Burmanniales

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Burmanniales Mart.[1][2] (Burmanniales Blume,[3][4] Burmanniales Heintze[5][6])[a] was an order of monocotyledons, subsequently discontinued.

Burmannia disticha L.
(Type species)

Description[edit]

Small perennial or annual mycorrhizal herbs that are achlorophyllous (lacking chlorophyll) and mycotrophic or less often autotrophic.[9]

Systematics and taxonomy[edit]

Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius listed the ordo (that is, family)[b] Burmanniaceae in 1835 and consequently has been cited as an authority, although he acknowledged earlier descriptions by Carl Ludwig Blume (1827) and John Lindley (1830).[12]

In 1927 Heintze elevated the Burmanniaceae family to the rank of the Burmanniales order.[13] Subsequent authors have followed this, including Lawrence 1951,[14] Hutchinson 1973,[15] Dahlgren 1980[16]) and Thorne 1992.[17] Johri et al. treat the 17 families of order Liliiflorae as distributed over 5 suborders, including Burmanniineae Engl.. The latter suborder was then considered to contain two families, Burmanniaceae and Corsiaceae.[18] As circumscribed by Dahlgren (sensu Dahlgren) it was one of five orders belonging to the superorder Liliiflorae and was composed of three families, Burmanniaceae (the type family), Thismiaceae, and Corsiaceae.[19] Later, Burmanniales was included by Takhtajan in the 2009 revision of his system with the same family structure, as an order of superorder Lilianae (as the Liliiflorae were renamed).[9]

Phylogeny[edit]

Historically the Burmanniales were considered the closest to the orchids, being epigynous with small seeds, although this was not supported when subjected to cladistic analysis,[20][21] suggesting these characteristics were actually convergent.[22] Phylogenetic analysis showed that Burmanniales was actually polyphyletic,[23][24] resulting in a redistribution of the families between the Liliales and Dioscoreales orders. With the type family Burmanniaceae placed in Dioscoreales (together with Thismiaceae), the Burmanniales order became redundant and was discontinued.

Etymology[edit]

The name is derived by typification from the type genus Burmannia, named after the Dutch botanist Johannes Burman (1707–1779),[25] followed by the suffix -iales, to indicate the rank of order.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The botanical authority was attributed to Heintze by Hoogland and Reveal in 2005, [7] but subsequently revised to Martius in view of changes to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) at the Vienna Botanical Congress that year.[2] However the authority has also been attributed to Blume, by the same author.[4] The Angiosperm Phylogeny Web gives Martius.[8]
  2. ^ The term Ordo at that time was closer to what we now understand as Family, rather than Order.[10][11]

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