International tournament organise every year.
  • Barkatullah University Stadium is a projected cricket stadium for the city. In March 2013, Director, physical education of the Barkatullah University, Akhilesh Sharma declared that Bhopal will get a state-of-the art international cricket stadium.[1] The stadium will be located in 35 to 40 acre of land with 440 meter of pavilion, 75 meter boundary with ten wickets and parking space of 50,000 vehicles in the ground.
  • TT Nagar Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium is Bhopal. The stadium is the base of Madhya Pradesh State Men's Hockey Academy, Madhya Pradesh State Equestrian Academy, Madhya Pradesh State Shooting Academy, Madhya Pradesh State Water Sports Academy and DSYW Academy.

Notable people from Bhopal[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "District Census Handbook - Bhopal" (PDF). Census of India. p. 14,26. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "Bhopal District Census Handbook" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  3. ^ Educational Britannica Educational (1 July 2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. Retrieved 15 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Green (28 January 2010). "MSN's 8 green cities of India – 7 – Green News – Article – MSN India". Green.in.msn.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  5. ^ "The world's largest cities". City Mayors. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  6. ^ http://finmin.nic.in/the_ministry/dept_expenditure/miscellaneous/hracca.pdf
  7. ^ "ISRO Master Control Facility". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  8. ^ a b Government braces for disposal of Carbide waste at Pithampur The Times of India, 21 May 2014
  9. ^ http://www.firstpost.com/business/why-only-98-cities-instead-of-100-announced-all-questions-answered-about-smart-cities-project-2410576.html
  10. ^ http://www.patrika.com/news/bhopal/smart-city-project-in-bhopal-1333345/
  11. ^ Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya (1977). Historical Geography of Madhya Pradesh from Early Records. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-8426-9091-1. 
  12. ^ CPI joins campaign against naming Bhopal as Bhojpal. Daily Bhaskar, 16 March 2011.
  13. ^ Ashfaq Ali (1981). Bhopal, Past and Present. Jai Bharat. p. xxix. 
  14. ^ John Falconer, James Waterhouse (2009). The Waterhouse albums: central Indian provinces. Mapin. ISBN 978-81-89995-30-0. 
  15. ^ Khan 2000, p. 11.
  16. ^ Kamla Mittal (1990). History of Bhopal State. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 2. OCLC 551527788. 
  17. ^ Khan 2000, p. 68.
  18. ^ "BMC History". 15 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-12. 
  19. ^ S.R. Bakshi and O.P. Ralhan (2007). Madhya Pradesh Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. p. 360. ISBN 978-81-7625-806-7. 
  20. ^ Eckerman, Ingrid (2005). The Bhopal Saga—Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster. India: Universities Press. ISBN 81-7371-515-7. 
  21. ^ Carol Wood, The Bhopal Saga: Causes and Consequences of the World’s Largest Industrial Disaster, Environ Health Perspect., May 2005; 113(5): A344
  22. ^ ALTAF QADRI (3 December 2009). "Victims of Bhopal Mark Anniversary". Time. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. 
  23. ^ Lakhani, Nina (29 November 2009). "Bhopal: The victims are still being born". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  24. ^ a b "Bhopal marks 25 years since gas leak devastation". BBC News. 3 December 2009. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  25. ^ "Subterranean Leak". Archived from the original on 2010-04-18. 
  26. ^ https://bhopalgasdisaster.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/csir-report-on-scientific-studies-december-1985.pdf
  27. ^ "Bhopal Climatological Table 1949–2000" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  28. ^ "Extremes of India" (PDF). Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  29. ^ a b Baseline Survey of Bhopal District, Madhya Pradesh Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India (2012)
  30. ^ "Presentation on Towns and Urban Agglomerations". Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2016-03-13. 
  31. ^ Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka UNESCO
  32. ^ "Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka". World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  33. ^ Shahnawaz Akhtar (9 December 2012). "Eighth wonder? Bhopal too has a Taj Mahal!". Deccan Herald. 
  34. ^ Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh), Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation, World Art Treasures; Monuments at Sanchi (UNESCO World Heritage)
  35. ^ A House of Tribal Tradition- Bhopal India Today
  36. ^ http://www.patrika.com/news/bhopal/bhopal-take-a-look-in-snow-park-like-switzerland-1334564/
  37. ^ Bhopal, Ijtema. "Ijtema". 
  38. ^ "Bhopal industries". Retrieved 2007-04-10. 
  39. ^ "Zari and Batua". Archived from the original on 6 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  40. ^ Kumar Shakti Shekhar (10 July 2005). "Chamber of Secrets translated into Hindi". NDTV. Bhopal. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  41. ^ "Association of Industries - MANDIDEEP". mandideep.com. 
  42. ^ Madslien, Jorn (2 December 2009). "Industrial success fails to lift Bhopal". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  43. ^ "Three more IITs, two IISc to come up". Economic Times. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  44. ^ Home - Bhopal Municipal Corporation
  45. ^ Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). http://janaagraha.org/. Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Retrieved 6 March 2015.  External link in |website= (help)
  46. ^ "Bhopal Mayor". Bhopal Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 31 October 2015. 
  47. ^ Anil Gupta (6 April 2016). "तेजस्विनी नायक की विदाई, छवि भारद्वाज BMC की नई कमिश्नर, देखें लिस्ट". Bhaskar (in Hindi). 
  48. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha". Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  49. ^ "MP: BJP’s Narayan Tripathi wins Maihar bypoll". Retrieved 2016-07-18. 
  50. ^ "Indore, Bhopal to have international connectivity soon". ZeeNews.com. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  51. ^ "Air India to run flights from Bhopal to Pune, Hyderabad". indiatoday.intoday.com. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-20. 
  52. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-will-soon-have-world-class-railway-stations-railway-ministry/1/703264.html
  53. ^ "Interstare Bus Terminus". Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  54. ^ "ISBT starts services, passengers face inconvenience". Daily Pioneer. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  55. ^ "BRTS in Bhopal to be completed by Feb 2011, says Gaur". ZeeNews.com. 30 March 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  56. ^ "Bhopal, Indore to have Metro Rail soon". Thaindian News. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sinha, Indra (2007). Animal's People. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-7878-9. 
  • Lapierre, Dominique (2002). Five Past Midnight in Bhopal. Warner Books. ISBN 0-7432-2035-8. 
  • Khan, Shaharyar (2000). Begums of Bhopal, A Dynasty of Women Rulers in Raj India (illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-528-0. 
  • Singh, J.P. (1998). City Planning in India: A Study of Land Use of Bhopal. Mittal Publications, India. ISBN 81-7099-705-4. 
  • Shrivastava, Paul (1987). Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis. Paul Chapman, London. 
  • Howgh, William (2006). A Brief History Of The Bhopal Principality In Central India. Hesperides Press. ISBN 1-4067-1225-6. 
  • Mittal, Kamal (1990). History of Bhopal State: Development of Constitution, Administration and National Awakening, 1901–1949. South Asia Books. ISBN 99903-0-915-9. 
  • D'Silva, Themistocles (2006). The Black Box of Bhopal. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-8412-1. 

External links[edit]