|Artichoke flower head|
Lam. & DC.
Cardueae Cass., 1819
The Cynareae are a tribe of flowering plants in the daisy family (Asteraceae) and the subfamily Carduoideae. Most of them are commonly known as thistles; four of the best known genera are Carduus, Cynara (containing the widely eaten artichoke), Cirsium, and Onopordum.
They are annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Many species are thorny on leaves, stems, or involucre, and some have laticifers or resin conduits. Almost 80 genera comprising 2500 species are assigned to this tribe, native of temperate regions of Europe and Asia (especially the Mediterranean region and Minor Asia), Australia and tropical Africa; only three genera contain species native to the Americas.
Cardueae is a synonym for Cynareae, but the name Cynareae was published almost a decade earlier, so has precedence.
Some authors have divided the plants traditionally held to be in this tribe into three tribes: Cynareae in the narrow sense, Carlineae, and Echinopeae. However, other authors have retained the traditional broader classification.
- Susanna, Alfonso.; Garcia-Jacas, Núria; Hidalgo, Oriane; Vilatersana, Roser; Garnatje, Teresa (2006). "THE CARDUEAE (COMPOSITAE) REVISITED: INSIGHTS FROM ITS, trnL-trnF, AND matK NUCLEAR AND CHLOROPLAST DNA ANALYSIS1, 2" (PDF). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 93: 150. doi:10.3417/0026-6493(2006)93[150:TCCRIF]2.0.CO;2.
- Panero, JL; VA Funk (2002-12-30). "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Biological Society of Washington. 115 (4): 909–922. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- "Cardueae". Tree of Life webproject. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- "thistle". Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Dittrich, 1977, The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae 2:1017-1038
- "Cirsium". Flora of North America.
- Bremer 1994 Asteraceae: Cladistic and Classification [Tribe Carduae: 112-156]
- "tribe Cynareae". Flora of North America. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
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