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Aliases TSR3, C16orf42, acp transferase ribosome maturation factor
External IDs MGI: 1915577 HomoloGene: 6922 GeneCards: TSR3
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 16: 1.35 – 1.35 Mb Chr 17: 25.24 – 25.24 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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C16orf42, or chromosome 16 open reading frame 42, is a hypothetical human protein found on chromosome 16.[3] Its protein is 312 amino acids long.[4] and its cDNA has 1214 base pairs[5]


The function of C16orf42 is unknown. It is predicted to be a transmembrane protein, however the cellular or subcellular membrane in which is resides is as well unknown.[6]


C16orf42 can also be found in many other organisms, including mammals, and certain fungi and plants.[7] It is not found in bacteria.[7] C16orf42 is highly conserved in many of its orthologs, especially its mammalian orthologs, as high as 95% identity in rhesus monkeys.[7] It also has fairly high conservation in its more distant homologs, 53% identity in corn for example.[7] It has one potential human paralog, the protein EGFL6.[8]

Ortholog Analysis:

Genus and species Common name NCBI accession Length Identity Similarity
Macaca mulatta Rhesus monkey XP_001088384 312 aa 95% 96%
Bos taurus Cattle NP_001092381 315 aa 82% 87%
Canis familiaris Dog XP_537015 312 aa 79% 85%
Equus caballus Horse XP_001915599 324 aa 78% 83%
Rattus norvegicus Rat EMD03916 324 aa 73% 80%
Mus musculus Mouse NP_080952 323 aa 73% 80%
Gallus gallus Chicken XP_414890 311 aa 63% 76%
Danio rerio Zebra fish NP_001002370 297 aa 62% 75%
Tetraodon nigroviridis Green spotted puffer CAG04371 247 aa 62% 74%
Trichoplax adhaerens Trichoplax XP_002118089 284 aa 46% 64%
Ciona intestinalis Sea squirt XP_002129931 265 aa 52% 68%
Ornithorhynchus anatinus Platypus XP_001517034 285 aa 74% 85%
Hydra magnipapillata Hydra XP_002161680 232 aa 55% 71%
Aedes aegypti Yellow fever mosquito XP_001654463 269 aa 52% 70%
Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly NP_650441 274 aa 54% 70%
Apis mellifera Western honey bee XP_625167 258 aa 50% 69%
Debaryomyces hansenii Marine yeast XP_461733 333 aa 49% 64%
Aspergillus oryzae Mold XP_001818982 374 aa 50% 69%
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast NP_014648 313 aa 52% 68%
Zea mays Corn ACG47566 271 aa 53% 69%
Caenorhabditis elegans C. elegans NP_741332 261 aa 47% 65%


C16orf42 is not expressed ubiquitously in humans. It is most highly expressed in the ovary, but not expressed at all in the blood and very little in the brain.[9] One microarray experiment suggested that malaria causes its expression in the blood,[9] but further experimentation is needed to support this claim. Its expression in tissues tends to remain constant when the tissue is diseased.[9] However, a brief analysis of its orthologs show inconsistencies in tissue expression. This could be due to a lack of research of this protein in other species.


The structure of C16orf42 is unknown. It is predicted to have multiple regions of alpha-helices, and a few short stretches of beta-strands.[6] It contains a potential metal binding domain between amino acids 60-90.[4] It has a predicted molecular weight of 33.6 kdal and an isoelectric point of 6.496000, making it slightly acidic.[6] Compared to other human proteins, C16orf42 is high in the amino acids arginine and alanine, and low in the amino acid threonine.[6] A brief analysis of its strict orthologs show that they too are generally high in arginine and low in threonine as well as compared to the typical protein in their respective species.[6]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (December 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241Freely accessible. PMID 12477932. 
  4. ^ a b NCBI Protein
  5. ^ NCBI Nucleotide.
  6. ^ a b c d e Biology Workbench
  8. ^ a b c UniGene

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