Cantiga de amigo
The Cantiga de amigo (Portuguese: [kɐ̃ˈtiɣɐ ð(j) ɐˈmiɣu], Galician: [kaŋˈtiɣa ðe aˈmiɣo]) or Cantiga d'amigo (Old Galician-Portuguese spelling), literally a "song of a friend", is a genre of medieval lyric poetry, apparently rooted in a song tradition native to the northwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. What mainly distinguishes the cantiga de amigo is its focus on a world of female-voiced communication. The earliest examples that survive are dated from roughly the 1220s, and nearly all 500 were composed before 1300. Cantigas d'amigo are found mainly in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, now in Lisbon's Biblioteca Nacional, and in the Cancioneiro da Vaticana, both copied in Italy at the beginning of the 16th century (possibly around 1525) at the behest of the Italian humanist Angelo Colocci. The seven songs of Martin Codax are also contained, along with music (for all but one text), in the Pergaminho Vindel, probably a mid-13th-century manuscript and unique in all Romance philology.
In these cantigas the speaker is nearly always a girl, her mother, the girl's girl friend, or the girl's boyfriend. Stylistically, they are characterized by simple strophic forms, with repetition, variation, and parallelism, and are marked by the use of a refrain (around 90% of the texts). They constitute the largest body of female-voiced love lyric that has survived from ancient or medieval Europe. There are eighty-eight authors, all male, some of the better known being King Dinis of Portugal (52 songs in this genre), Johan Airas de Santiago (45), Johan Garcia de Guilhade (22), Juião Bolseiro (15), Johan Baveca (13), Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha (10), João Zorro (10), Pero Meogo (9), Bernal de Bonaval (8), Martim Codax (7). Even Mendinho, author of a single song, has been acclaimed as a master poet.
Below are two cantigas d’amigo by Bernal de Bonaval (text from Cohen 2003, tr. Cohen 2010).
Bernal de Bonaval 7
Bernal de Bonaval 8
- See Federico Corriente, Poesía dialectal árabe y romance en Alandalús: cejeles y xarajāt de muwaššaḥāt [Madrid: Gredos, 1997].
- Mercedes Brea & Pilar Lorenzo Gradín, A Cantiga de Amigo, Vigo: Edicións de Galicia, 1998.
- Rip Cohen, 500 Cantigas d'amigo: A Critical Edition, Porto, Campo das Letras, 2003. https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/33843
- Rip Cohen, The Cantigas d'amigo: An English Translation. JScholarship, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 2010. https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/33843)
- Giuseppe Tavani, Trovadores e Jograis: Introdução à poesia medieval galego-portuguesa, Lisbon, Caminho, 2002.
- Peter Dronke, The medieval lyric, Cambridge, D.S. Brewer, 1968.
- Cancioneiro da Ajuda
- Cancioneiro da Vaticana
- Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, also known as Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional
- Cantigas de Santa Maria
- Martim Codax
- Occitan literature
- Pergaminho Sharrer
- Galician-Portuguese lyric