This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Carantanians (Latin: Quarantani; Slovene: Karantanci;) were a Slavic people of the Early Middle Ages (Latin: Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, or "Slavs called Caranthanians"). They are considered to have been one of the ancestors of modern Slovenes, particularly the Carinthian Slovenes.
After the disintegration of Samo's realm, Alpine Slavs established the Principality of Carantania in the Eastern Alps, which was independent from around 660 to around 745, when it fell under the Bavarian zone of influence and was later incorporated in the Frankish Empire. Until around 820, it was ruled as a semi-independent tribal polity. After the anti-Frankish rebellion of Ljudevit Posavski, which was partially supported by Carantanians, the Carantanian principality was transformed into a Frankish march, and later emerged as the feudal Duchy of Carinthia.
Carantanians were the first Slavic people to accept Christianity from the West. They were mostly Christianized by Irish missionaries sent by the Archdiocese of Salzburg, among them Modestus, known as the "Apostle of Carantanians". This process was later described in the memorandum known as the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, which is thought to have over-emphasized the role of the Church of Salzburg in the Christianization process over similar efforts of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. Several rebellions of the Carantanians against the Christianisations occurred in the late 8th century, which later served as the source of inspiration of the Slovenian Romantic poet France Prešeren in his epic-lyric poem The Baptism on the Savica.
At the beginning of the 9th century, many Carantanians were moved as settlers in the Lower Pannonian region, also known as the Balaton Principality, which was referred in Latin sources as Carantanorum regio or "The Land of the Carantanians".
The name Carantanians (Quarantani) was in use until the 13th century.
Little is known of the language of the Carantanians, but it can be supposed that it was still very close to Proto-Slavic. Slovenian linguists have sometimes provisionally called it "Alpine Slavic" (alpska slovanščina). The Pre-Slavic toponyms, adopted and Slavicized by the Carantanians, as well as Bavarian records of Alpine Slavic names both help to shed light on the characteristics of the Alpine Slavic language. They were more connected to the West Slavic tribes than the South Slavic tribes according to their preserved characteristics from Proto-Slavic.
From 8th century onwards the Alpine Slavic language underwent a series of gradual changes and innovations characteristic of South Slavic languages. By roughly 13th century, the Slovene language emerged from these innovations.
The Freising Manuscripts, dating from the 10th century, which most surely originate from the region inhabited by the Carantanians, are considered to be the oldest documents in any Slavic language written in Latin alphabet. While still retaining many Proto-Slavic features, the language of the Freising manuscripts already exhibits certain developments characteristic of early Slovene. These texts are considered to be written in a transitional language between Alpine Slavic and modern Slovene.
Not much is known about the social and political organization of the Carantanians. Most probably, they were organized in communal entities known as župas. A distinct social stratus known as kosezes (Kasazes in Latin, in German Edlinger, noble people), which were present also in other parts of the Slovene Lands until the High Middle Ages, is thought of having derived from the private army of the Carantanian prince. Medieval documents mention that the people freely elected their leader, but it remains unclear what social category the Medieval Latin name populus exactly referred to.
Several traditions, typical of the Carantanians, survived until the end of the Middle Ages, most notably the installation of the dukes of Carinthia, which was carried out until 1414.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Valuk (c. 626)
- Boruth (c. 740–d. 750)
- Cacatius or Gorazd (d. 751)
- Hotimir or Cheitmar (fl. 752–d. 769)
- Domitian of Carantania
- Jožef Šavli (1985). Veneti, naši davni predniki?. Ivan Tomažić. p. 125.
- Tine Logar, "Pregled zgodovine slovenskega jezika" (An Outline of the History of Slovene Language). In: Slovenski jezik, literatura in kultura. Ed.: Matjaž Kmecl et al. Ljubljana: Seminar slovenskega jezika, literature in kulture pri Oddelku za slovanske jezike in književnosti Filozofske fakultete Univerze, 1974, p. -113.
- Bogo Grafenauer, Ustoličevanje koroških vojvod in država karantanskih Slovencev / Die Kärntner Herzogseinsetzung und der Staat der Karantanerslawen, Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti (Academia scientiarum et artium Slovenica, Classis I: Historia et sociologia), Ljubljana 1952
- Bogo Grafenauer, Zgodovina slovenskega naroda. Zv. 1, Od naselitve do uveljavljenja frankovskega reda (z uvodnim pregledom zgodovine slovenskega ozemlja do naselitve alpskih Slovanov), Državna založba Slovenije, Ljubljana 1978
- Bogo Grafenauer (ed. Peter Štih), Karantanija: izbrane razprave in članki, Slovenska matica, Ljubljana 2000
- Hans-Dietrich Kahl, Der Staat der Karantanen - Fakten, Thesen und Fragen zu einer frühen slawischen Machtbildung im Ostalpenraum (7.-9. Jh.) / Država Karantancev - dejstva, teze in vprašanja o zgodnji slovanski državni tvorbi v vzhodnoalpskem prostoru (7.-9. stol.), Narodni muzej Slovenije (Situla: Dissertationes Musei nationalis Sloveniae) and Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti, Ljubljana 2002
- Paola Korošec, Alpski Slovani / Die Alpenslawen, Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete, Ljubljana 1990
- Katja Škrubej, "Ritus gentis" Slovanov v vzhodnih Alpah, ZRC 2002 (with English Summary)
- Peter Štih, Vasko Simoniti, Slovenska zgodovina do razsvetljenstva, Mohorjeva družba v Celovcu, Ljubljana 1995