Bruce's Beach was a small beach resort in the city of Manhattan Beach, California, that was owned by and operated for African Americans. It provided the African American community with opportunities unavailable at other beach areas because of segregation.
As a result of racial friction from disgruntled white neighbors, the property was seized using eminent domain proceedings in the 1920s and closed down. Some of the area was eventually turned into a city park in the 1960s and renamed Bruce's Beach in 2007.
George H. Peck (1856–1940), a wealthy developer and the founder of Manhattan Beach, "bucked" the practice of racial exclusion and set aside two city blocks of beachfront area and made them available for purchase by African Americans. Peck also developed "Peck's Pier," the only pier in the area open to African Americans.
Willa and Charles Bruce bought a property in the strand area for $1,225 that was set aside from Henry Willard in 1912, and added on three lots. They established a resort and named it for Mrs. Bruce.
The development included a bathhouse and dining house for blacks, whose access to public beaches was highly restricted. That a black-only beach resort would open up there was all the more notable because Manhattan Beach was "an otherwise lily-white community" and blacks only had limited access to beaches; Mrs. Bruce's initiative "defiantly transgressed these racial boundaries." It was not the only beach attraction available to blacks; there was also Peck's Pier and pavilion on 34th Street, a section of Santa Monica State Beach referred to as the "Ink Well", and the Pacific Beach Club in Orange County. As Los Angeles's population increased and property values soared in the 1920s, blacks in the area suffered from increased racial tension, before eminent domain proceedings started by the city forced the club to close down.
Bruce's Beach modern history
In 1920s the resort was attacked by the Ku Klux Klan in an attempt to get the city to take back the land from the rightful owners, Bruce family. Under the pretense of building a city park, the city of Manhattan Beach did take the land away from the Bruce family, and African Americans were run off the land. It was not until 2007, practically eighty years later, that this traversity was acknowledged by the city and the beach was renamed Bruce's Beach.
In the 1960s, the property, which had been vacant for decades, was made into a city park first called Bayview Terrace Park, then Parque Culiacan; in 2006, the Manhattan Beach City Council decided to rename the park, "commemorating our community's understanding that friendship, goodwill and respect for all begins within our own boundaries and extends to the world community. All are welcome." It was ceremoniously renamed in March 2007 during an event exhibiting "a deep tide of goodwill."
The park is on a slope overlooking the ocean and includes rolling grassy terraces with benches and small trees. It is located a few blocks from the beach, between 26th and 27th Street, and runs west from Highland Avenue to Manhattan Avenue.
- Murphy, Michelle (June 2006). "Parks and Recreation Commission Recommends Changing Park Name" (PDF). The Manhattan Beach Observer. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Pring, Dawnya (2006-12-07). "City Council wrap". The Beach Reporter. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Flamming, Douglas (2006). Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24990-5.
- Sides, Josh (2003). L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present. University of California Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-520-23841-1.
- Rasmussen, Cecilia (1996-11-29). "City Smart". Los Angeles Times. p. B.2. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- "The History of Bruce's Beach, California". Weekend America. 2007-03-31. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Schoch, Deborah (2007-04-01). "A deep tide of goodwill at Bruce's Beach; Hundreds gather at a small Manhattan Beach park to commemorate a black couple forced to give up their profitable resort in the 1920s". Los Angeles Times. pp. B.3. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- Villa, Raúl; George J. Sánchez (2005). Los Angeles & the future of urban cultures: a special issue of American quarterly. Johns Hopkins UP. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-8018-8208-1.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Parque Culiacan