Bubble nests, also called foam nests, are created by some fish and frog species as floating masses of bubbles blown with an oral secretion, saliva bubbles, and occasionally aquatic plants, or an area for egg deposit attached at the bottom. Fish that build and guard bubble nests are known as aphrophils. Aphrophils include gouramis (including Betta species) and the synbranchid eel Monopterus alba in Asia, Ctenopoma (Anabantidae), Polycentropsis (Nandidae), and Hepsetus odoe (the only member of Hepsetidae) in Africa, and callichthyines and the electric eel in South America. Most, if not all, fish that construct floating bubble nests live in tropical, oxygen-depleted standing waters. Also, some sunfish and cichlids create bubblenests. Anabantidae are the most commonly recognized family of bubblenest makers. The nests are constructed as a place for fertilized eggs to be deposited while incubating and guarded by the male until the fry hatch.
Bubble nests are built even when not in presence of female or fry (though often a female swimming past will trigger the frantic construction of the nest). Males will build bubble nests of various sizes and thicknesses, depending on the male's territory and personality. Some males build constantly, some occasionally, some when introduced to a female and some do not even begin until after spawning. Some nests will be large, some small, some thick.
Various stimuli have been shown to onset the construction of Bubble Nests, such as rapid changes in temperature, barometric changes, fluctuations in rainfall, various fish tank materials, and presence of other males or females.
The nests are built by the male (sometimes females) and their size, position and shape depends on the species. They are often built near an object that breaks the surface of the water, which forms a base for the nest.
Bubble nests and breeding
All species of bubble nesters continue parental care after construction of the floating bubble nest and spawning. After spawning, the eggs float up into the bubble nest, or are carried there, held in the mouth by the male. The male lodges them in the nest to protect them, and then protects the brood by chasing away the female and any other intruders, concentrating on the eggs in the nest, retrieving any eggs or fry that fall from the nest and keeping the nest in repair. The male will guard the eggs constantly until the fry hatch in 24–48 hours and be suspended from the nest. For the next few weeks, they will stay nearby being tended by the male.  During the spawning embrace, the male betta (with long fins) wraps his body around the female in such a way that their genital openings almost lie opposite each other. Spawning takes place near the bubblenest, usually directly underneath it. During courtship the fins of the females are often split apart.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2007)|
- Hostache, Gérard; Mol, Jan H. (1998). "Reproductive biology of the neotropical amoured catfish Hoplosternum littorale (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae): a synthesis stressing the role of the floating bubble nest". Aquat. Living Resour. 11 (3): 173–185. doi:10.1016/S0990-7440(98)80114-9.
- Axelrod, Herbert (1995). Dr. Axelrod's MINI-ATLAS of FRESHWATER AQUARIUM FISHES. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. pp. 896–897.
- Axelrod, Herbert (1995). Dr. Axelrod's MINI-ATLAS of FRESHWATER AQUARIUM FISHES. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. p. 896.
- Kentwood D. Wells (2010). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. University of Chicago Press. p. 472. ISBN 0226893332.
- Clive Roots (2006). Nocturnal Animals. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 031333546X.
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